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Vol. II. No. 1. 

JULY, 1920 

Idler's (©uarterlp gfetorical 


(genealogical jlWaga^me 

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 

(genealogical jWaga^me 

Vol. II. JULY, 1920. No. 1. 


Owing to the high cost of printing, the editor finds it necessary to ad- 
vance the price of this magazine, beginning with the July number, 1920, from 
$3 to $4 per year. Single numbers will be sold at $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary College Quarterly, which 
was the original name of the present magazine, have become very scarce, 
single copies, as far as had, may be obtained for $2 a-piece. 

Address all communications to LYON G. TYLER, 711 Travelers Bldg., 

Richmond, Va. 


The Arrested Charter of 1676 289 

A Trip to the North '. 294 

British Humanity 310 

The Finding of Fauquier 314 

The Battle of Point Pleasant 320 

Tombstone of Mrs. Elizabeth Hill Skipwith 322 

Lord Dunmore, "The Great Emancipator" 323 

The Loyalists of New Brunswick, Canada 325 

Bnrwell of New Jersey and Canada 327 

The Baptists of Fauquier County 329 

Sergeant Major Champe 331 

Colouel Francis Taylor 335 

A List of Marriage Bonds — Northampton County, Va. . . 338 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 357 

Tyler's Quarterly Historical 


Genealogical Magazine 

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 


Richmond, Va. 

Richmond Press, Inc., Printers 


Spier's! (©uarterlp ^tsitontal anb 
(Genealogical Jflaga^ne 

Vol. II. JULY, 1920 No. 1. 


The prodigal grants of land in Virginia by Charles II to cer- 
tain court favorites gave rise in 1674 to one of the most important 
missions ever sent abroad from this State. The commissioners 
were Col. Francis Moryson, Thomas Ludwell, Secretary of State, 
and Major General Robert Smith, of "Brandon/' Middlesex County ; 
and their mission was to get rid of these grants, and to obviate 
any future danger of a similar character. This object they thought 
to obtain by a charter incorporating the colony and providing for 
a distinct recognition of their ancient privileges of self-government.. 
Everything proceeded at first according to their most ardent 
wishes. The agents for Virginia opened the negotiations by pre- 
senting certain heads as the basis of the charter desired, and each* 
head was accompanied by an explanation. That accompanying 
taxation is the most elaborate argument presented on the subject 
by any of the colonies during the seventeenth century. All sug- 
gestions of the Virginia agents were accepted, and the King in 
council on October 19, 1675, commanded the charter to be drawn 
up, which was accordingly done by the Attorney General, William 
Jones, and the Solicitor General, William Winington. But the 
delays were so numerous in going through the official forms, that, 
notwithstanding the most assiduous attention of the deputies from 
Virginia, much time was consumed. The news of Bacon's Re- 
bellion reached England before the completion of the official 
forms, and the charter was finally stopped in the signet office. 
Lord Culpeper, whose interests were affected by the charter and 
who was hostile at heart, being appointed governor for life, had 
the instrument very much reduced from its original generous ex- 

290 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

pression, and in this abbreviated shape it passed the great seal. 
It did not revoke, however, any of the ancient rights of the Vir- 
ginia people, but simply failed to say anything about some of 

It is strange that, while all the other papers attending this im- 
portant and interesting mission have been published either in 
Ilening or Burke, the complete charter has never, to my knowl- 
edge, been published. The copy below was obtained from the 
signet office in London by Messrs. B. F. Stevens and Brown at 
the instance of the Virginia State Library, and is now published 
with the consent of the State Librarian, Dr. H. E. Mcllwaine. 

As far as the charter itself is concerned, its mere failure to re- 
ceive the final formalities, does not in any way affect the com- 
mitments of the King in council, who recognized everything con- 
tended for by Virginia in the Revolutionary quarrel, that the col- 
ony was dependent solely on the Crown of England and that the 
^General Assembly of the Colony had the sole power of imposing 
taxes. It was no exception really to this principle that Parlia- 
ment was permitted by the charter to impose a tax in England 
on produce shipped from the Colony. 

Public Record Office, Signet Office, King's Bills, Bundle 52. 

Charles R 

Charles the Second by the Grace of God, &c. To all to whome theise 
prsents shall come Greeting. Know yee That Wee not onely in re- 
spect of our owne Service but for the Increase and growth of the 
Plantacon of Virginia in America of Our especiall Grace certaine 
knowledge and meere mooon Have made Ordeined and constituted. 
And by theise Presents for Us Our heires and successors doe make 
Ordeine and Constitute The Governor Councell and Comonalty of Vir- 
ginia now and for the time being One Body Pollitique and Corporate 
in Deed and in name by the name of the Governor Councell and 
Comonalty of Virginia. To the intent and purpose onely that they shall 
and may be able and capable in the Law to Purchase and reteine all 
the Territory Lands Tenements Hereditaments proffitts priviledges and 
advantages in Virginia in America by us lately granted unto the Earle 
of St Alban John Lord Berkley Sr William Moreton and John Trethewy 
and theire Heires; the Statute comonly called the Statute of Mort- 

The Arrested Charter of 1676 291 

maine or any other Act or Statute to the contrary notwithstanding. 
And Our further Will and pleasure is And We do hereby declare and 
grant that all the Subjects of us our heires or Sucessors from time to 
time inhabiting in Virginia shall have theire imediate Dependance 
upon the Crown of England under the Rule and Government of such 
Governor or Governors as Wee our heires or Successors shall from time 
to time appoint in that behalfe and of or upon noe other person or 
persons whatsoever And that the Governor for the time being shall 
bee resident in that Countrey except Wee our Heires or Successors 
shall att any time Comand his Attendance in England or elsewhere 
in which case a Deputy shall be chosen to continue dureing the ab- 
sence of such Governor in manner as hath formerly been used unles 
Wee our Heires or Successors shall thinke fitt to nominate the Deputy 
Who shall bee one of the Councell there But if any Governor happen 
to dye then another Governor shall and may be chosen as hath been 
formerly used to continue until Wee our Heires or Successors shall ap- 
point a new Governor. And Moreover That noe manner of Imposicons 
or Taxes shall be laid or imposed upon the inhabitants or Proprie- 
tors of Virginia but by the Comon consent of the Governor Councell 
and Burgesses as hath been heretofore used and Except such as may 
bee laid by Act of Parliamt in our Kingdome of England on the 
Comodities or Merchandizes which come from Virginia And further 
alsoe That Wee our Heires or Successors will not for the future Grant 
any Lands in Virginia under the Great Seale of England without 
first being informed by the Governor and Councell there for the 
time being or some person impowered by that Governmt whether such 
Grant will not bee prejudiciall to Plantacons there and that all Lands 
now possessed by the severall and respective Planters or Inhabitants 
of Virginia are and shall be Confirmed and Established to them and 
theire Heires for ever where the Property of any perticuler mans 
interest in any Lands there shall not bee altered or prejudiced by 
reason thereof And our further Will and Pleasure is And wee hereby 
of our further Grace and favour Declare and grant that for the En- 
couragement of such our Subjects as shall from time to time goe to 
Dwell in the said Plantacon there shall bee assigned out of the Lands 
(not already appropriated) to every person soe comeing thither to 
Dwell ffifty Acres; according as hath been used and allowed since the 
first Plantacon to bee held of us our Heires and Successors as of our 
Mannor of East Greenwich in our County of Kent in free and comon 
Soccage And that all Lands possessed by any Subject Inhabiting in 
Virginia which have Escheated or shall Escheate to us Our Heires or 
Successors shall and may bee Enjoyed by such Inhabitant or Pos- 
sessor his Heires and Assignes for ever paying Two pounds of Tobacco 
Composicon for every Acre which is the rate sett by our Governor 

292 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

according 1 to our Instruccons to him in that behalfe And further That 
the Governor and Councell of Virginia for the time being or any five 
or more of them (whereof the Governor to bee one) shall and hereby 
have full power and authority to heare and Determine all Treasons 
Murders ffellonies and other Offences Comitted or done or to be 
Comitted or done within the said Governmt Soe as they proceed therein 
as neere as may bee to the Lawes and Statutes of this our Kingdome 
of England And that the said Governor for the time being shall and 
hereby hath full power to pardon all Crimes and Offences unles for 
Murder or Treason And in those cases if he see occasion to reprieve 
Untill he shall have given the State of the ffact to us our Heires or 
Successors and received our or their Royall Determinacon therein. 
And Wee Doe hereby for us our Heires and Successors Ratine and 
Confirme the power and Authority of the Grand Assembly of Virginia 
Consisting of a Governor Councell and Burgesses But soe as Wee our 
Heires or Successors may att our or theire Pleasure revoake any Law 
made by them And that noe Law soe revoaked shall after such Revo- 
cacon and Intimacon thereof from England bee further used or Ob- 
served And Lastly Know yee That wee being of our Royall goodnes 
Graciously Inclined to favour the Subjects of us our Heires and Suc- 
cessors which now doe or hereafter shall inhabite in the said Coun- 
trey of Virginia or Territory of Accomack and to give the more liberall 
and ample encouragemt to Plantacons there Doe hereby Declare Our 
Royall Will and Pleasure to bee that all and every Clause Article and 
Sentence in these Our Letters Patents conteined shall bee from time 
to time for ever thereafter as often as any Ambiguity Doubt or question 
shall or may happen to arise thereupon expounded construed deemed 
and taken to bee by us meant and intended and shall Enure and take 
effect in the most beneficiall and available sence to all intents and 
purposes for the proffitt and advantage of the Subjects of us our 
Heires and Successors as well against us our Heires and Successors 
as against all and every other person and persons whatsoever any 
Law Statute Custome or Usage to the contrary thereof in any wise 
notwithstanding. In Wittnesse &c. Witness &c. 


W Jones 

May itt Please Your Most Excellent Matie: 

Your Matie is hereby Graciously pleased to make the Governor 
Councell and Comonalty of Virginia A Corporacon To the Intent onely 
to Purchase and Reteine Lands in Virginia formerly Granted to the 
Earle of St Albans and others And to Grant severall other Liberties 
and Priviledges for the Increase of the Trade and Growth of the 

The Arrested Charter of 1676 293 

Plantacons of Virginia according to Yor Maties pleasure Signified by 
Order in Councell the Nineteenth day of October last. 

Wr Jones 

24 febr 1675 

[on the back] 

March 1675/6 

Expedr apud Westmr tertio die Martjanno R Rs Car Sedi 

Vicesimo Octavo <p Warwick 


Governor & Councell of Virginia 

to be a Corporacon, by order of Councell. 

P. R. 0. Signet office, Docquet Books (1675 &c.) (Indexes, 6816), 

p. 245. 

1675 [6] March. 
An Incorporating of the Governor Councell, and Comalty 
of Virginia, to the intent only to purchase and reteine lands 
Virginia in Virginia formerly granted to the Earle of St Albans 
Corporac and others And to grant severall other liberties & priviledges 
for the increase of the Trade and growth of the Plantacons 
of Virginia Subscr by Mr Attorney genail By Order in 
Councell Proem by me Secret Coventry. 

294 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


In the Va. State Library there Is a Ms. book containing a journal, 
by James Skelton Gilliam, of Petersburg, Virginia, of a trip to Sara- 
toga in 1816. He was a son of Dr. James Skelton Gilliam, who mar- 
ried Mary Feild, daughter of Theophilus Feild, of Bristol Parish. 
He was a grandson of Robert Gilliam and Lucy Skelton his wife, 
daughter of James Skelton, of Essex County. His father's will, dated 
Nov. 13, 1813, was proved Nov. 7, 1814, and names five sons, John, 
James, who shall "hereafter stile himself James Skelton Gilliam," 
Theophilus Feild, Robert and Marius Gilliam, and four daughters, 
Ann, Mary, Lucy and Elizabeth. It has been suggested that he was 
a son of the eldest of the sons — Dr. John Gilliam who married Jane 
Shore — but the date of the death of this Dr. James Skelton Gilliam, 
who was lost in the U. S. steamer Levant in 1861, appears to show 
that this could not well be the case. (For Gilliam pedigree, see 
Slaughter, A History of Bristol Parish, Va., and Brock in Richmond 
Standard, III, 33.) The following notes from this Journal (for what 
appears can hardly be called an abstract) may not be without some 
Interest. Most of the personal references are included and much of 
the descriptive matter is omitted. When quotations are employed 
the narrative is followed literally. 

New York, Tuesday, July 2nd, 1816. 

The Journal starts with describing the trip from Philadelphia 
to New York. Unable to obtain sleeping accommodations on the 
steamboat down the Delaware river. Near Bristol was a most 
superb edifice and situation said to be in the possession of a widow 
lady named Manegault. "The ex-king Joseph Bonaparte, I was 
informed, had offered her a good sum of money for it." 

Landed at Bristol, the great place of resort for the fashionable 
of Philadelphia. Handsome little place, and most of the foreign 
ministers have summer residences in it. "After breakfasting very 
rapidly upon most intolerable fare, we all took seats in the Stage. 
The roads were turnpiked and in most excellent order, and we 
travelled at the rate of seven miles an hour. The farms on the 
road appeared to be remarkably well cultivated. Virginia is greatly 
behind the Northern States in respect of farming." 

A Trip to the North 295 

"About 12' o'clock we reached Princeton." A Mr. Stockton, 
celebrated for his legal ability and political prejudices, who was 
one of the company, pointed out the battle ground "where the 
heroic but unfortunate General Mercer died." Meets at Princeton 
a former schoolmate, William Eose, son of Alex. Eose of Peters- 
burg. Walked with him to the College, which "has a venerable 
appearance, is built of rock entirely, which detracts somewhat 
from its beauty, and is not equal in any respect to William and 
Mary College in Va." 

Continued to travel very rapidly, but the journey became very- 
irksome because of uneven roads. At ten o'clock reached New 
Brunswick. "Here we had wretched fare for our dinner. I have 
never yet met with any table to equal those in Virginia. In fact, 
I never knew the value of that old State till I began to travel. 

Everything in that State, I think, is better contrived and con- 
ducted than in any State I have visited since I left it, except farm- 
ing, but this may be prejudice." 

Passed the Earitan on a very common bridge; passed Eliza- 
beth City, "a decent looking place." At the Point two miles fur- 
ther took the steamboat Seahorse for New York. "It (New York) 
had a most beautiful effect; the numerous and lofty towers and 
steeples, its beautiful trees, its many fortifications, etc." Landed 
at the Battery, and went up Broadway. The City Hall at Chat- 
ham St. and Broadway "incomparably the most superb and costly 
in America." 

Spends the first night at the Tavern opposite the City Hall, 
and next day was astonished to find that for one's lodging and 
breakfast for himself and servant, and one bottle of porter, he 
had to pay $5.50. 

Takes lodging at Mrs. Keesee's on Broadway. Virginia notes 
7 per cent below par and hard to negotiate at that! 

New York, Wednesday, July 3rd, 1816. 

Has a disagreeable time for want of companionship; has many 

letters of introduction but hates to deliver them. A Broker sells 

his Virginia notes for 71/ 2 per cent discount. Went to see the 

play called "Accusation or the Family of D'Anglude." The after- 

296 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

piece was "plot and counterplot" and "never in my life was I more 
amused and tickled." 

New York, Thursday, July 4, 1816. 
This great day was celebrated by bell-ringing and a military 
procession. About 7 o'clock repaired to the theater. The play 
was "The Battle of New Orleans," written in New York City 
for the occasion. Mr. Robertson appeared in the character of 
Gen. Jackson. He is a man of great theatrical powers. The after- 
piece was "Obi, or three-fingered Jack." Returned about twelve. 
At night grand display of fireworks. 

New York, July 5, 1816, Friday. 
Took a tour of the city in a hack. Spent the rest of the day 
in reading some light work, and was greatly entertained with a 
biography of the famous Paul Jones. 

New York, July 6th, 1816, Saturday. 
Busy making preparations for Albany. Visited the fort at the 
the Battery. Gen. Wingfield Scott came out to see him. "He is 
a native of Dinwiddie County and was for a long time an inhabi- 
tant of Petersburg. He treated me most politely. His manners 
are agreeable, notwithstanding the tincture of affectation. Hears 
from home. Has trouble with his eyes. Takes the steamboat for 
Albany at Five o'clock. 

Albany, July 7, Sunday, 1816. 
This evening about 5 o'clock we arrived here in the steam- 
boat Richmond, Capt. Bartholomew. Disagreeable trip. About 
70 passengers — "some haughty, most distant, and all strangers." 
Had to sleep on a settee, and fifty perhaps had to sleep on deck. 
Passed the Highlands at night to his regret. Now and then some 
very pretty private dwellings. "Chancellor Livingston and his 

nephew Livingston have very beautiful situations, as 

well as houses. The Chan., however I believe is dead." Tired out 
when he reaches Albany. Some 200 persons at the wharf. Went to 
Barod's Tavern, and being somewhat sick went off to find an 

A Trip to the North 297 

Apothecary to obtain some medicine. Disgusted to find every 
shop closed on account of "religious bigotry and fanaticism/' 
Pretty good supper, and after it visited the State House. Found it 
a most ordinary building. Tavern at which he stays so crowded 
that he has to put up with a room that has no windows. 

Saratoga, July 8, 1816. 

Arrived here this evening about half past six o'clock, after a 
disagreeable ride from Albany, "chiefly on account of an hard- 
going hack, rough roads, indifferent horses and uninteresting 
country. The distance is about 38 miles." The company was 
agreeable enough, notwithstanding its being composed of an un- 
healthy old man from New Jersey, a religious bigot from Bristol in 
Rhode Island, an inhabitant from Albany, my servant and the 
driver. We stopped about every seven miles to rest our horses 
and to allow the Albany man and the old fellow from New Jersey 
to get a drink of gin. About % after twelve arrived at the river 
Mohawk, where a bridge is thrown across, a toll-gate kept and a 
tavern attached. 

Here the hack driver insisted on stopping to bate his horses 
as he expressed it and the two passengers, from Rhode Island and 
Albany — determined on having dinner ; assented to, but unwillingly. 
"We left this tavern about 2 o'clock, and our dinner would have 
disgraced the poorest house in the poorest county of Virginia." 
We paid 50 cents for it. About 4 o'clock reached Ballstown and 
reached Saratoga at y 2 6 o'clock. I got out at Lewis' Tavern, 
sufficiently antiguous to the famous Congress Spring. My com- 
panions went to the upper village to private lodgings. In a few 
minutes after arriving here, I went to the Congress Springs and 
drank four or five tumblers of the water. It is stronger than 
Ballstown of course, not so agreeable to the taste. 

Saratoga, Tuesday, 9th of July, 1816. 

I went early this morning and drank the waters of Congress 

Spring. Four or five glasses appear to be the general quantity 

of a morning. Our breakfasts here are good enough. Unhealthy 

and decrepid looking people, but begin to be sociable enough. Men- 

298 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

tions an old gentleman, who pleases him very much, and has a fine 
looking daughter with him. He has travelled a great deal in S. 
and N. America and Great Britain and appears to have had a most 
excellent education. An intelligent Quaker farmer from New 
Jersey. No persons of my own age. Duelling a frequent topic of 

Saratoga, Wednesday, 9th, 1816, July. 
Same routine of drinking the water. After dinner, the old 
gentleman mentioned above requested me and 3 others — strangers 
— to see with him a piece of timber 100 feet long, ready to be sent 
to New York. During the visit Dr. B. of Boston or near it, told 
a story from Sterne, the celebrated author of Tristam Shandy. 
Saratoga is composed of two villages. 

Saratoga, Thursday, 10th, 1816, July. 

Perceives no benefit from the waters which he uses freely, 
morning and evening. Went with his fellow traveller from Al- 
bany, Mr. Gladden from Bristol in the State of Rhode Island, to 
hear a preacher in the long room attached to the Congress Hall 
Tavern. "A very usual topic of conversation between the gentle- 
men in the forenoon is the comparative value and importance of 
the different States in the Union. Most unfortunately I am the 
only person from the Southern States. Of course, I have a host 
of Yankees to contend with. Mr. Gladden, of Ehode Island, (who, 
altho' he lives in the Upper Village, very frequently comes to our 
Tavern) and Mr. Newbold, the Quaker gentleman from New Jer- 
sey, generally take the lead. Mr. Newbold is a vastly agreeable, 
sensible gentleman, and appears to have acquired the good will 
and esteem of everybody, the other person has strong prejudices." 

Invited to hear a preacher of great ability, but "I was so per- 
fectly tired and disgusted by the last night's sermon that I posi- 
tively determined not to hear another sermon in the Northern 
States." Not impressed with Northern pulpit ability. 

Mr. Newbold is a Quaker of about 53 years of age, tho' young 
looking for one of that age. In truth, he is a favorite with every- 
body. He is a truly worthy man. "I have found out that the 

A Trip to the North 299 

gentleman who requested me to walk with him to see the long piece 
of timber is named S. Borden. He is decidedly the best informed 
man among us." 

Saratoga, July, Friday 11th, 1816. 

Discussion over the use of the word "preventative." Some 
contended there was no such word, and Mr. Gr. argued that "pre- 
ventative" was the substantive of the adjective "preventive." 

Judge Bacon, of Massachusetts, who was for many years 
Member of Congress and Comptroller of the Treasury, declared 
that "prevention" was the substantive. A resort to the dictionaries 
failed to record "preventative," but Mr. G. argued that, as Dr. 
Johnson, in the preface to his dictionary, declares that the termina- 
tion "ative" and "tion" are often used indifferently, the omission 
did not signify." 

Saratoga, July 20th, Saturday, 1816. 

Time flies off so rapidly that I am hardly conscious of its ex- 
istence. On Sunday went to hear a stupid fellow preach, and was 
never more disgusted in my life. Last evening Mr. Ebenezer Stott 
from Petersburg arrived here with his wife. 

[The Century Dictionary shows that there is such a word as 
"preventative," but that its use is "irregular and improper." — 

A ball at Congress Hall Tavern. "Two sett-dances and one 
cotillion, in all of which Miss Borland was my partner." ' 

Saratoga, July 28th, Friday, 1816. 
Time runs off as rapidly as possible. Balls are frequent. Went 
with a Miss Morriss from Halifax to one. "She is about 30 
years of age, very large and homely, tho' quite jovial and con- 
versible. As soon as she came into our house, I made myself ac- 
quainted with her, anticipating from her quizzical appearance a 
good deal of fun. When I went over to the ball room I did not 
know her name,, far less her standing in society, and knowing that 
she and her sister came up to the tavern together, without the pro- 
tection of a gentleman, or even a servant, I was surprised to learn 

300 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

that she was the sister of Judge Morriss of Halifax, a man of great 
learning and respectability. I found also that she was acquainted 
with the first company from Boston and New York; my politeness 
to her appeared to incite her partiality for me, and she introduced 
me to all her acquaintances and friends. It was a great service 
in this respect." 

"Mr. Newbold and myself very frequently take a short ride on 
horseback. A most pleasant companion for a Quaker — more so 
than I had ever calculated on meeting with." 350 persons at the 
Springs. They are going and coming every day. I have become 
tolerably intimate with a Mr. Hartford from Savannah and Dr. 
Chisholm from South Carolina. "I believe that more than one- 
half the company at this place is composed of people from the 
South. I have witnessed a much less display of pomp and wealth 
than I had calculated on seeing. The season can hardly be said to 
have commenced." 

Saratoga, July 27th, 1816, Saturday. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stott left us. Pleasant excursion, Tuesday be- 
fore, with Mr. Stott, Mr. Newbold and Mr. Gladden to Ten 
Springs or Taylor's Springs, about 4 miles from the village. Par- 
ticular in searching out a number of plants, flowers, etc., for Mrs. 
Stott, whose remarkable fondness for Botany I had often heard in 
Petersburg. She was greatly delighted upon my return with the 
present. Before the Saratoga visit knew Mr. and Mrs. Stott by 
reputation only. 

Meets a Mr. William Hall, Jr., of Vermont. Much pleased 
with him, rode with him six miles along the road to Lake George. 
"This evening I learnt to my astonished that the gentleman who 
took me out in his chair last evening, Mr. William Hall, Jr., was 
a member of the Hartford Convention. I have laughed heartily to 
myself at the circumstance. The prejudices of the Southern peo- 
ple have been strong against those gentleman, that I should be 
anathematized for even speaking to one. I was vastly pleased, 
however, with the gentleman. He invited me most pressingly to 
his situation on Connecticut river, and introduced me to another 

A Trip to the North 301 

one of the Hartford Convention, a Mr. from Massa- 
chusetts, and a Mr. Dwight who was Secretary to the meeting." 

July 29th, 1816, Saratoga. 
"This morning about 9 o'clock I set off in a two horse hack in 
conjunction with Mr. Wm. Henry Hartford from Savannah, Ga., 
a most intimate companion of mine, and a Mr. Watts and Col. 
Johnson from the same place on an excursion to Lage George." 
Four other carriages took Miss Livingston, Miss Wilkins, Miss 
Bogert, Miss Cain, Mr. Nutter, Mr. Gillies, Mr. Kane, etc. 
Eeached Glen Falls at half past 12, a most romantic and pic- 
turesque place. Indulged himself in his favorite amusement of 
drawing. Visited 2 caves. "All of the gentlemen and even the 
ladies were very anxious to get a sight of a celebrated lady from 
Waterford about 28 or 30 miles below Saratoga Springs, known 
generally by the name of the ^Waterford beauty/ She came along 
with the party, but her face was veiled." Mr. Gilliam had a good 
deal of conversation with her at dinner and was disappointed in 
her looks. "She had a good form and regular features, but nothing 
that is either interesting or beautiful in her face." He found her 
illiterate and uneducated. Country sterile and unproductive. 
Eeached Lake George and put up at a neat place called Bellevue, 
kept by Mr. Carter. 

Bellevue House, Lake George, July 30, Tuesday. 
All the company take row boats and visit the Lake. Limpid 
water. Diamond Island. One party fished from the sides of the 
Island, and the other, of which Mr. Gilliam was one, went to search 
for diamonds so called, on the southeastern side. "The ladies set 
themselves to work with sticks, etc., rooting the earth in every di- 
rection with as much earnestness and avidity as if they were about 
to find some of Golconda's precious stones. Throughout the whole 
of this amusement, I was obliged to act the part of your very hum- 
ble servant to all the ladies, more especially to the interesting Miss 
Catherine Livingston, which to be sure I did with little reluctance. 
Every moment I was engaged in washing in the lake the dirty 
stones which they found, all of which I was obliged to show again 

302 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

to the ladies after being washed. Whenever one would observe 
"Oh, how brilliant, beautiful, elegant, splendid, or irradiating" 
which last was very common, I was to put it away in a small piece 
of paper which was given me for the purpose. The ardent anxiety 
which the ladies displayed to find these precious stones was really 

astonishing. The fair Miss L sat without veil or umbrella 

in the warm sun, perfectly careless of the effects upon her soft and 
tender skin, her gloves thrown here and there covered with the 
particles of earth her assiduous industry had thrown up and her 
shawl buried positively beneath a heap of rocks. Whenever per- 
haps she would find a chrystal of tolerable lustre, she would ex- 
claim, f Oh Mr. G. see how beautiful. Do me the favor to wash 
it in the lake/ Thus we spent our time for near an hour." Joined 
the other party and fished. Miss Livingston, for the first time in 
her life, caught a fish a few minutes after dipping the line. 

Returned to Belluvue, and at 3 o'clock dined upon fresh water 
bass, finishing with a bottle of excellent Madeira. 

Saratoga, Wednesday 31st, 1816. 
Return trip described. Visits Saratoga village, where Bur- 
goyne laid down his arms. Made sketches. 

Saratoga, August 1st, Thursday, 1816. 
"In going to the spring this morning, which I always do 
as soon as the sun rises, I was hailed by George Hay, of Virginia." 

August 2nd, 1816, Friday. 
This morning George Hay introduced me to Col. Lindsey, of 
Virginia. He promises to be an agreeable companion. He is 
certainly a most intelligent man. 

Saturday, August 3rd, 1816. 
This morning I became acquainted with Mr. Moses Myers and 
his family, from Norfolk. They are very pleasant people." "I 
spend my time quite agreeably in the company of the ladies at 
Congress Hall." Miss Livingston is the belle of the day. She 
is really very interesting. I went with her and Miss Wilkins to 
Judge Walton's this evening. 

A Trip to the North 303 

Friday, August 4th, 1816. 
Begins to tire of Saratoga. Been here 4 weeks, and if possible 
worse off in health than when he came. 

Monday, August 5, 1816. 
"This morning immediately after breakfast, myself, Mr. Myers 
and Mr. Legare from Charleston, South Carolina, set off for Balls- 
town in a most excellent hack. Mr. Myers is a man of great ex- 
perience and observation, Col. Lindsey of great acuteness, genius, 
convivialty and humour, and Mr. Legare of the most extensive ac- 
quirements and elegant literature I have ever seen of his age/' 
After arriving there it was no small gratification to find "my old 
friends Mr. and Mrs. Stott." Spent the time till dinner in con- 
versation with new acquaintances, and strolling up and down the 
passage and long room of the Sans Souci. Dinner was the best since 
he left Virginia, but "the great want of servants, and my having 
neglected to carry mine over with me prevented me from enjoying 
it as I otherwise might have done." After dinner I went into the 
long room conducted by Mrs. Stott, who most politely introduced 
me to most of the ladies present. I met and became acquainted with 
Mr. William Wickham of Richmond, Virginia, and Mr. Leroy of 
New York, two very pleasant intelligent men. 

Saratoga, August 6th, Tuesday, 1816. 
Immediately after dinner I strolled up and down the long room 
at the "Congress Hall" for nearly an hour with Miss Livingston 
and Miss Wilkins, and about five o'clock drove Col. Lindsay to 
Saratoga Lake in a double chaise. The Col. and myself are constant 
companions. He is a man of most enlarged views and excellent 
heart. He is a favorite with most of the people at the Springs. 
After dinner I walked over to Congress Hall again and strolled 
about with Miss Livingston and Miss Wilkins. They are the great 
belles at this place. They are both very handsome, very agreeable 
and dance most gracefully." 

Saratoga, Wednesday, August 7, 1816. 
Visit to Ballstown. Mr. Gilliam and Dr. Chisholm from South 
Carolina rode horses. Mr. Smith from Phila. and Mr. Dan Living- 

304 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ston took a chair. The ladies sat off about 10 o'clock in a ? 

Mrs. Livingston, Miss Livingston and Miss Wilkins, together with 
their relations, Dr. Hosack and Mr. Ludlow from New York. 

Most of the people of the two houses assembled in the porches 
to see the departure. Mr. Gilliam was mounted on a spirited 
animal. "He foamed, reared and pitched about as if proud of the 
honor of attending the fair ladies. His appearance excited general 
applause." Wh)en at Ballstown previously Mr. G-. had extolled the 
beauty of Miss Livingston and Miss Wilkins, and all eyes were 
fixed on them at the door of the Sans Souci. "We entered the 
parlour room. In a short time most of the ladies played their cards 
very handsomely. The compliments which I had previously paid 
to their beauty, and of which I had candidly and unceremoniously 
informed them, made them particularly solicitous to realize the ex- 
pectations I had excited. They had dressed most superbly, deco- 
rated their heads with most beautiful curls, and in fact lost no 
pains in displaying themselves to the best possible advantage. Every- 
thing appeared to turn out agreeably to their wishes. The ladies 
at Ballstown paid them great respect and the gentlemen discovered 
a great deal of admiration. In about an hour the two young ladies, 
with Miss Haywood from South Carolina and some others, walked 
down the street on a shopping trip as they termed it. They car- 
ried off all the young beaux that came down with them from Sara- 
toga and some others from the Sans Souci." On the return to 
Saratoga Miss Livingston enlivened the time by the sweet music 
of her voice. She sang two or three songs most divinely. Mr. G. 
pronounces the whole trip a most delightful one, and the day closed 
at Saratoga with a crowded assemblage and a great ball. 

Thursday, August 8th, 1816. 
Very sore after yesterday's ride. In the evening went with 
Col. Lindsay in a chaise and a Mr. Douglas from Baltimore on 
horseback to hunt for a sulphur spring. Found it a great curiosity. 
Eeturned & after tea strolled with the ladies in the long room at 
Congress Hall. 

Friday, August 9th, 1816. 
Devoted his time most exclusively to the ladies as we are shortly 

A Trip to the North 305 

to lose the company of Miss Livingston and Miss Wilkins, "who 
have been the life and soul of the amusements." 

Saturday August 10, 1816. 
This evening took my last evening walk with Miss Livingston 
and Miss Wilkins. The thoughts of their departure depresses me 
exceedingly. Miss Livingston gave me a most pressing invitation 
to call to see her at New York, as I pass thro' which I promised to 
do. She told me she was to he seen at her grandfather's at Lame 
Lane about six miles from New York until the 1st of September, 
and after that time at her mother's on White Street, No. 54. Her 
grandfather's name is Mr. Nutter. 

Sunday, August 11, 1816, Saratoga. 

This morning went to Congress Hall to see Miss Livingston 
depart. Mrs. Livingston gave me a most pressing invitation to see 
them in New York, and Mr. Nutter most politely insisted on a 
positive promise to visit him at Lame Lane, which I gave him with 
pleasure. Much depressed, but cheered up at meeting Mr. Travis 
Harwood from Petersburg and Mr. Eaton Pugh from North Caro- 

Monday, August 12th, 1816. 

Visited Ballstown with Col. Lindsay. Meets Mr. Legare of 
South Carolina, who intends for New York tomorrow. He is 
waiting on a young lady, daughter to the wife of Kev. Dr. Flinu 
by a former husband. He has promised to call on me in Virginia. 
Crowded assembly that evening at Congress Hall, Saratoga. "Miss 
Phillips has stepped into the shoes of Miss Livingston and is now 
the belle of the day. She is very accomplished and bery beautiful." 

Thursday, August 15th, 1816, Saratoga. 
Went with Messrs. Pugh and Harwood, Judge Prevost and 
his daughter, Miss Yates and other young ladies to visit Flat Eock 
Spring. Visits later a place called "Barites", 2 miles below, fa- 
mous for its trout. 

Saturday, Sunday, August 17 & 18, Saratoga. 
About 11 o'clock today Mr. and Mrs. Stott, Mr. and Mrs. Myers 
returned from Montreal, delighted with their trip. Mr. Newbold 

306 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

and Mr. Hartford left us, but Col. Lindsay still remains. He is a 
host of himself. Strolled about with Miss Phillips, Miss Gouver- 
neur and Miss Knox in the long room of Congress Hall. Was glad 
to meet with the Eev. Andrew Syme of Petersburg. 

Monday, 19th Aug. 1816, Saratoga. 
Set out this morning for a Mrs. Eiley's Tavern on Saratoga 
Lake, in company with Col. Lindsay, Mr. Eaton Pugh, Mr. Thomas 
Neilson, Mr. Bernard from the Rappahannock, Mr. Williamson 
from North and Mr. Cole from Williamsburg, Va. 

August 23rd, Friday, Ballstown Spa, 1816. 

Leaves Saratoga and takes up his abode at Sans Souci at Balls- 
town. Before leaving, he made a sketch of Saratoga, showing the 
principal streets, Congress Hall, Lewis Tavern (where Mr. G. 
staid). Mr. Eoscow Cole, from Williamsburg, now his principal 
acquaintance, excepting Mr. and Mrs. Stott. They are still re- 
markably polite; to Mrs. Stott particular politeness I owe the gen- 
eral acquaintance I have made with the ladies at this place. There 
are none of them, however, remarkable for wealth, beauty or mind. 
Cold weather the last two or three days, and the company reduced 
to about 70. The tables are very superior to everything of the 
kind at Saratoga. The keeper of the tavern is a Frenchman 
(Berger) by name. 

New York, Tuesday, 3rd September, 1816. 

Describes the trip to New York. Left Ballstown on Sunday 
morning in a stage drawn by a most stupid inexperienced driver 
in company with Mr. Eaton Pugh and Mr. Williamson from North 
Carolina, Mr. Travis Harwood and Eoscow Cole from Virginia, 
a Captain Waterman and a Mr. Henderson — the first from New 
Hampshire and the last from Maryland. We went to the tavern 
kept by a Mr. Demarest, where there was a great crowd from Sara- 
toga. Persons mentioned, "George Hay and his wife, Col. Mercer, 
Mr. Knox, Mr. Gouverneur etc. the two Miss Livingstons, daugh- 
ters of J. E. Livingston, I believe, and the two Miss Gouverneurs." 
— Visited Mohawk Falls, continued on a fine road along the Hudson, 
passed a United States arsenal on the right, interesting views of 
Lansingburgh and Troy, situated on the eastern banks of the river. 

A Trip to the North 307 

In entering the suburbs of Albany, passed on the left the elegant, 
the Gothic or rather Dutch built mansion house of Gen. Van Rann- 
selaer, a gentleman possessed of high command in the army in the 
last war, and of princely estates. 

Put up in Albany at Baird's Tavern, where there was a great 
crowd caused by the influx from the Springs and the trial of Gen. 
Edmund P. Gaines, on charges preferred by Col. Trimble of the 
United States Army. Engaged berth on the steamer Car of Nep- 
tune, which sailed next morning. Albany at a distance looked 
"quite enchanting," the Catskills rose in imposing majesty. Regrets 
his inability to visit Mr. Borland, who resides near a place called 
Kinderhook, about six miles from Hudson. Among the passengers 
were Gen. Jacob Brown, General Miller — with their aids, Col. 
Croghan and Col. Trimble. In the course of the evening, myself, 
Mr. Pugh, Mr. Williamson and Mr. Harwood played a game or two 
at whist — in fact, a good many others amused themselves with cards 
particularly some of the young officers, who played mostly at Brag, 
and I believe I saw one lose $1000 in the course of 30 minutes. 
Early next morning the Captain winded his horn that the steamer 
had reached a place of disembarkation. Mr. G. rose and found 
himself at Poughkeepsie, romantically situated upon the eastern 
bank of the Hudson. Lower down was the equally romantic and 
beautiful situation of Newburgh. The Highlands began now to 
appear. Delay in Albany has given an opportunity of seeing this 
range of bold and beautiful mountains. "Out of three steamboats 
which ply each of them two or three times a week from New York, 
I wondered that some of them did not so arrange their time of 
starting as to pass thro' this interesting section of the route in 
the day." Deterred from sketching by the crowd. The Captain 
pointed out the rough outline of the human face on the mountains. 
This appearance goes by the name of St. Anthony's nose. About the 
central point of the Highlands is situated the celebrated fortification 
called West Point, distant from New York seventy miles. Some 
miles lower down is Stony Point. 

Between one and two o'clock the busy and beautiful city began 
to make its appearance. On the Jersey shore the spot was passed 

308 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

where Hamilton fell in a duel with Col. Burr, marked by a monu- 
ment erected to Hamilton. 

At 3 o'clock, reached Mechanics Hall in New York situated 
at the juncture of Park Place with Broadway. Mr. Pugh, Mr. Wil- 
liamson and Mr. Harwood contrived to get a room in the tavern with 
3 beds in it. As he did not wish to bed with strangers, Mr. G. ob- 
tained board for a week at Mrs. Powell's No. 16 Park Place, a very 
good house, at which Gen. Gaines and his aids were staying, (A 
Capt. E. E. Euffin of North Carolina and Lieut. — ), a gen- 
tleman and lady from South Carolina, two private gentlemen, and 
Mrs. Powell and her daughter. 

New York, Wednesday, 4th Sept. 1816. 

"Immediately after breakfast this morning I joined Mr. Pugh 
and went to the City Hall to see the mode of procedure adopted 
by the Court Martial assembled for the trial of Gen. Gaines. The 
Court sits in one of the beautiful rooms of that spacious, costly 
and tasteful building. Upon entering we were gratified with the 
order and regularity observed by every member. We were also grati- 
fied in seeing almost every officer of the last army of any distinc- 
tion assembled in the room, either as members of the court or as 
witnesses. After sitting sometime we walked to one of the rooms on 
the second floor, in which one of the high courts of the state were 
sitting, where were assembled all of the great lawyers of the city. 
I was mostly struck with the appearance of Thomas Addis Emmett, 
who as well as I could judge of him from his sitting position, was 
low of stature, inclined to corpulency, with a remarkably quick 
and vivacious eye, tho' exceedingly nearsighted, as could well be 
perceived from his manner of reading a book, even with the assist- 
ance of an opera glass. His eyeball appeared to be peculiarly promi- 
nent, his skin very clear, his ears most uncouthly Jarge, and the 
general expression of his face that of good nature and deep 

"Judge B. Livingston, a gentleman of the most exalted reputa- 
tion was sitting on the Bench. Whilst I remained in the court, 
there were only a few general remarks made from the bar." 

In the evening went to see a play called Pizarro, a German 

A Trip to the North 309 

production, and well calculated to do honor to any country. Mr. 
G. was never more delighted with the "scenic production and 
histrionic talent" exhibited. "Mrs. Barnes in the interesting char- 
acter of Cora discovered at once the extent of her personal charms 
and beauty, and the variety and excellencies of her talent for im- 
pressive acting. We were much amused by Mr. Hilson in the after- 
piece of 'No song, no supper/ " 

Friday, 6th of Sept. 1816. 

"Immediately after breakfast, myself, Mr. Pugh and William- 
son set out in a good hack, with a good driver and horses for New- 
ark in New Jersey. Crossed the Hudson in a large boat propelled 
by steam which is constantly plying between the city and the op- 
posite shore called "Paulers Hook." We had to pay for the car- 
riage horse and ourselves 13s 6 which we thought most immoder- 
ately high." From the Jersey shore had a most enchanting pros- 
pect of the City, with its immense shipping stretched along the 
wharves. After a mile ride, the road, which is turnpiked, and a 
most excellent one, passes through a meadow of 30,000 a^res. 
Immense ditches recently cut to drain it at high tide. Crossed 
the bridge over the Passaic and entered Newark, one of the nratest 
and most beautiful towns of its size we had ever seen. I followed 
my companions to the coachman's shops in the place. The car- 
riages made here are thought to be better than those made in New 
York or Philadelphia. Mr. Pugh soon came across one to please, 
for which he paid, I think, 750 dollars. The streets in the town 
are remarkably wide, the houses handsomely built, and there are 
public vacant spots of ground for purposes of promenading, hand- 
somely ornamented with trees. Having satisfied ourselves about 
everything we desired, we set out on our return and reached New 
York City by dinner time. At our boarding house, I spend my 
time quite agreeably. Gen. Gaines is quite familiar and con- 

(The Journal is accompanied with colored crayon sketches of 
the bridge with a single arch thrown across the Schuylkill river at 
Phila. of Niagara Falls, of Lake George, of the spot where Gen. 
Burgoyne capitulated, etc.; pencil sketch of "the Waterford 

310 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


The British were accused during the American Kevolution of 
indulging in many outrages — such as looting, wanton destruction 
of property, burning private houses, &c. The accusation was doubt- 
less true in many ways. But the British claimed that the Ameri- 
cans greatly exaggerated the facts, and the destruction of houses 
was never done by authority except when military necessity de- 
manded it. The British burned Aesopus in New York, and Fair- 
field, Norwalk and Greenfield in Connecticut, but they claimed 
that the Americans fired at them from the houses in violation 
of all the rules of international law. 

The British case is by no means as black as has been repre- 
sented, and the greatest stain on the British character is found 
in the employment of Indians, whom they tried to control and 
could not. After all, the most grievous outrages were not per- 
formed by the British soldiers but by the native American loyalists, 
who were close kin to the patriots but disapproved of the rup- 
ture of the great British Union. To these people who occupied the 
attitude of the Northern people a hundred years later, the Union 
was a sacred thing, and the patriotic spirit which sprang from 
this conception was intensified by the way in which they were 
treated by their fellow provincials. 

Suppose the Southerners in 1861 had treated Northern people 
like the Tories were treated — tarred and feathered them, looted 
their houses, and beaten their persons how far, indeed, in retaliation 
would they not have gone? Forgetful of the action of their an- 
cestors in destroying the great Union which existed before 1776, 
the Northerners waged a much greater war for preserving the 
Union of 1861, and were full of wrath at rebels and traitors — 
terms quite as applicable to their grandfathers of 1776 as to the 
Southerners in 1861. But the Tories had a better case than the 
Northerners, for to them were the added facts of insult and out- 
rage. No wonder they struck back when the opportunity pre- 

British Humanity 311 

The Americans complained, too, that the British commanders 
sometimes did not keep faith, hut were the Americans entirely 
faultless? Nothing attributed to the British occurs to me quite 
as bad as the violation by the Americans of the terms ©f Bur- 
goyne's surrender. According to these terms his troops were to 
be permitted to return at once to England, but on very insuf- 
ficient grounds the troops were retained in this country, subject to 
many privations, till the end of the war. 

After the outrages performed by Federal generals in the "War 
between the States/' American writers should be chary of very 
severe strictures. Indeed, where could we find in the whole history 
of the Eevolution any order comparable to that of General Grant 
to make the beautiful Valley of Virginia "a barren waste/' or any 
march of a British general quite as destructive as that of Sherman 
in Georgia. Throughout the Confederate War there were re- 
peated cases of the burning of private houses, villages and even 
cities of large size; and looting by the Federal soldiers was gen- 
eral. Thus, to the writer's own knowledge, although there was no 
specific order to destroy Tidewater Virginia, as there was to de- 
stroy the Valley, the general devastation was even greater, and 
not only was all the stock and utensils removed, but everything 
in addition useful to man and beast. Indeed, it would be impos- 
sible to find any sentiments proceeding from a British officer quite 
as wicked as those which proceeded from General Sherman, when 
he advocated "the utter destruction of the roads, houses and peo- 
ple of Georgia", or those that proceeded from General Sheridan 
when he declared that "the true policy in war was to leave to the 
conquered 'nothing but their eyes to weep with.' For words 
anything like them in atrociousness one must resort to the Germans 
in the late "World's War." 

Many instances of humanity on the part of the much reviled 
British, during the Eevolution, may be cited. And here is one from 
the narrative of Colliers and Matthews' Expedition in 1779 against 
Virginia on the part of Commodore Collier, which is worthy of 
imitation in all wars. 

The British fleet of invasion was composed in part of a large 

312 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

number of light armed vessels, which were useful in running 
up the shallow creeks and rivers, and destroying the sloops and 
schooners engaged in transporting tobacco, rightly regarded by the 
British at the time as contraband. These vessels had positive or- 
ders from Commodore Collier "to do no wanton act of cruelty, 
nor burn houses, nor in any shape molest innocent people." 
Nevertheless, Sir George found it extremely difficult to restrain 
these scouting parties within any decent bounds. Several houses 
were burned, and among them as reported to him were the houses 
of four poor families living near Cheriton, Northampton Co. 
When the news of this outrage was brought to Collier, he was very 
indignant, and to make amends sent a sloop laden with salt, a rare 
and coveted article in those days, for the use of the unhappy suf- 
ferers. The sloop bore also the following letter: 

"Sir George Collier, having with great concern just learned 
that a New York privateer has acted so contrary to humanity as 
to burn four houses belonging to poor people near Cheriton, Sir 
George will cause his disapprobation and abhorrence of such prac- 
tices to be signified to those who have been guilty of it, and, com- 
misierating the case of the unhappy sufferers, has directed a small 
vessel laden with salt, to be sent to them as some remuneration for 
their losses. 

Rainbow in Portsmouth harbor, 17th May, 1779." 

The sloop and flag of truce returned with the following letter 
from Isaac Avery, the County Lieutenant of Northampton: 

"Sir, — Your letter, addressed to the people who had their 
houses lately burnt by a privateer near Cheriton, has fallen into 
my hands, together with the sloop and cargo mentioned in the 
same. Of. the four houses which you suppose to be burnt, only one 
was quite consumed, the others were happily extinguished, one or 
two of them being first plundered. I will cause an exact and 
faithful estimate to be made of the loss sustained, and your bounty 
impartially divided according to their several losses; the sum may 
not perhaps be adequate to their whole loss; but however, give 
me leave to say that I cannot express my feelings at this signal 
instance of humanity, especially as it is the first of the kind that 

British Humanity 313 

has fallen under my observation, though numberless have been the 
sufferings of the people on this shore of the same nature. 
I am, Sir, Your most obedient Servant, 

Isaac Avery, County Lieutenant, 

Along with this letter came eight lambs and the following 
note from several gentlemen of Northampton Co. 

"Several gentlemen very respectfully present their compli- 
ments to Sir George Collier and beg leave to present him, by the 
bearer hereof, with eight lambs. We are, with all due respect, 
Your most obedient humble servants, 
George Savage 
Henry Grey 
Daniel Eobert Hoal 
T. L. Fulwell." 

Doubtless the Commodore would have enjoyed the meat for 
his own table, but, consistent with his ideas of humanity, he turned 
the present over to the "sick men" of his command. 

314 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


By H. C. Groome, Airlie, near Warrenton, Va. 

The expedition of the London Company under Captain Chris- 
topher Newport which landed on the banks of the James River 
in May, 1607, and established the first English settlement in 
America, included among other adventurous spirits, a remarkable 
character who played a very conspicuous part in the fortunes of 
the young colony and, in his dealings with the Indians, exhibited 
a sagacity and resourcefulness that proved of invaluable service to 
his companions. This person was Captain John Smith, a soldier 
of fortune who had fought in the Netherlands against Spam, had 
commanded a troop of horse in the armies of Rudolph II of Styria 
against the Turks, and in the service of Transylvania during the 
siege of Regal had successively slain three Turkish champions in 
single combat. Later taken prisoner at the battle of Rothenthurm 
he was sold into slavery and, although for a while befriended by a 
lady of Constantinople, he was subsequently sent to Asia Minor, 
where, after enduring many hardships, he killed the prince in whose 
service he was held, escaped into Russia and finally made his way 
back to England in time to join Newport's expedition.* 

It is to be supposed that such adventures had developed in 
Smith a quickness of wit in emergencies and given him a certain 
facility in dealing with strange enemies that stood him in good 
stead in his encounters with the North American savages. Certain 
it is, however, that, to his intelligence and adroitness as wel 
as to the boldness with which he pursued his explorations, the 
colonists owed their first general knowledge of the geography of 
their territory, and we are indebted for much that is known of 
the location of the aboriginal tribes. 

His exploits in Virginia began soon after the landing at James- 
town, when with a party headed by Newport he sailed up the 
James River as far as the Algonquian village called Powhatan. 

*John Fiske, Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. 

The Finding of Fauquier 315 

He next attempted the exploration of the Chickahominy but fell 
into the hands of Opekankano and was saved from death by the 
intercession of Pocahontas, a daughter of the chief Powhatan. Early 
in the summer of 1608 he undertook another exploration, in Chesa- 
peake Bay this time, and in August of the same year with twelve 
men and an Indian guide he ascended the Eappahannock. 

On this expedition having progressed as far as it was possible 
by boat, Smith's party landed, presumably near the present site 
of Fredericksburg, and scattered to examine the country. la this 
position they were attacked by a party of Indians, who, however, 
were driven off after a short skirmish and one of their number who 
had been wounded, fell into the hands of Smith's men. From this 
savage they learned through their interpreter, a Powhatan named 
Mosco, that the band of which they had been attached belonged 
to a large hunting party of Manahoacs in which several tribes 
were represented, and that this party was at the time encamped 
at Mahaskahod, a hunting camp nearby, on the border line between 
the Manahoacs and their enemies, the Powhatans. Smith treated 
his prisoner kindly, and through him soon satisfied the Manahoacs 
of his friendly intentions and subsequently obtained a good deal 
of information concerning the tribes and territory of what he then 
learned was a confederacy of Manahoac tribes, of the location of 
their tribes and of who their enemies were and of what tribes were 
friendly to them. 

The data thus secured was used in his Map of Virginia (1612), 
and to this map and his writings, we owe what information we 
have of the aborigines of this part of the state. Smith places a 
cross on his map at the point on the south bank of the Eappahan- 
nock where he landed in 1608, and in his "signification" of such 
marks states that "To the crosses hath bin discovered — what be- 
yond is by relation." He then maps the country northwest to the 
mountains distant about 10 leagues or 34=y 2 miles from his land- 
ing place, and assigns the territory thus covered to the Manahoacs, 
comprehending under this name the several tribes forming the 
Manahoac Confederacy. He also locates a number of these tribes, 
placing the Hassinunga in the forks of the river, which are shown 
to occur comparatively close to the mountains and, therefore, may 

316 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

be assumed to have been the junction of the Hazel Eiver with the 
North Fork. This theory would assign the Hassinungas to the 
eastern border of what is now Culpeper County and would give 
the Tanxnitanias, whom Smith places east of the North Fork, to 
Fauquier. Smith in his "General Historie of Virginia, New Eng- 
land and the Summer Isles," mentions the Whonkentias, as another 
tribe of the Manahoac Confederacy living "upon the head of the 
river Tappahannock" and these people by some authorities have 
also been assigned to Fauquier.* 

Our first knowledge of the territory now occupied by Fau- 
quier County, therefore, comes as a result of Smith's discoveries 
in 1608, although neither he nor any member of his party actually 
set foot on its soil. The general accuracy of his statements, how- 
ever, and the skill with which he pieced together the information 
he obtained from the natives, can be judged by the fact, in this 
case, that in drawing his map of the headwaters of the Rappa- 
hannock "by relation/' he placed the forks of the river 6 leagues, 
or about 21 miles, above the falls, while the actual distance as 
the crow flies is about 28 miles, certainly a shrewd estimate. 

After Smith's explorations there is no record of the upper 
Eappahannock region being visited by any white man until the 
year 1670, when John Lederer, a German traveller, undertook 
an expedition to the mountains. His party, consisting of himself, 
"Col. Catlett of Virginia," "nine English horse" and five Indians 
on foot, left the house of one Eobert Talifer, situated on the south 
bank of the Eappahannock, August 20th, and that night reached 
the falls. The next day crossing the river above the falls they 
entered what is now Stafford County and following the north bank 
journeyed through the lower edge of Fauquier passing the North 
Fork into Culpeper at some such place as Field's Ford. Lederer 
travelled thence through Culpeper and Eappahannock Counties 
and reached the mountains on the 26th. f The territory included 

^Handbook Am. Inds., Vol. II, 946. 

■\The Discoveries of John Lederer, in Three Several Marches from 
Virginia, to the West of Carolina, and other parts of the Continent. 
Begun in March, 1669, and ended in September, 1670. London, 1672; 
reprinted Rochester, N. Y., 1902. 

The Finding of Fauquier 317 

in the present boundaries of Fauquier County, therefore, although 
mapped by Smith more than a half a century before, was first 
entered by white men on August 21st, 1670. 

Lederer makes no mention of having encountered any Indians 
on this journey but thus describes the country through which he 

"We travelled thorow the Savanae amongst vast herds of red 
and fallow deer which stood gazing at us; and a little after, we 
came to the Promontories or spurs of the Apalataean-mountains. 

These Savanae are low grounds at the foot of the Apalataeans, 
which all the winter, spring, and part of the summer, lie under 
snow or water, when the snow is dissolved, which falls down from 
the mountains commonly about the beginning of June; and then 
their verdure is wonderful pleasant to the eye, especially of such 
as having travelled through the shade of the vast forest, come out 
of a melancholy darkness of a sudden, into a clear and open skie. 
To heighten the beauty of these parts, the first springs of most 
of those great rivers which run into the Atlantick ocean, or Chesa- 
peack bay, do here break out, and in various branches interlace 
the flowry meads, whose luxurious herbage invites numerous herds 
of red deer (for their unusual largeness improperly termed elks 
by ignorant people) to feed." 

The Manahoacs, as well as their allies the Monacans, were, 
according to Mooney,* of Siouan stock. His theory is that the 
prehistoric home of the Siouan race was not on the prairies of the 
west, but among the western foothills of the Alleghany Mountains, 
and that these people were forced westward along the Ohio or 
eastward over the mountains, by the pressure of hostile tribes. 
Hall, holding the same opinion as to the cradle-land of the stock, 
assumes that they followed the buffalo westward, but Mooney 
points out in contravention of this theory that the buffalo did not 
disappear from the east until the end of the eighteenth century 
and at that time the great body of the Sioux had been established 
on the Mississippi and Missouri for several hundred years. What- 
ever the cause of the early separation may have been, however, 

*James Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East, p. 28. 

318 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

tribes of this stock occupied that portion of Virginia between the 
rivers and the Blue Eidge in 1608. The Monacan Confederacy at 
that time was established on the headwaters of the James, while 
the Manahoacs lived on the upper reaches of the Rappahannock 
and the country northward to the Potomac. The Monacans and 
the Manahoacs were in alliance and constantly at war with the 
Powhatan, a confederacy occupying the country from the falls to 
the coast, and all of these tribes were in never-ending dread of 
the Nassawomek, the name by which the Iroquois beyond the moun- 
tains were known to the Powhatan and Siouan tribes of Virginia 
and, as Smith says, were regarded by them as their "most mortall 

The tribes composing the Manahoac Confederacy in 1608 
were eight as named by Smith, and several others. These, with 
the locations attributed to them by Jefferson (evidently on the 
basis of Smith's map), were: 

Manahoac — Stafford and Spottsylvania 

Tanxnitania — Fauquier 

Shackaconia — Spottsylvania 

Ontponea — Orange 

Tegninateo — Culpeper 

S tegar aki — range 

Whonkentia — Fauquier 

Hassinunga — Culpeper 

Smith found the Manahoac (Algonquian: "They are very 
merry") to be "very barbarous, living for most part of wild beasts 
and fruit." Their country was heavily timbered and abounded in 
game, while the numerous streams afforded a variety of fish. It is 
doubtful whether they practised agriculture to any great extent, 
although on Lederer's testimony they grew corn and had done so 
for a great many years. In 1669 travelling from the falls of the 
James River southwestward, he states that the country between 
the falls of the rivers and the mountains was formerly owned by 
the "Tacci" or "Dogi," who were then extinct and their place 
occupied by the Managog (Manahoac), Monakin (Monacan) and 
other Siouan tribes, which he names. He also states that the an- 
cient inhabitants of the region were far more rude than the recent 

The Finding of Fauquier 319 

occupants and were taught by the latter how to plant corn and 
instructed by them in its use.* 

Of the disappearance of the Indians from what is now Fau- 
quier County we know little. That the Manahoacs were unable to 
maintain themselves against the attacks of their more powerful 
enemies seems very probably, but whether they succumbed to an 
Iroquois invasion prior to 1675, as Mooney believes, is somewhat 
doubtful. It is more likely that their bands or tribes, depleted by 
wars, gradually dispersed and were absorbed by friendly tribes 
with whom they took refuge. According to Mooney, however, at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century the Stegaraki of Orange 
County alone of all the Manahoac tribes remained, while we know 
that at that time the settlement of Fauquier by the white men 

♦Lederer described the Piedmont section of Virginia at this time 
"as a pleasant and fruitful country, with open spaces clear of timber 
and abounding in game." (James Mooney, Siouan Tribes of the East). 

320 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


The people of Virginia, though an agricultural people, have 
been essentially a military people. The greatest American sol- 
diers — Washington, Lee and Stonewall Jackson, who were also the 
finest types of American citizenship — were natives of Virginia. 
There were a host of other shining examples — Andrew Lewis, 
William Henry Harrison, Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, Joseph 
E. Johnston, George H. Thomas, J. E. B. Stuart, &c. 

In nearly all recorded battles the Virginians acquitted them- 
selves with distinction. The battle of Camden in the Eevolution, 
in which the raw militia ran away before the British veterans, 
was an exception. Their conduct was nobly redeemed at Guildford 
Court House, where the militia of Virginia behaved with the cool- 
ness of veterans. 

"Noble was the stand of the Virginia Militia; Stevens and 
Lawson, with their faithful brigades, contending for victory against 
the best officer in the British army (Lt. Col. Webster) at the head 
of two regiments distinguished for intrepidity and discipline/'* 

Among the continental troops the heroic Third Virginia Regi- 
ment, commanded first by Hugh Mercer, who fell covered with 
glory at Princeton, afterwards by George Weedon, and later by 
Thomas Marshall (father of the Chief Justice), was pre-eminent. 
At York Island, during the retreat through the Jerseys, at Tren- 
ton, at Princeton, and at Brandywine, the Third Virginia stood 
like a stonewall, checking the British advance. 

Nothing need be said of the Virginia troops during the War 
between the States. The charge of Pickett's Division at Gettys- 
burgh will always remain the most glorious military incident of 
the war. 

Among the battles where the valor of the Virginians was con- 
spicuously displayed was that of Point Pleasant, at the mouth of 

*Henry Lee, Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department. 

The Battle of Point Pleasant 321 

the Kanawha October 10, 1774. Here, commanded by Andrew 
Lewis, the Virginia Militia was opposed by the best fighting In- 
dians on the continent — The Shawnees under their chief Corn- 
stalk — and in the obstinate fighting that ensued the slaughter on 
each side was about equal. But the Indians were driven from 
the field and shortly afterwards sued for peace. 

The battle afforded the only instance in which an equal num- 
ber of the Shawnees was defeated by an equal number of whites, 
and by many the battle was thought to be the beginning of the 
Revolution. It was supposed that the Indians were influenced to 
hostilities by British agents, who thought by an Indian war to 
prevent the combination of the American colonies against taxa- 
tion by Parliament. 

That the Shawnees and their confederates, the Delawares, 
Miamis, Mingos, &c, were no contemptible enemy is shown by the 
facts of history. 

It was chiefly the Shawnejes that cut off the British army 
under General Braddock in 1755, when the general himself, and his 
second in command, Sir Peter Halklett, were both killed, and a 
mere remnant of the army escaped. It was the Shawnees, too, 
who defeated Major Grant and his Scotch Highlanders near Fort 
Duquesne, in 1758, where nearly all the troops were killed or taken 
prisoners. After the battle of Point Pleasant they defeated in 
1782 the flower of the first bold and interpid settlers of Kentucky 
at the battle of the Blue Licks. There fell Col. John Todd and 
Col. Stephen Trigg. Afterwards they met the forces of the Federal 
army and twice defeated them — first in 1790, under General Josiah 
Harmar and then in 1791 under General Arthur St. Clair. They 
suffered a defeat in 1794 by the Federal army under General An- 
thony Wayne, but their power was not entirely destroyed till the 
battle of the Thames in 1813, when their great chief Tecumseh 
was killed. 

In this final battle the commanding officer of the Federal army 
was a Virginian, Gen. William Henry Harrison, a worthy suc- 
cessor of General Andrew Lewis. 

322 Tyler's Quarterly Magazike 


There was recently removed to Bruton Parish Churchyard in 
Williamsburg, from the lot whereon stands thfe house of Dr. T. G. 
Peachey, honored by the stay of Gen. La Fayette in 1824, a marble 
slab of beautiful design, bearing the following inscription : 

Sacred to the Memory 
of Mrs. Elizabeth Hill Skipwith, 
Eldest daughter of William Byrd, Esquire. 
Born at Westover Nov 26, 1755, 
Died at Williamsburg August 6, 1819. 
This monument, as the last tribute of duty and filial affec- 
tion, is erected by her surviving daughters E. C. I., M. C, and 
E. P. C. 

The lady, whose name it was intended to perpetuate, married 
1st James Parke Farley, of Antigua; 2d Eev. John Dunbar; and 
3rd Col. Henry Skipwith; and died at Williamsburg Aug. 6, 
1819. "The three surviving daughters" were probably all by the 
first marriage with Farley, and were Elizabeth Parke Farley, whose 
third husband was Gen. George Izard, Maria married Champe 
Carter, and Eebecca Parke married Major Eichard Corbin, of 
Laneville. Col. Henry Skipwith, the third husband of Elizabeth 
Hill Byrd, was a son of Sir William Skipwith, of Middlesex Co., 
and Elizabeth Smith, his wife. (See Tyler's Quarterly, I, 
p. 70.) 

O <r %:>'■ * && 
Lord Dunmore, "The Great Emancipator" 323 


[Copied from American Archives, Fourth Series, Vol. Ill, 1775.] 

Proclamation by the Governor of Virginia. 

By his Excellency the Right Honourable John, Earl of Dunmore, 
His Majesty's Lieutenant and Governour-General of the 
Colony and Dominion of Virginia, and Vice-Admiral of the 

A Proclamation. 

As I have ever entertained hopes that an accommodation might 
have taken place between Great Britain and this Colony, without 
being compelled by my duty to this most disagreeable, but now 
absolutely necessary step, rendered so by a body of armed men, un- 
lawfully assembled, firing on His Majesty's Tenders; and the for- 
mation of an Army, and that Army now on their march to attack 
His Majesty's Troops, and destroy the well-disposed subjects of 
this Colony: To defeat such treasonable purposes, and that all 
such traitors and their abettors may be brought to justice, and 
that the peace and good order of this Colony may be again re- 
stored, which the ordinary course of the civil law is unable to 
effect, I ha\ie thought fit to issue this my Proclamation, hereby de- 
claring, that until the aforesaid good purposes can be obtained, 
I do, in virtue of the power and authority to me given by His 
Majesty, determine to execute martial law, and cause the same 
to be executed throughout this Colony. And to the end that peace 
and good order may the sooner be restored, I do require every 
person capable of bearing arms to resort to His Majesty's standard, 
or be looked upon as traitors to His Majesty's crown and Govern- 
ment, and thereby become liable to the penalty the law inflicts 
upon such offences — such as forfeiture of life, confiscation of lands, 
&c, &c; and I do hereby further declare all indented servants, 

324 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Negroes, or others, (appertaining to Bebels,) free, that are able 
and willing to bear arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops, as 
soon as may be, for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a 
proper sense of their duty to His Majesty's crown and dignity. 
I do further order and require all His Majesty's liege subjects to 
retain their quit-rents, or any other taxes due, or that may become 
due, in their own custody, till such time as peace may be again 
restored to this, a present, most unhappy Country, or demanded 
of them for their former salutary purposes, by officers properly 
authorized to receive the same. 

Given under my hand, on board the Ship William, off Nor- 
folk, the 7th day of November, in the sixteenth year of His 
Majesty's reign. 

God Save the King. 

The Loyalists of New Brunswick, Canada 325 

By M. C. Hayward, Town Clerk, Hartland, New Brunswick. 

In reference to your enquiry as to books on the Loyalists, 1 
feel rather doubtful about attempting to give you any informa- 
tion, as my interest in local history only dates back to a few months, 
and things which might appear very new and important to me would 
be all old to you. Passing over Sabine's Loyalists, with which you 
are of course familiar, and which is inaccurate in some respects, 
there is very little directly on the New Brunswick Loyalists. Eev. 
W. 0. Raymond, a local historian, has done some excellent work 
in his History of the St. Johns River and in the Collections of the 
New Brunswick Historical Society. Professor W. H. Siebert, of 
Ohio University, has written some rather short and scrappy mono- 
graphs on various phases of the question, which were published in 
the Mississippi Valley Historical Review and the Transactions 
of the Royal Society of Canada, and tells me that he is now pre- 
paring a small monograph on the Loyalists of Pennsylvania, in 
which I was especially interested. Hannay's Queen's Rangers 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, gives the 
Muster Rolls of the Regiment and a great deal of information in 
reference to where they settled in the Province and their later 
descendants. Then there are Van Tyne's Loyalists, Stark's Loyal- 
ist® of Massachusetts, Van Flick's Loyalism in New York and 
Jones' Standard History along the same line, to which may be 
added Ryerson's Lives and Times of the Loyalists. 

After the Loyalists came to New Brunswick, Commissioners 
were sent out from England to hear their evidence on their claims 
for compensation and the evidence taken was printed by the On- 
tario Government in 1904, which is a mine of information along 
these lines. Amateur as I am, by means of this evidence I have 
been able to spot several glaring errors in some of the works to 
which I have referred. Besides, the New York Public Library 
has copied and indexed a great deal of information contained in 

326 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

the public record office in London and will furnish photostatic 
copies for a nominal fee. 

Practically all the New Brunswick Loyalists, at least those 
who came as regular military organizations, were from Pennsyl- 
vania and the New England States, and no systematic effort has 
been made to make any study of the Loyalists who came from the 
Southern States. If you would give me the names of some of the 
Virginia families whom you have in mind, especially if you could 
give me the name of the progenitor who left there I would be 
very glad to see if I could get any further information from the 
scanty material which we have. 

Capt. Jacob Elligood raised the Queen's Loyal Virginia Regi- 
ment, 600 strong, and Elligood himself came to the Province. Hi 
sworn evidence is very complete. 

Burwell of New Jersey and Canada 327 


One of the unsolved connections of the Burwell family of Vir- 
ginia is presented in the loyalist James Burwell, who was born 
at Rockaway, New Jersey, January 18, 1754, entered his majesty's 
service in 1776 at the age of twenty-two and served seven years, 
and was present at the battle of Yorktown, when Lord Cornwallis 
surrendered, and was then slightly wounded. 

After the war he moved to Nova Scotia, where he remained 
four years. He then returned to New Jersey to take care of his 
aged mother, married and removed to Pennsylvania and from 
thence came to Upper Canada in 1796, too late to obtain the King's 
bounty of family land, but was placed on the Upper Canada list 
and received two hundred acres for himself and each of his chil- 
dren. He removed to Talbot settlement in the year 1810. He died 
in the county of Elgin, Canada, July, 1853, aged ninety-nine 
years and five months. 

Sabine, who in his Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the 
America?! Revolution, gives these facts, adds that James Burwell's 
father, Samuel Burwell, was eldest son of John Burwell, who 
removed from Jamestown, Virginia, in the year 1721, a relative 
of the extensive family of Burwells in this country (Virginia), 
formerly from Bedford and Northampton, England, the first of 
whom was buried at York River, Gloucester County, Va., 1652' 
(Major Lewis Burwell, 1621-1653). 

Mr. Raymond W. Smith, of Orange, New Jersey, wrote in 1916 
that he had found the Canadian branches of the family, who re- 
moved from New Jersey at the time of the Revolution and all 
claimed descent from the Virginia Burwells. He gave the fol- 
lowing chart pedigree: 


Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

("from Jamestown, Virginia, in 1721") 


M. Stephen Jackson 

from whom Mr. Ray- 
mond W. Smith was 


(See Sabine's Loyalists, Vol. 


Removed to 
Canada from 
New Jersey. 

Can John Burwell above have been a descendant of Edward 
Burwell (brother of Major Lewis Burwell), who was living in 
York County, Virginia, in 1648? 

The Baptists of Fauquier County 


By C. A. Hoppin. 

A paper noted in a mass of unarranged old papers of all kinds, 
existing amid dirt and rubbish in a general storage room of the 
county clerk's office at Warrenton, Fauquier Co., Va. 
"To the Worshipful Court of Fauq r County — 

"The Petition of us the Subscribers Sheweth, that we Being 
Desenters bearing the Denomination of Baptists &c. Desireing to 
Worship God According to the Best light that we have in Holy 
Scriptures, and the Dictates of our Own Consciences, Humbly 
Prayeth that your Worships would be Pleased to grant us liberty 
To meet to gether for the worship of God in our way the Prosecu- 
tion of what We beleive to be Duty at the Meeting House Built 
for that Purpose on a Tenement of Land Occupied by Burr Har- 
rison, and Also would beg leave further to Pray That the same 
might be Entred on record And a Certificate thereof might be 
granted to the Barer of these Presents and Also that our Brother 
John Monroe might be Permitted To Qualify according to Law 
for the Attending on us with the Preaching of the Gosples And the 
Administrations of the Ordinances. And your Petitioners as in 
our Duty will Pray for your Worship &c. 

"Burr Harrison 
John Hitt 
William hollen 
James Winn 
Dawson burgess 
W m Elliott 
Geo. Bennett 
Pich d Oldham Jun r 

"Ale a Holton 
Matthew Smith 
James Winn 
Sam 1 Pepper 
John Elliott 
Eich d Oldham 
Henry Snider Jun r 
Thomas Elliott 
William Lain" 

"John Pepper 
Jeffry Johnson 
John Oldham 
Joseph Neavel 
James Neavel 
Henry Asbury 
John Wright 
William Hammon" 
(and others). 

330 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Though this record is undated it is judged to have been pre- 
pared in 1775. About ten of these names are in the same hand- 
writing as the preamble, and the preamble is in the same hand- 
writing as that of Burr Harrison; he therefore put down himself 
such of the names as are in his handwriting, doubtless at the re- 
quest or knowledge of such persons. A complete search of the 
minute books of the court of pleas and quarter sessions of Fauquier 
county from 1759 to 1800 revealed no other record of these Bap- 
tists unless the following entry so applies : 

Court minute book for 1775, May term, page 232': 
"Leave is granted the Anabaptists in the lower part of this 
County to erect a meeting-house on the Lands of John Kelly/' 

Sergeant Major Champe 331 

29th Congress, Eep. No. 326. Ho. of Reps. 

(To accompany bill H. R. No. 261.) 

February 25, 1846. 

Mr. J. H. Ewing, from the Committee on Revolutionary Claims, 
submitted the following 


The Committee on Revolutionary Claims, to whom was referred 
the memorial of William Champe, formerly of Virginia, but now a 
citizen of Franklin county, in the State of Ohio, who petitions 
both for himself and the other children and heirs of Sergeant 
Major John Champe, formerly of Lee's legion of cavalry, in the 
army of the Revolution, report: 

That the petitioners, setting forth the services of their father, 
Sergeant Major Champe, and the very hazardous and highly meri- 
torious character of those services, which services he was employed 
to perform by General Washington himself, now seek a compensa- 
tion for those services, in the form of a reward, which they allege 
was promised by General Washington. They allege that neither 
their father nor his children and heirs have ever received any 
compensation from the United States for this enterprise. That a 
grant was lately made by Congress to their indigent mother, who 
is the widow of said Sergeant Champe ; also, a grant by the State 
of Virginia, of 360 acres of wild land, to the petitioner and the 
remainding six he'irs of said Sergeant Champe, which is all that 
was ever received by them for the service of their said father. 


Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

That their identity as the children of Sergeant Major Champe 
is made out by the dopsitions and papers on file in the War De- 
partment. The mission of Sergeant Major Champe, by General 
Washington, in order to secure the person of the traitor Arnold, 
and save the life of the unfortunate Andre, and also to ascertain 
the grounds of the reports of certain treasons which were said to 
have spread through the American camp, reaching even to a major 
general, is familiar to all, and matter of history (Lee's Memoirs 
of the War of the Eevolution, chapter 30;), and particularly of 
that most interesting period embracing some of the darkest days 
of the Eevolution. 

The committee admit every fact contained in the statement 
or history as established beyond a doubt, without further proof. 
The committee feel that they cannot render too high a tribute of 
respect to Sergeant Champe, for the high order of service ren- 
dered, as well as the skill and intrepidity shown at every point in 
this most hazardous enterprise. They cannot here recount his suf- 
ferings while engaged in this enterprise, especially while detained 
on one of the British fleet of transports, on which he was placed 
soon after he reached New York, and from which he never de- 
parted till the troops under Arnold reached Virginia. 

Fully aware of his great merit, the committee feel every dis- 
position to grant to the heirs of Sergeant Champe the relief as 
6ought, and in the manner sought, if in their power to do so ; but, 
on looking into the case, the committee have not been able to 
find proof (satisfactory) of any certain and specified reward 
having been promised to the sergeant by General Washington. The 
only instance in which "rewards" are mentioned, is in General 
Washington's letter to Major Lee, (Lee's Memoirs, vol. 2, page 

182,) in which he says: "The plan proposed for taking A d 

has every mark of a good one. I therefore agree to the promised 
rewards * * * with this express stipulation and pointed in- 
junction, that he A d is brought to me alive." The rewards 

here mentioned are not certain or specified. It does not say what 
they were to be, nor to whom given. They might, for aught that 
appears, have been rewards promised to those whose aid Sergeant 
Champe procured after arriving at New York; and this seems 

Sergeant Major Champe 333 

probable, as it appears that Champe did promise them ample re- 
compense, (Lee's Memoirs, 183) where Major Lee told Champe, 
by letter, "that the rewards which he had promised to his asso- 
ciates would certainly be paid on the delivery of Arnold, and in 
the meantime small sums of money would be furnished * * * 
That five guineas were sent now, and more would follow when 
absolutely necessary; that it was improper that he should appear 
with much money." And, again: when Sergeant Champe re- 
turned to the American army, General Washington is said to have 
munificently anticipated every desire. Nothing is here said about 
any reward. Again: when General Washington was called by 
.President Adams to the command of the army proposed to defend 
the country from French hostility, he sent Major Lee to inquire 
for Champe, being determined to bring him into the field, at the 
head of a company of infantry. Nothing is here again said about 
any reward. The committee do not then see how they can grant 
relief in this form. In another view of the case: Is Sergeant 
Major Champe entitled to commutation for five years' full pay in 
lieu of half pay for life? He did not serve to the end of the 
war, but was discharged by General Washington; not because his 
term of service had expired, nor because he was desirous of quit- 
ting the service; but (Lee's Memoirs, 187,) "General Washington 
where, if recognised, he would be sure to die on a gibbet." But 
might, in the vicissitudes of war, fall in to the enemy's hands, 
presented him with his discharge from further service, lest he 
he was not a commissioned officer. 

At the time he was singled out for this noble enterprise, Major 
Lee, (Memoirs, vol. 2, 162,) in his description of him to General 
Washington, said he was "about twenty-three or four years of 
age; that he enlisted in 1776; rather above common size, full bone 
and muscle, with a saturnine countenance, grave, thoughtful, and 
taciturn, of tried courage and inflexible perseverance, and as likely 
to reject an overture coupled with ignominy as any officer in the 
corps; a commission being the goal of his long and anxious exer- 
tions, and sure on the first vacancy." Again, at page 165, same 
work, we find the sergeant himself hesitating in entering into the 
enterprise, chiefly because the ignominy of desertion would place 

334 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

an insuperable barrier in the way of his promotion. General 
Washington's language was, "that he must take it; and that going 
to the enemy by the instigation and at the request of his officer 
was not desertion, though it appeared so to be." He did take it. 
Sergeant Champe threw aside all considerations of a personal 
nature, and without further hesitation made the sacrifice at once 
of all his future prospects, and of life itself, on the altar of dis- 
interested patriotism, and entered on the noble enterprise. Is it 
not certain that, but for this enterprise, Sergeant Champe would 
have been a commissioned officer and served to the end of the war, 
if he had not been killed or died in the service? And it happens 
he did survive to the end of the war ; for, when inquired after 
by Major Lee, he was found to have removed to Kentucky after 
the peace. By the time Sergeant Champe returned to the Ameri- 
can army, Major Lee was himself promoted to lieutenant colonel; 
and is it not almost certain he would have been promoted had he 
continued in the American army? The committee have no doubt 
but that he would have been promoted had he remained in the 
army; yet this does not bring him within the provisions of the 
resolutions of 1778 and 1783, granting commutation, as not having 
actually served to the end of the war, nor actually commissioned, 
if he had. Under this view of the case, the committee are not able 
to grant commutation pay; but, induced by a sense of justice and 
propriety in rewarding services of such high merit, and believing 
that the case has not a parallel in the whole of the revolutionary 
war, protesting at the same time that this shall not be a precedent 
for future grants of any value or character whatever, they report 
a bill allowing to the legal representatives of Sergeant Major John 
Champe a sum equal to the commutation pay of an ensign. 

Colonel Francis Taylor 335 

29th Congress, Eep. No. 380. Ho. of Reps. 

1st Session. 

(To accompany bill H. R. No. 288) 

March 5, 1846. 

Mr. Grider, from the Committee on Revolutionary Claims, made 

the following 


The Committee on Revolutionary Claims, to whom was re- 
ferred the memorial of Edmund H. Taylor, the administrator 
with the will annexed of the estate of Colonel Francis Taylor, 
deceased, asking an allowance of the commutation of five years' 
full pay, with interest, in lieu of half pay for life, having exam- 
ined the same and the evidence, which is of the most satisfactory 
character, in support thereof, now report: 

That Colonel Taylor entered the service of the United States 
as a captain the last of 1775, in the Virginia continental line, 
and continued in actual service until a consolidation of the Vir- 
ginia regiments took place in 1778, when he retired as a super- 
numerary major, and so continued awaiting the order of the Con- 
gress until about the first of January, 1779, when he again was 
called into actual service by the Congress in a resolution passed 
the 9th of January, 1779, which required that a battalion of 600 

*For Col. Francis Taylor and his Descendants, see Hayden, Va. 

Genealogies, 680, 681. 

336 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

men be forthwith raised in Virginia on continental establishment, 
and the officers to be appointed out of those of the Virginia line 
who had been left out of the late arrangement of the continental 
army. (See the printed journals of the Continental Congress, by 
Way & Gideon, vol. 3d, page 179.) Col. Taylor was appointed 
lieutenant colonel of the said battalion, and, upon the death of 
Colonel Charles Lee, was promoted to the rank of colonel, and 
commanded the regiment which was raised to guard the convention 
prisoners (as they were termed) until the same was disbanded 
in June, 1781. The regiment he commanded was disbanded upon 
the removal of the prisoners from Winchester, Virginia, where 
they had been kept; and by the discharge of the troops, Colonel 
Taylor became supernumerary, and so remained until the close 
of the war. 

Your committee are entirely satisfied that the regiment he 
commanded was a continental regiment, as it was taken upon con- 
tinental establishment by Congress, in the passage of the resolu- 
tion of the 9th January, 1779, aforesaid, and ordered thereby to 
be officered by those officers who had been left out of the late ar- 
rangement, and were then supernumeraries. In the army registers 
of Virginia, this regiment has been always classed among the con- 
tinental corps, and which fact, says the auditor of that common- 
wealth, is satisfactory proof that such officers were continental 
officers. (See a report No. 457, from the Committee on Public 
Lands, at the first session of the 28th Congress, page 193.) Mr. 
Jefferson, while governor of Virginia, in a letter to the command- 
er-in-chief of the American army, under date the 28th November, 
1779, expressly mentions Colonel Taylor's regiment of guards to 
the convention troops as being of the continental line. (See Jef- 
ferson's Works, vol. 1st, page 170.) The settled decisions of both 
the War and Treasury Departments of this government are that 
the regiment was a continental regiment. The executive of Vir- 
ginia so decides. Besides, both Houses of Congress as well as 
various committees have repeatedly decided that this regiment was 
a continental regiment. Congress so decided in the passage of 
the act of the 25th May, 1832, allowing Major John Eoberts, an 
officer of this regiment, his commutation pay with interest ; also in 

Colonel Francis Taylor 337 

the passage of the act of the second of March, 1833, allowing 
Captain John Thomas, another officer of this regiment, his com- 
mutation pay with interest; also in the passage of the act of the 
30th of June, 1834, allowing the' heirs of Lieutenant John Taylor, 
another officer of this regiment, his commutation pay. The Com- 
mittee on Revolutionary Claims decided that this regiment was a 
continental regiment in their report conceding the commutation 
pay with interest to the heirs of Captain Garland Burnley, another 
officer of this regiment, at the second session of the 2'5th Congress. 
The committee so decided in their report at the second session of 
the 25th Congress, in conceding the commutation pay to the heirs 
of Captain James Burton, another officer of said regiment; like- 
wise so decided in their report at the second session of the 24th 
Congress, conceding commutation pay to the legal representatives 
of James Purvis; so decided again at the third session of the 25th 
Congress, in conceding commutation pay to the heirs of Samuel 
0. Pettus, another officer of said regiment. Besides, the Commit- 
tee on Eevolutionary Claims, of which the Hon. Judge Under- 
wood, from Kentucky, was chairman, did, at several sessions of 
Congress, make favorable reports in the case of Colonel Taylor, 
allowing commutation pay, one of which was acted on in the House 
and passed, but, owing to the lateness of the session, did not reach 
the Senate in time to be considered. The Committee on Public 
Lands, at the first session of the 28th Congress, investigated all 
the laws and facts touching the claims of this regiment, and 
showed, as appears to your committee beyond the shadow of a 
doubt, that this regiment of Colonel Taylor's was a continental 
regiment. (See report No. 457, 1st session 28th Congress, from 
page 115 to 123 inclusive.) 

Your committee are satisfied that a more meritorious claim 
could not be presented to the consideration of Congress, nor one 
more clearly embraced by the resolutions of Congress of the 21st 
October, 1780, and 22d March, 1783; and therefore report a bill 
granting the relief prayed in the memorial. 


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Historical and Genealogical Notes 357 


Wilson Query. — Tabitha Wilson was the daughter of Solomon 
Wilson. In 1749 she married William Freeman, in Norfolk, Va. 
The younger daughter, Mary, married Dr. Thomas Burke in Nor- 
folk in 1770. He was afterwards Gov. Burke of North Carolina. 
Lieut-Col. James Wilson, of Lower Norfolk County, had a son 
named Solomon, and also a grandson named Solomon. This grand- 
son was the son of Maj. Jas. Wilson. Thomas Wilson, of Princess 
Anne County, had a son Solomon. 

Which one of these three Solomon Wilsons was the father of 
Tabitha Wilson, who married William Freeman? Whom did this 
Solomon Wilson marry, — his wife's maiden, name ? 

Byrd. — Concerning the descendants of Addison Lewis (num- 
bered 24 in William and Mary College Quarterly, IX, p. 263), his 
descendant, Mrs. Mabel L. Jeffries, of Wilmington, Delaware, 
writes as follows : "Addison Lewis Byrd and Susan Coke, his wife, 
left four, children: William P. Byrd, Rebecca Minor Byrd, Mary 
Willing Byrd, who was my grandmother, and Addison Lewis Byrd, 
carpenter and house joiner, who died in Williamsburg in 1856. 
My great grandfather Addison Lewis Byrd, Sr., was a lawyer, 
and so was his son, William P. Byrd." 

Thomas Lee. — Information wanted regarding Thomas Lee, 
who settled in Prince Edward Co., Va., about 1750 or 1760. 

Was he a son of Richard Lee, of Ditchley? Did he have a 
son Thomas, who went to/ Wythe Co., Va., and afterwards to Hawk- 
ins Co., Tenn? 

This Thomas Lee's will is dated June 29th, 1816, and is re- 
corded in Hawkins Co., Tenn. 

He calls his wife Mary, and his sons Needham and William 
are witnesses. Mrs. Peter A. Boyle, 280 Rhodes Circle, Birming- 
ham, Alabama. 

The Impost Act of 1781. — The repeal by the Virginia Legis- 
lature of the bill granting to Congress the right to levy a five 
per cent tariff on certain enumerated articles was ascribed by Ben- 

358 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

jamin Harrison to Dr. Arthur Lee, and Kichard Henry Lee. And 
his authority was accepted by George Bancroft in his history of 
the Constitution, and yet we are told by Dr. Arthur Lee himself 
that, while not favouring the measure as an original question, 
"be alone opposed it (the repeal) and that too on the inexpediency 
in time/"' (Elliot's Debates V, 34.) 

Land Boom in Eichmond, 1813-1818.— "This year (1813) 
is memorable for the beginning in Eichmond of the land mania; 
it continued to increase until the spring of 1817 and in the sum- 
mer of that year began to decline and died about the latter end of 
1818. This mania was one of the most fertile causes of the 
ruin of Eichmond." — Diary of Charles Copland, the lawyer. 

Destructive Wolves. — On complaint of the destruction per- 
petrated by the wolves on cattle and hogs leave is asked by the 
justices of Lord Effingham to levy 200 pds for encouraging the 
killing of them. Loncaster Co. Eecords, Oct. 10, 1688. 

Marmaduke Johnson. — At a court &c. for Brunswick County, 
third day of June, 1736, Bruce Henry Embrey, Eichard Burch, 
William Wynne, John Duke and Nicholas Lanier, Gent. John 
Scott, Gent., produced a lycense to plead as an attorney, which 
was read and the oaths appointed by law were administered to him. 
Also Marmaduke Johnson, from Ireland about twenty years ago, 
came into Court and made oath that he never made use of his im- 
portacon Eite, and that this the first time, which is ordered to be 
first certified. 

Hansford. — In St. Paul's Churchyard, Norfolk, is the tomb- 
stone of "Cary H. Hansford, M. D., Obit., 29, Oct., 1801, Aet 42." 
He was a son of Lewis Hansford, who married Ann Taylor (mar- 
riage bond Oct. 3, 1753 — Lower Norfolk Co. Antiquary, III, 99.) 
Lewis Hansford was a descendant of Thomas Hansford, who suf- 
fered death in Bacon's Eebellion. He was a son of William Hans- 
ford, of York County. He had a daughter, Ann Blaws Hansford, 
who married Dr. Philip Barraud, of Norfolk. (See "Old Kent 
of Maryland," p. 171; Virginia Historical Society Collections, XI. 

The Story of a Bible. — Some years ago a Bible which had 
been at his Hampton residence (his main plantation "Sherwood 
Forest" was fifty miles further up James Eiver) was restored to 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 359 

the family of ex-President John Tyler by a gentleman in New 
England, into whose hands it had lately fallen. The book has the 
following written on a paper pasted on the inside of the front 
cover : 

"Hampton, Va., May 22nd, 1861 
I Belong to Ex-President Tyler And was Stolen from his Eesi- 
denee at Hampton Va on the 22nd of April During the War of 
1861 By a member of Company B Third Regiment of Mass 
Yolls. Therefore handle me with Care Signed Holly Bible. 

Hampton Va May 22nd 1861" 
On a slip pasted in the inside of the back cover is written: 
"Presented to George H. Atwood from his friend Daniel Lucas of 
Co. B 3rd Regt Mass Vols." 

In another place is stamped: "George H. Atwood, Plymouth, 
Mass., 10th Co., H'vy Art'y." 










Inaugurators of From-Mill-to- Wearer System. No Middle Profits Charged 


EDGAR HOLT, Representative, Main and Eighth Sts., RICHMOND, VA. 



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Vol. II. No. 2. 

OCTOBER, 1920 

tiler's ©uarterlp ^toxical 


(genealogical Jflap^me 

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 

GDpler'a (©uarterlp 2|tsitorical anb 
(genealogical JWaga^ne 

Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1920. No. 2, 


Owing to an error, the pages of the July issue were numbered as in con- 
tinuation of the last volume. The paging of this October issue proceeds as 
if the July issue was correctly numbered from 1 to 72. 

Owing to the high cost of printing, the editor finds it necessary to ad- 
vance the price of this magazine, beginning with the July number, 1920, from 
$3 to $4 per year. Single numbers will be sold at $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary College Quarterly, which 
was the original name of the present magazine, have become very scarce, 
single copies, as far as had, may be obtained for $2 a-piece. 

Address all communications to LYON G. TYLER, 711 Travelers Bldg., 
Richmond, Va. 


Paroles and Oaths of Allegiance 73 

Virginia and the Revolution 76 

The Negro as Suppliant and Contraband 78 

Some Notes from "The Memorial of Benjamin Ogle Tayloe" 80 
American Gentlemen of the Olden Time, Especially in Mary- 
land and Virginia 85 

Slavery and Freedom 98 

Life in the Old South 101 

Hardings of London and Virginia 104 

Removal of the Florida Indians Ill 

Burton Memorandum 113 

Flowerdew Hundred and Sir George Yardley 115 

The Goodriches of Isle of Wight County, Va 130 

Noland-Harrison-Powell-Gilmer — Records from Family Bible 132' 

Diary of Richard N. Venable 1791-92 135 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 139 

Book Reviews 142 

Spier's ©uarterlp ^tsitortcal anb 
Genealogical JWaga^me 

Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1920 No. 2 


During the American Eevolution the British commanders had 
a way of taking paroles of the inhabitants in occupied territory 
in the manner practised often with the commissioned officers when 
prisoners. In consequence of this custom, whole communities be- 
came incapacitated from serving against the enemy. This prac- 
tice deviated from the principle fairly recognized at international 
law that residents of conquered territory are expected to submit 
quietly and peaceably to the rule of the conqueror. But by his 
parole the citizen was converted into a neutral instead of into a 
passive enemy able to take up arms when the immediate authority 
of the conqueror was withdrawn. 

A parole, however, asserted no claim to allegiance, but rather 
recognized the contending person as an equal belligerent. His- 
torians say that Sir Henry Clinton made a great mistake, when, 
on the assumption that South Carolina had been re-annexed to the 
British crown, he issued on June 3, 1780, a proclamation abrogat- 
ing all former paroles and converting all persons who had taken 
them out into liege subjects of Great Britain, subject to the 
penalties of treason. 

The result was the great rising of the people of the State, who 
had voted against taxation without representation but were luke- 
warm, when it came to breaking up the great British union. This 
rising in South Carolina may be almost said to have occasioned the 
success of the American Revolution, for it brought the real spirit of 
Carolina to the front after the regular army of the continent was 

74 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

dispersed at the battle of Camden. It aroused the fierce and 
irresistible action of the invincible inhabitants of the mountains, 
and gave to the war Marion, Sumter and Pickens and the victory 
at King's Mountain. 

During the War between the States (1861-1865) the Federal 
authorities pursued an even more drastic policy than the British. 
Both governments started out with characterizing resistance as 
rebellion and denounced the penalties of confiscation and death. 
Both, however, had to recognize the war in which it was engaged 
as a strife between equal belligerents. Exchange of prisoners 
took place and various other dealings which recognized the exist- 
ence of an international war. But when, however, British or 
Federal commanders obtained a success, each was ready enough 
to recur to the old attitude of authority. The Federal govern- 
ment, unlike the British, however, resorted to the imposition of 
an oath of allegiance on all persons of both sexes above 16 years 
of age. It is true that the persons might refuse to take the oath — 
but the penalty in that event was to be sent outside the lines — 
probably to court starvation. 

Calling a man a liar, however, does not make him one, and 
calling him a rebel affects him just as little. Properly speaking 
a struggle ceases to be a rebellion when it requires an army to put 
it down. The question between the North and South was only 
determinable by the issue, and while the war lasted Lincoln had 
no more right at International Law to impose an oath of alle- 
giance in districts of the South overrun by Federal armies than 
the Confederacy had to impose one on the people of Pennsylvania 
at the time of Lee's invasion. 

The objection to oaths of allegiance during the Confederate 
War was similar to that urged by Gen. Nathanael Greene to 
private paroles. Greene, in his negotiations with Lord Cornwallis 
for an exchange of prisoners, objected to private paroles and urged 
the incapacity of the citizen to renounce his social obligations 
by contract with the enemy unless sanctioned by a public officer. 1 

iL e, Memoirs of the War in the Southern Department of the 
United States, 1827, p. 82. 

Paroles and Oaths of Allegiance. 75 

The mere fact that Cornwallis chose to regard the American con- 
test as a rebellion did not alter the case so long at least as Ameri- 
cans had the power to fight. And the international law looks at 
it in this practical way, and gives no preference to either side in 
an armed contest. 

76 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


That the American Revolution could not have been brought to 
a successful issue without the aid of Virginia is evidenced by 
Smollett in his continuation of Hume's History of England. In 
this work he declares that tobacco, Virginia's staple crop, was the 
chief foundation of the credit of these States in Europe, and he 
mentions the immense importance of the trade of the Chesapeake 
Bay with the West Indies, which was kept open by the Virginia 
Navy. His statement is confirmed by a narrative published in the 
Virginia Historical Register, evidently the work of Sir George 
Collier, who with General Matthews invaded Virginia in 1779. 1 

It appears that Sir George Collier, who had been Governor 
of Nova Scotia, was appointed by the British Government to suc- 
ceed Rear Admiral Gambier as commander in chief of all his 
Majesty's shipping in America. The narrative describes how, out 
of a noble fleet of near 100 men of war, under the command of 
Lord Howe, who preceded Gambier, the major part had disap- 
peared through accident, the fortunes of war and recalls to other 
stations. So that to remain on the defensive appeared to Sir 
George as certain to subject the surviving vessels to extermination 
by the numerous American privateers that infested the creeks 
and rivers. He found it necessary to act with his present force 
at once, and he naturally desired to deliver the most effective blow. 

The narrative says that "the way which seemed most feasible 
to end the Rebellion was cutting off the resources by which the 
enemy carried on the war; that these resources were principally 
drawn from Virginia by her trade in tobacco &c. ; that an attack on 
that province and the shutting up the navigation of the Chesapeake 
would probably answer very considerable purposes; and if not of 
itself sufficient to end the war, would drive the rebels to infinite 
inconveniences and difficulties, and especially as Washington's 

iVirginia Historical Register, Vol. IV, 181-195. 


army was constantly supplied with salted provisions sent by water 
through the Chesapeake." 

These were the conclusions he imparted to Sir Henry Clinton, 
and an expedition left New York composed of 1,800 regular troops 
with artillery, &c. The fleet was commanded by Sir George Collier 
and the army by General Matthews. The fact appears to be 
that it was eminently successful. Norfolk and Portsmouth had 
the best marine yard in the States, and this was destroyed with 
many ships on the stocks. The whole number of vessels taken and 
destroyed during the 24 days the king's ships were in Virginia 
was one hundred and thirty-seven, while the destruction of sup- 
plies of all kinds — tobacco, pork, tar, merchandize, planks, masts 
and cordage, — amounted to a million pounds sterling. This was 
a large sum for those days. 

But Clinton, who was in tight quarters in New York, could 
not spare the troops for long, and so after the brief stay men- 
tioned the expedition returned to New York. Sir George Collier, 
who had conducted himself with the utmost energy in Virginia, 
lodged a protest with Sir Henry Clinton that in withdrawing the 
troops he gave up the very best chance of starving "Washington's 
army, and putting a stop to the war. 2 

2ln his testimony before the committee of the House of Commons 
Joseph Galloway said that Washington's Army at Valley Forge in 
1778 was principally supplied with provisions from Virginia and 
North Carolina by way of Chesapeake Bay. This doubtless was the 
reason that the Virginia troops at Valley Forge were better clothed 
than the troops from other States. 

78 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


During the American Revolution four negro slaves fled from 
their owner, William Armistead, of "Hesse," in Gloucester Co. 
(now Matthews) to the British fleet in Hampton Roads, where- 
upon Gov. Henry and his council passed the following resolution: 

"In Council, 13 May, 1779. 
Permission is hereby given to Captain Peter Bernard to go 
with a flag of truce on board his Britannic Majesty's ships now 
in Hampton Roads, and make application to the commander-in- 
chief of the British squadron to obtain the restitution of four 
negro slaves, said to be on board one of the British ships, and 
belonging to William Armistead, Esquire, of Gloucester County, 
and run away from him. 

P. Henry." 

Pursuant to this authority a party of three, including, it is to 
be supposed, Capt. Bernard, presented themselves under a flag 
of truce and were admitted on board the Eaisonable. But Com- 
modore Sir George Collier caused it to be signified to P. Henry 
that "the business of his sovereign's ships in Virginia was neither 
to entice negro slaves on board nor to detain them if they were 
found there. Nevertheless, his Majesty's colors in all places af- 
forded an asylum to the distressed and protection upon supplica- 
tion." (Virginia Historical Register, IV, 191, 192.) 

During the Confederate War a similar case occurred. In 1861 
three slaves belonging to Col. C. K. Mallory, of Hampton, fled 
from Sewell's Point to the protection of Gen. B. F. Butler at 
Point Comfort. Major John B. Cary, then in command of the 
Virginia militia at Hampton went under a flag of truce to reclaim 
them as private property. But General B. F. Butler declared the 
negroes "contraband of war," and refused to give them up. (See 
"Butler's Book," 262-264.) 

The Negro as Suppliant and Contraband. 79 

Somehow the words of the British commander sound better 
than the words of the Federal commander, which became very 
popular in the North. But it is interesting to observe how in this 
matter as in other matters, the Federal Government during the War 
between the States, came to adopt the position of the British Gov- 
ernment in the American Revolution. 

However, the morality of the slaves episode was not wholly 
against Virginia. She was the first State in the world to impose 
penalties for engaging in the slave trade (1778). And when the 
British government directed the Colonial governors to veto any 
measure restricting the importation of slaves; and, when later, 
through a combination of the New England States with the ex- 
treme Southern States, a clause was put into the Federal Con- 
stitution inhibiting the National Congress for twenty years from 
prohibiting the slave trade, Virginia, through her regularly con- 
stituted authorities, registered a protest in each instance. 

80 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


Among the poems written by eminent men for Mrs. Tayloe's 
Album is one from President Andrew Jackson : 

Let wisdom, all my actions guide 
And let my God with me reside, 
No wicked thing shall dwell with me 
Which may provoke thy jealousy. 

In the summer of 1822 Mr. Tayloe made a visit to Boston, and 
with his brother, Edward Thornton Tayloe, then a student at Har- 
vard, Judge Winston, a relative of Patrick Henry, and some others 
called upon the venerable Ex-President, John Adams, at his resi- 
dence in Quincy. They were introduced by the Hon. Josiah 
Quincy. In the course of the conversation Judge Winston in- 
quired of Mr. Adams if he had ever heard such an orator as 
Patrick Henry? Mr. Adams tried to avoid a direct answer: at 
last he said with a significant smile: "Virginia geese are all 

*This is a very rare book, as it is said only a limited number of 
copies were published. It was compiled in 1872 by "Winslow M. Wat- 
son principally from papers and memoranda left by Benjamin Ogle 
Tayloe. Mr. Tayloe was born at Annapolis, Maryland, in the house 
of his maternal grandfather, Governor Benjamin Ogle, on the 21st 
of May, 1796. He was second son of Col. John Tayloe, of Mount Airy, 
in Virginia, and Anne Ogle, his wife. Mount Airy, the residence of Col. 
John Tayloe, erected in 1758, was at the time the most superb mansion 
in Virginia, and many think it continues such. Benjamin Ogle Tayloe 
was educated at Phillips Academy, Exeter, in New Hampshire, and at 
Harvard College. He travelled extensively in Europe and was inti- 
mately acquainted with the distinguished men of both continents. 
He resided first in King George County, Virginia, and afterwards in 
Washington, where he dispensed a princely hospitality. By the Civil 
War Mr. Tayloe lost half a million of dollars. He died February 25, 
1868, at the age of seventy-two. 

Notes from "Memorial of Benjamin Ogle Tayloe/' 81 

swans/' and pointing to Mr. Quincy, said: "I have heard a hun- 
dred speeches from the father of that gentleman much more elo- 
quent than I ever heard from Patrick Henry." He said further, 
that in the meeting of the first Congress it appeared the Southern 
gentlemen were the best speakers, and it was expected they would 
lead' in everything, but at best the Northern men did the work." 
In allusion to this assertion, Mr. Tayloe remarks in his note 
book: "I am not disposed to regard Mr. Adams as an impartial 
witness. He corrected a person who said, 'General Washington 
and you/ 'No, sir, / and General Washington. I made General 
Washington.' " 

"Governor Marcy. after his retirement from office, related to me 
many anecdotes in connection with his public life. He had no re- 
spect for the character or capacity of President Polk, and asserted 
that he was very hostile both to General Scott and General Taylor, 
and that but for himself General Scott would not have had com- 
mand of the army in Mexico. Governor Marcy plainly told Mr. 
Polk that as Secretary of War he would not intrust his own reputa- 
tion to any other general. 'If you will get Colonel Benton's assent, 
I will appoint him,' said Mr. Polk. Governor Marcy then called 
upon Colonel Benton, and informed him he had been sent by the 
President to inquire what general he thought ought to have the 
command. Benton began with the lowest on the army list, to 
each of whom he answered alike, "He will not do," referring among 
others to Worth, Wool, Jesup, Taylor, condemning all until he 
came to Scott. About him Governor Marcy made no inquiry, but 
merely remarked, 'You have condemned all but General Scott,' 
and returned with the statement to the President, who at once 
appointed Scott to the command of the army in Mexico. The 
sequel is known. 

After the battle of Cerro Gordo, the news of which reached 
Washington on a day when President Polk had a reception, Colonel 
J. Graham, who attended it, congratulated the President on the 
glorious news. His response was, 'Our brave fellows conquer 
under any kind of leader.' " 

82 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

"I heard Daniel Webster speak with scorn of both the Adamses. 
He remarked, 'They had been faithless to their friends and their 
principles, and had no more sense of gratitude than a cat/* 

"It was my good fortune to hear several of Webster's table- 
talks, in the Johnsonian style, some Boswell setting him off. He 
spoke in monologue, narrating anecdotes. Here is one: 

"One morning in London, after a breakfast with Eogers, he 
left the house in company with the celebrated Sydney Smith, and 
as they passed the door of Lord Brougham, Smith proposed a 
call, to which Mr. Webster assented. On entering, Smith intro- 
duced Mr. Webster as 'Mr. Clay.' Now Mr. Clay had lately de- 
nounced Lord Brougham in the United States Senate. Mr. Web- 
ster said, 'Lord Brougham did not say a word to Mr. Clay, nor 
Mr. Clay to Lord Brougham.' Smith and Webster continued 
their walk together, and their talk, into St. James's Park. Sud- 
denly the former became silent, and then asked Mr. Webster 
'Did not I introduce you to Lord Brougham as Mr. Clay?' 'Cer- 
tainly, you did,' said Webster. Smith soon afterward made an 
excuse for leaving Mr. Webster, and when the latter returned to 
the hotel, he found Lord Brougham's card inscribed 'for Mr. 
Webster.' Afterwards he had intimate and most agreeable rela- 
tions with Lord Brougham. 

"My opulent and munificent friend and neighbor, Mr. William 
W. Corcoran, after the perusal of Webster's celebrated March 
speech in defence of the Constitution and of Southern rights, in- 
closed to Mrs. Webster her husband's note for $10,000 given him 
for a loan to that amount. Mr. Webster met Mr. Corcoran the 
same evening, at the President's and thanked him for the 'princely 
favor.' Next day he addressed to Mr. Corcoran a letter of thanks, 
which I read at Mr. Corcoran's request." 

"Colonel Byrd, of Westover, in Virginia, was in London during 
the reign of George the Second, and took, in a club-house there, 
a bet for ten thousand guineas on a card, offered by the Duke of 
Cumberland, the King's son, and commander-in-chief of the army. 

♦John Quincy Adams, in his Diary, gave Webster tit for tat and 
spoke with utmost scorn of Webster's character. 

Notes from "Memorial of Benjamin Ogle Tayloe." 83 

Byrd won the bet, and retired from the table. Before separating, 
the Duke said to him, 'You are a stranger to me, and we have a 
rule of the club, as you may not know, that no bet is paid until 
it is ascertained that the winner could pay in case of losing. Will 
you therefore be so good as to refer me to your banker?' 'Cer- 
tainly, your Grace,' replied Byrd, 'and I consider the rule a very 
proper one.' Byrd at once wrote a note referring the Duke to his 
banker, which was promptly answered, 'I will accept Colonel 
Byrd's draft for ten thousand guineas, or for ten times the sum.' 
General Scott adds to the above that the Duke avoided the pay- 
ment of his debts of honor when allowed to do so. This, Byrd 
would not permit, and as the Duke delayed payment, had it inti- 
mated to him that he was ready to meet him in the field, and 
would expose him if he did not pay the money, which was paid." 

"I had the honor of a somewhat intimate acquaintance with 
the Hon. Christopher Hughes, of Baltimore, who represented this 
country at Stockholm, Copenhagen, and the Hague. * * * When 
Envoy to Holland, the King who had lost Belgium by conquest, 
expressed his regret to Hughes to learn that he wished to go there. 
'Your majesty would go there yourself if you could,' was Hughes's 

"When at Ghent, Mr. Hughes met, at his lodgings, Mr. John 
Quincy Adams, the tears dropping from one of his eyes from an 
infirmity he had, at the time asking the chambermaid to do some 
little service in the room for him, and reported to Mr. Clay that 
lie had met Mr. Adams with tears in his eyes, entreating the 
chambermaid.' Mr. Adams took no offence, Hughes being always 
in high favor with him, 'the best diplomat abroad,' as Adams used 
to say. 

"In England, Hughes met the Duke of Wellington at the March- 
ioness of Wellesley's, who introduced them. Not long after they 
met at Almack's. Hughes threw himself repeatedly in the way of 
the Duke without being noticed. At last he went boldly up to him, 
saying, 'My dear Duke, you don't recognize me.' 'Yes, I do, sir; 
you are Mr. Hughes, of Baltimore,' said the Duke, in a tone so 
cold and decided that Hughes, like others discomfited by the Duke 

84 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

of Wellington, could not come again to the charge. This was 
perhaps the most mortifying event of his life. 

"Hughes, in after years, offended another great military chief- 
tain. On meeting General Scott, soon after the liasty plate of 
soup' letter, Hughes remarked, 'You ought to be promoted, made 
a Marshal. You are already a Marshal Turenne/ 

"When Mr. Madison (in his old age, and very feeble) was 
reposing on a sofa at Montpelier, he asked a friend to take a chair 
near him, with the remark, 'strange as it may appear, I always talk 
better when I lie.' 

"Mr. Madison was something of a humorist, a man of refined 
wit, and a capital talker." 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 85 


By Benjamin Ogle Tayloe.* 

It is to be regretted that old men do not more frequently 
give you and your readers the benefit of their recollections. Some- 
thing of the sort, treasured up among my reminiscences, either 
coming under my own observation or traditionary, will perhaps 
interest some few of your friends. 

An article in your paper expatiates on the illustrious lineage 
of our equestrian aristocracy. I will confine myself to that of some 
few gentlemen (such as were so in the strict acceptation of the 
term) named in the article referred to, and those connected with 
them; that if <c blood," from remote ancestry, causes additional re- 
spect on the other side of the Atlantic, it may be understood there 
that some of our Americans are descended from the very best blood 
of England. Cotton Mather has aptly said, it required the seed of 
all Europe to produce the American of this country. Has not 
Miss Martineau said something of the kind? The pedigree of 
Washington has been published, showing his descent from the 
royal Plantagenets. This may augment the respect entertained 
for his memory in England, but nothing of the kind can add to 
the veneration of his own country. Washington was one of na- 
ture's noblemen. We have others without the advantages of birth. 

♦Reprinted from "The Memorial of the late Benjamin Ogle Tay- 
loe," compiled by Winslow M. Watson, 1872. It was first written by 
Mr. Tayloe, and was contributed by him to the New York Spirit of 
the Times," in 1851. Though not always strictly accurate in its 
statements, the article is a valuable one, because of its coming from 
a man best calculated to describe that splendid and spectacular aris- 
tocracy that adorned the Society of Virginia and Maryland in colonial 
times. He was himself one of them and moved in the highest circles 
after the national character had begun to wipe out the provincial dif- 

86 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

But there are families in our land whose lineage, it is believed, 
can be traced to an earlier origin even than that of the Planta- 
genets, especially that of the Cadwaladers, of Pennsylvania, sprung 
from a very ancient race in Wales. In this country it has been dis- 
tinguished for its high chivalric character, at least for the last 
three generations. The grandfather of the present General Cad- 
walader (one of the heroes of the war with Mexico) is an historic 
name of our Eevolutionary War. He was the warm personal friend 
and companion in arms of Washington, whose wrongs General 
Cadwalader avenged, according to its desert, upon General Conway. 
The late General Cadwalader, son of the first, was the Chevalier 
Bayard of his day — a most accomplished gentleman, "sans peur, 
sans tache!" His beautiful sister was married to the present Earl 
of Buchan, known in this country as the Hon. David Erskine, 
son of the eloquent Lord Erskine, the great advocate, &c, and 
H. B. M. Minister to the United States about the close of Mr. 
Jefferson's administration. 

It has been stated in your paper that "long before Braddock's 
defeat" there was racing of a distinguished character in Mary- 
land, in which "Governors, Councillors," and other of the first 
gentlemen participated. The association was so exclusive as to 
give to the members of the Jockey Club a special mark of con- 
sideration; as at a later period, at Charleston, South Carolina, 
when such unmistakable gentlemen as the Pinckneys, Butledges, 
Hugers, Heywards, Izards, &c, were its members, at the time 
when General William Washington, General Wade Hampton 
(whose son has so gracefully succeeded to his honors), General 
McPherson, Colonel Allston, &c, trained and ran their own horses. 
With these gentlemen, as those of the more "olden time" in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, racing was a mere pastime, never pursued in 
a way to materially increase or diminish the fortunes of the opu- 
lent gentlemen engaged in it. They were willing to be only at 
such cost as they could readily afford with their horses and dogs, 
as is still the case with some of the nobility and gentry of Eng- 
land. Our gentlemen of those days were as elevated in character 
and as refined in manners as the nobles of Great Britain, who have 
most honorably sustained the turf in that kingdom. 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 87 

In colonial times, the Governors appointed by the Crown, were 
very generally of aristocratic birth and bearing. Governor Sharpens 
name has always been cherished with respect in Maryland. Gov- 
ernor Samuel Ogle presided over the colony from 1732 to 1742, 
and from 1744 to 1752, his father-in-law, Colonel Tasker, acted 
as President of the Council during the absence of the Governor 
in England, his administration having closed with his death at 
Annapolis. As Governor Ogle had, by marriage and otherwise, 
so closely connected himself with Maryland, a reference to his 
illustrious lineage will not be out of place. He was descended 
from the Ogles of Northumberland, of whom it is stated, in Scott's 
"Border Antiquities," in the account of Bothwell Castle, that "the 
Barony of Bothwell belonged for several centuries to the family 
of the Ogles, a race of great antiquity in the county of Northum- 
berland, where they possessed an extensive property before they 
succeeded to the Bothwell estate." In Hexham Abbey "is the 
tomb of Sir Robert Ogle, with the arms of the Bertrams and 
Ogles quartered, and an inscription in brass dated 1404. These 
were ancient families in Northumberland; the Ogles owned seven 
Lords and thirty Knights of their race, having large possessions 
in the northern parts of the kingdom before the Norman Con- 
quest." "The seventh and last Lord Ogle," having no son, his 
daughter Catharine "was created Baroness Ogle." She married 
Sir William Cavendish, afterwards the Marquis of Newcastle. The 
husband of his only daughter became the Duke of Newcastle, whose 
only daughter married the Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, and at 
length the possessions of the last Lord Ogle descended in the fe- 
male line, through another only daughter, to the husband, "the 
Duke of Portland, in which family they now remain." 

The male line of the Tasker family has been many years ex- 
tinct. Their monuments are yet to be seen in the churchyard at 
Annapolis. A most beautiful, classic, and costly monument (from 
the chisel of Bailey), to the memory of "Ann Tasker," mother to 
the wife of Governor Ogle, had been erected, by one of her muni- 
ficent and filial descendants, within the church at Annapolis, but 
when that structure underwent a change, some few years ago, the 
monument was removed, and I have never heard of its restoration. 

88 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

I trust that act of justice, if not done, will not be long postponed. 
This monument, to an artistic eye, was the chief object of interest 
in all Annapolis. 

But to proceed with our review of the gentlemen named in 
the article, we next come to a reference, in 1752, to "Colonels 
Tayloe, Byrd, and Thornton." The first was styled "The Honor- 
able Colonel John Tayloe," of Mount Airy, in the county of Rich- 
mond, in Virginia — a gentleman who owned extensive landed pos- 
sessions along the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, and was 
a member of the Council, under the Crown, with Lord Dunmore, 
and of the first Republican Council, during the administration of 
the patriotic and eloquent Patrick Henry. He died in 1777. 
(His son, the late Colonel John Tayloe, so well known to the 
readers of your paper, inherited his landed possessions, and at the 
instance of his hereditary friend, General Washington, built his 
town house in the city of Washington, where he died about twenty 
years ago. The last Colonel Tayloe married the daughter of the 
second Governor Ogle, the son of the first, as above mentioned.) 

Colonel William Byrd, of Westover, on James River, had asso- 
ciated with the nobility of the highest rank in England, and had 
in himself every claim to be regarded as a nobleman of his own 
land. He had rare endowments and accomplishments. It has 
been said of him, that, when quite a youth, at Brooks's, or a kin- 
dred establishment, in London, he won on the turn of a card, from 
the Duke of Cumberland, £10,00 sterling, with which he defrayed 
the expenses of an extensive tour in Europe, engaging in no game 
of chance until many years afterwards. Yet, from play, he died 
a bankrupt. lc G : est le premier pas qui coute." "Byrd's lottery" 
will be long remembered. He owned the site of the city of Rich- 
mond, and presented to the state its public grounds there. His 
was said to be the best private library in the country, through 
which it was diffused after his death. There is still to be seen 
at Westover, Mount Airy (though the main building has been 
partially burnt), Shirley, Stratford, and other of these baronial 
halls of "olden time," with their broad acres, the remains of the 
lordly magnificence of other days. At Westover, its former hos- 
pitality is still enjoyed, as most generously dispensed by Mr. 

American Gentlemen of the Oeden Time. 89 

Selden, the grandson of Hon. Miles Selden, member of the Coun- 
cil of Virginia some fifty years ago, at a time when he was a dis- 
tinguished leader upon the turf. 

Hill Carter, Esq., as is well known, most worthily fills the 
place of his ancestors at Shirley, as does William H. Tayloe, Esq., 
at Mount Airy. The present year, about forty thousand bushels of 
wheat are said to have been produced on the Shirley estate. Not 
far from it is Berkeley, the seat of Governor Harrison, where his 
son, our lamented President, the late General Harrison, was born; 
which is still occupied by one of the family, as also the Upper and 
the Lower Brandon. In the former is to be seen the portrait of 
William Byrd, and I am told in the Wormeley family is preserved 
a portrait of the late "Ralph Wormeley, of Rosegill," on the Rap- 
pahannock, near Urbanna, by Sir Joshua Eeynolds. He is repre- 
sented in his robes as a student at Cambridge. He bore off the 
highest honors of the University. He and his connection, Grymes, 
ancestor to the distinguished barrister of that name, at New Or- 
leans, were the pride of the headmaster at Eton. Inheriting a 
large estate Mr. Wormeley became a gentleman of high standing 
and influence in the Colony, son-in-law to the first Colonel Tayloe 
(as mentioned above), and a member of the Council, with him, 
under Lord Dunmore. But, unhappily, his bias was in favor of 
the Crown, on its separation from the Colony. Stratford now 
stands in the midst of desolation, in Westmoreland County, a 
monument of the magnificence of "President Lee," by whom it was 
built, while he was at the head of the Council, during the absence 
of the Governor. 

Most of these gentlemen had been educated in England, as 
were some few at a later period, such as Francis Corbin, Esq., of the 
Reeds, another gentleman of aristocratic birth, whose cultivation 
of mind and manners, with graces that would have charmed a 
Chesterfield, as inherited by his son of the same name, would have 
made him an ornament and a man of mark in any court of Europe. 
Some derision has been cast upon the "P. P. V/s" — said to 
belong to "the first families of Virginia," but it is very certain 
that those named, who were the basis to these pretensions, were 
gentlemen of no ordinary merit, as were also the Randolphs, the 

90 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Nelsons, the Pages, the Burwells, &c., &c., of the days of our 

I do not exactly know which Colonel Thornton it was we find 
named in the article under review. If of Northumberland House, 
he was the father of the present Lieutenant- General Sir Edward 
Wade Thornton, H. B. M. A. The family espoused the royal 
cause in 1776, and went to England. Sir Edward distinguished 
himself in Flanders (where he lost an arm), under the Duke of 
York; and was afterwards equerry to the Duke of Cumberland, 
the present King of Hanover. 

We come next to Samuel Galloway, Esq., a gentleman of opu- 
lence and respectability in Maryland; whose descendant, the lady 
of Colonel George Hughes, of our Army, now resides at the vener- 
able ancestral mansion, Tulip Hall, on West River, near Annapolis. 

Colonel Lloyd's name is next introduced. He was a gentleman 
of great wealth, and married the eldest daughter of Colonel Tay- 
loe. She was a lady of such rare worth, that on her death, some 
twenty years since the Legislature adjourned, by resolution, for 
the purpose of attending her funeral. Colonel Edward Lloyd, 
of Wye, in Talbot County, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, 
was the father of the late Governor Lloyd, a United States Senator ; 
and grandfather to the present Colonel Edward Lloyd, who has 
succeeded to the landed estate of his ancestors; on which, at this 
time, it is said, from thirty thousand to forty thousand bushels 
of wheat are raised annually. The "Lloyd House," at Annapolis, 
cannot fail to arrest the attention of any stranger. But it has 
passed out of the family. 

Captain Byrd Willis, of Fredericksburg, has been too recently 
among us — a representative of the warm-hearted, fun-loving, and 
the true old Virginia gentleman — to require more than a passing 
notice. His beautiful daughter, the present Madame Murat, was 
married to a nephew of the Emperor Napoleon, Colonel Achille 
Murat, son of King Joachim. 

In running our eye along the James River, a little below City 
Point, it falls upon Claremont, the residence of Mr. Allen, who 
succeeded to the estate, some six or more plantations, containing 
together about forty thousand acres, of the late Colonel Allen, one 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 

of the last gentlemen of opulence in Virginia whose horses graced 
the turf. His celebrated mares, Vanity and Reality, own sisters, 
were trained by the late Mr. W. E. Johnson, of such turf celebrity 
as to need no further mention by me. 

I ought not to omit a notice of Mr. De Lancey, of New York — 
another gentleman of the old school, connected with the best blood 
of England. The present Bishop De Lancey is of his family; also 
the wife of J. Fenimore Cooper, Esq. 

Having thus run over, in review, the article you have published, 
I have to apologize for occupying so much of your space and time, 
with the garrulity of age, and on subjects perhaps of but little 
interest to "Young America," that is going ahead in the race of 
progress, "under any kind of leaders/' unmindful, if not forget- 
ful, of ancestry, of which some may be proud, as not owing their 
elevation to others, but to their own efforts. 

But the Hon. D. Webster says : "It is wise occasionally to recur 
to the sentiments and to the character of those from whom we are 
descended. Men who are regardless of their ancestry and of their 
posterity, are very apt to be regardless of themselves. The man 
who does not feel himself to be a link in the great chain to trans- 
mit life and being, intellectual and moral existence, from his an- 
cestry to his posterity, does not justly appreciate the relations that 
belong to him. The contemplation of our ancestors and of our 
descendants ought to be within the grasp of our thoughts and af- 
fections. The past belongs to us by affectionate retrospect, and 
the future belongs to us no less by affectionate anticipation of 
those who are to come after us. And then do we ourselves 
justice, when we are true to the blood we inherit, and true to 
those to whom we have been the means of transmitting that blood/' 

The author of "What is Gentility?" remarks, on the sub- 
ject of our aristocracy, that it ought to be regarded as having its 
origin with the patriots of the Revolution, from whom all should 
be proud to trace their descent. 

The best description of a gentleman, according to my under- 
standing, of the term, is found in the 15th Psalm of our Prayer- 
Book: "Lord, who's the happy man," &c; or, if not so elevated, 

92 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

one who respects the rights and the feelings of others as he would 
his own. 

As an accomplished and graceful man, the late King George IV, 
of England, was proud to be regarded "the first gentleman in his 

For one, I would wish to see revived the days of gentlemen 
of the olden time, as nearly as they can be approached under 
existing circumstances. 


My former article concluded with the remark of a "wish to 
see revived the gentlemen of the old school," whose words were 
as their bonds. Their truth, their honor, and their integrity, 
were not to be questioned. Courage, generosity, and hospitality, 
were their sterling virtues. The distinguished Gouveneur Morris, 
of Morrisania, near the city of New York, who was a gentleman 
by birth, education, and the most lofty bearing, on being asked 
for the definition of a gentleman, replied, in the words of the 
Psalmist : 

" Tis he whose every thought and deed 

By rule of virtue moves; 
Whose generous tongue disdains to speak 

The thing his heart disproves. 
Who never did a slander forge, 

His neighbor's fame to wound; 
Nor hearken to a false report 

By malice whispered round. 

Who vice in all its pomp and power 

Can treat with just neglect; 
And piety, though clothed in rags, 

Religiously respect. 
Who to his plighted words and trust 

Has ever firmly stood; 
And, though he promise to his loss, 

He makes his promise good. 
Whose soul in usury disdains 

His treasure to employ; 
Whom no rewards can ever bribe 

The guiltless to destroy." 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 93 

[This Psalm was copied by Mr. Jefferson, in the smallest hand 
and neatest manner, in his commonplace book.] 

In our trading and money-loving community how many can 
stand this test? It is to be feared that but few gentlemen are to 
be found, according to this standard, among our merchants, law- 
yers and politicians. However refined may be their manners, or 
however great and varied their accomplishments, it seems indis- 
pensable to the character of a true gentleman that he should re- 
spect the rights and the feelings of others; to do to them "as you 
would they should do unto you." 

Having touched upon some few of the gentlemen of Virginia 
of "the olden time," I am prompted to furnished you with an ex- 
tract from a late letter from "an old lady," dated "Locust Farm, 
Westmoreland County, Virginia," respecting "the birthplace of 
the Revolutionary heroes of Virginia:" 

"I am now away down here in the Northern Neck of Virginia, 
and not far from the spot on which Washington was born; and 
scattered here and there, and all around me, are the birthplaces of 
Madison, Monroe, and Richard Henry Lee. Yesterday I was on the 
ground on which rest the ruins of (Chantilly) the residence of Rich- 
ard Henry Lee. All that stands upright of that (once) imposing 
mansion is the kitchen chimney. In front, scarce half a mile distant, 
is the shore of the lordly Potomac, here about nine miles across, 
upon whose beach roll its billows. Lee is gone, his house is in the 
dust, his garden a wild ; but here are the same sky, the same lands, 
the same Potomac, and the same dirge that of yore 'broke in murmurs 
on the shore. The remains of Lee lie in the midst of a cornfield, 
some five miles distant, over which, I am told, is a stone, with his 
name engraved upon it. What a leveller is Time ! Talk of that 
ancient personage as you may, his footprints, although as soft as 
down, crumble the hardest substances, and bury all things. 'Where 
is Carthage?' 

"From a ride over the grounds once cultivated by Lee, we took 
the road home by the old Yeocomico Church. I wish I could send 
you a drawing of the inside as well as out. It was built Anno 
Domini 1706/ some twenty-six years before the birth of Washing- 
ton * * * What a ruin is this church! It would seem, to look 

94 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

at its glazed and unglazed bricks, its many timbers, and its brick 
door and passage-ways, that Time could not in a thousand years 
have worked so mighty a change in it. But it has required only 
the years I have named to effect so signal a change. The tomb- 
stones mark the spot where the dead lie, and those that remain 
are so broken up and scattered, and have the inscriptions so ef- 
faced, as to render them useless. The name of Carter is on the 
stone that has suffered the least * * * How melancholy is all this, 
and what a lesson it teaches * * * Our fathers find their graves 
in our short memories, and sadly tell us how we may be buried 
by our survivors. How true it is, as Cowper says: 

" 'We build with what we deem eternal brass — 
A distant age asks where the fabric stood; 
But, sifted, alas! and searched in vain, 
The undiscoverable secret sleeps.' " 

And who was this "Carter," buried in the Yeocomico church- 
yard? Was this all that remains of the once mighty "King Car- 
ter," of Lancaster, whose lordly domains spread over so many 
counties, from the highlands above the tidewater of the Potomac to 
the fertile lowlands of the Eapahannock and James Eiver?* Or, 
was this the grave of the other patrician, "Councillor Eobert Car- 
ter" (member of the Council, under the Crown), of Nomini Hall? 
In the whole Northern Neck, one alone of that illustrious family 
connection, Colonel Eobert Wormeley Carter, of Sabine Hall, on 
the Eappahannock, still occupies the halls of his ancestors. Three 
miles from his residence, Sabine Hall, on an eminence overlooking 
the plantation and an extensive curve of the river, stands Mount 
Airy, the ancient and beautiful mansion of the Tayloe family, 
now occupied by a worthy and hospitable member of it, William 
H. Tayloe, Esq. Higher up on the river, some forty miles, eligibly 
situated, are the handsome but modern residences of Colonel 
Edward T. Tayloe, and of the widow of the late Charles Tayloe, 
Esq. Opposite the latter, on the south side of the Eappahannock, 

*The tomb of Robert [King] Carter is at Christ Church, Lan- 
caster Co. 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 95 

is Port Tobago, the ancient residence of the Lomaxes, now passed 
into other hands. A few miles lower down is Blandfield, the 
ancient family mansion of the Beverleys, now occupied by Colonel 
W. B. Beverley, who unites the blood of the Tayloes and the Byrds 
with that of Beverley. Lower down the river still, not far from its 
mouth, the venerable mansions — once the abode of elegance, refine- 
ment, high mental culture, and hospitality, and graced by the 
Hon". Ealph Wormeley, of Eosegill,* and the accomplished Colonel 
G-rymes, of Brandon — have totally disappeared. As the Rappahan- 
nock is ascended, on the south side, one meets the stately man- 
sions of the late Paine Waring, Esq., of Essex; and in Caroline 
County, between Port Royal and Fredericksburg, the fine estates 
and comfortable houses of the Bernards, the Lightfoots, of Mr. 
Taylor (the successor to the Hon. John Taylor, of Hazlewood), 
and of James Parke Corbin, Esq., of Moss Neck. At Fredericks- 
burg the mother of Washington spent her last days, and now sleeps 
beneath a monument, yet unfinished, that was erected, nearly to 
completion, through the munificence of a gentleman of New York, 
Silas Burrows, Esq. Descending from Fredericksburg, the north 
shore of the Rappahannock, in about twelve miles, is met the land 
of the Taliaferros, of whom the venerable John Taliaferro, of 
Hagley, now in office at Washington, was, perhaps, a greater 
length of time in Congress than any other member of the House; 
he entered it when Mr. Jefferson came into power, and retired 
only a few years ago, in the vigor of health and of mind, though 
an octogenarian. May he long continue to enjoy both, as he does 
the esteem of his many friends. 

But we are wandering from our subject. The Northern Neck 
was an ancient grant from the Crown to Lord Fairfax. The title 
became extinct with the death of one who never claimed it, Thomas 
Fairfax, Esq., of Fairfax County, who died there only a few years 
ago.f George Washington was descended from this family. The 
place of his birth, Wakefield, on the Potomac, near Pope's Creek, 

*Rosegill, or half of it, still stands. See Meade, 1, 373. 
tThe title did not become extinct. It descended to Albert Kirby 
Fairfax, 12th Baron born 1870. 

96 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

in Westmoreland County, has passed out of the family. No vestige 
of the family mansion remains, but part of the Washington manor 
— that which belonged to the elder branch of the family — has de- 
scended to Lawrence Washington, Esq., and to a daughter of the 
late William Augustine Washington. She unites the blood of the 
Tayloes and of the Bayards, of Delaware, with that of Washington. 
Three Presidents — Washington, Madison and Monroe — were born 
in the Northern Neck, between the Potomac and the Rappahan- 
nock, within fiften miles of each other. Not far from the birth- 
place of Washington was that of the illustrious Lees — Lee of 
Chantilly, and Lee of Stratford; the latter a lordly mansion de- 
scribed in my last communication. The white and the black Lees, 
as they were called, to distinguish the families, were so denoted 
from their complexions. Stratford was the residence of the late 
General Henry Lee, of Revolutionary fame, renowned in arms, in 
letters, and for eloquence. His son, Major Henry Lee, of literary 
distinction, was the last of the family who owned Stratford. The 
Lee family is a very ancient one, of French extraction, whose name 
was orginally De Lis. Richard Henry Lee was the most finished 
orator of the first American Congress. He moved the Declaration 
of Independence. The neighbor of his youth, Washington, led 
the American arms to victory! Thus, in Westmoreland County, 
on the shores of the Potomac, we are truly on classic ground. 

Mount Vernon, on the Potomac, where rest the mortal remains 
of the illustrious Washington, is some thirty miles north of the 
frontier of the Northern Neck. Not far from Mount Vernon stand 
the walls of Pohick Church, where Washington worshipped. His 
pew door was marked with his name, in painted letters. A friend 
of mine, a few years since, sought this pew door as a valuable relic ; 
it was traced to an old negro's hovel, where it had been used for 
a hen coop, but not found. "To what base uses ! &c. "Why may 
not imagination trace the noble dust of Alexander, till he find it 
stopping a bung-hole !" A rat running off with the heart of Napo- 
leon in his mouth 1 

"Imperious Caesar, dead and turned to clay. 
Might stop a hole to keep the wind away." 

American Gentlemen of the Olden Time. 97 

The Northern Neck of Virginia, and along the tidewater of 
the Potomac, the Rappahanock, the York, and the James Eivers, 
was literally, as well as figuratively, in days of yore, the abode of the 
first families of Virginia; those who were held in the highest es- 
teem there before the Revolution, — the Washingtons, the Fairfaxes, 
the Lees, the Carters, the Berkleys, the Corbins, the Wormeleys, 
the Byrds, the Beverleys, the Tayloes, the Nelsons, the Pages, the 
Bur wells, the Randolphs, the Harrisons, the Boilings, &e. 

It will be remembered that Peyton Randolph was President of 
our first Congress, and Benjamin Harrison of the next. 

If I have awakened curiosity on these subjects, so as to have 
more light shed upon them, or shall have gratified any of your 
readers by my recollections and present knowledge of them, I shall 
feel satisfied for the trouble I have had. 

98 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


Whether or not the institution of African slavery aided in the 
development of this highest order of Saxon manhood, has been 
a disputed question; but we have on record that philosophic testi- 
mony of Edmund Burke, which, during the civil war in America, 
arrested general attention. That great statesman, seeking to dis- 
sipate the hope that less resistance to the encroachments of Great 
Britain would be found in the Southern colonies than in the North- 
ern, uttered this language: 

"There is, however, a circumstance attending the (Southern) 
colonies, which, in my opinion, counterbalances this difference, 
and makes the spirit of liberty still more high and haughty than 
in those to the Northward. It is, that in Virginia and the Caro- 
linas they have a vast multitude of slaves. Where this is the case 
in any part of the world, those who are free are by far the most 
proud and jealous of their freedom. Freedom is to them not only 
an enjoyment, but a kind of rank and privilege. Not seeing there 
that freedom, as in countries where it is a common blessing, and 
as broad and genial as the air, may be united with much abject toil, 
with great misery, with all the exterior of servitude, liberty looks 
among them like something that is more noble and liberal. I do not 
mean, sir, to commend the peculiar morality of this sentiment, 
which has at least as much pride as virtue in it; but I cannot 
alter the nature of man. The fact is so; and these people of the 
Southern colonies are much more strongly, and with a higher and 
more stubborn spirit, attached to liberty than those to the North- 
ward. Such were all the ancient commonwealths; such were our 
Gothic ancestors; such in our days were the Poles; and such will 
be all the masters of slaves, who are not slaves themselves. In 
such a people the haughtiness of domination combines with the 
spirit of freedom, fortifies it, and renders it invincible." 

*From Hodgson, Cradle of the Confederacy, 1876. (Mobile, Ala- 

Slavery and Freedom. 99 

Throughout the cotton belt, where, at the blast of a horn, the 
master could be surrounded by a regiment of slaves, the spirit of 
freedom and domination in the descendants of the Cavaliers and 
Huguenots was such as to develop the frame and inflame and in- 
tensify the pride of the individual to the highest extent known to 
the human race. Such Herculean deeds of valor as were drawn 
forth in the terrible conflict which shook the North American 
continent testified to the sagacity of the English philosopher, and 
to the manhood of the Southern Saxons. 

Nor was this spirit of personal dignity and independence con- 
fined to the actual slave-owners. The non-slave-owners, who had 
been crowded by superior wealth or energy from the rich cretaceous 
lands of the interior, and from the equally rich alluvium of the 
rivers, and who had taken up more humble abodes among the hills 
of North Alabama, or in the pine forests of the coast, felt an equal 
pride in that distinction of race which made the Saxon a master. 
With such jealousy did they cherish the spirit of personal liberty 
and local independence, that the policy which looked to the ex- 
tremest license of State-rights always found among them the most 
enthusiastic, the most numerous, and the most persistent sup- 
porters. They received no pecuniary advantage from African 
slavery, and were so careless as to its continuance that at no time 
were they willing to enter into a war for separation of the States 
to secure its firmer establishment; but they perceived with that 
subtle instinct which belongs to the average Saxon, that the over- 
throw of African slavery would leave in the heart of their State 
a host of citizens foreign to their ideas, antagonistic to their labor, 
and cherishing under the influence of designing leaders the fretful 
jealousy of race — a jealousy which the history of mankind had 
shown to be the precursor of violent and constant hostility. 

These non-slave-holders were not, as has been supposed, the 
dupes or the deluded followers of the slave-owner. They were so 
numerous as to control the politics of the State. They gave poli- 
tical leaders to the slave-owners. From their midst sprung men 
like Patrick Henry, Andrew Jackson, Calhoun and Clay. They 
gave warriors of renown, at whose head stands Stonewall Jackson. 
They furnished the rank and file of armies, and concluded with 

100 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

glorious honor a contest entered into with unanimity, and prose- 
cuted it with unparalleled devotion, gallantry and endurance. 

The ancestors of these men had served in the Revolutionary 
Avar, and had won the independence of the colonies; an indepen- 
dence which they were so careful not to surrender to a new, over- 
shadowing government that their fears of the proposed Constitu- 
tion of the United States could only be allayed by the then clearly 
defined and clearly understood reservations of the annexed amend- 

Life in the Old South. 101 


Major General Quitman, a native of New York, wrote in 1822', 
when but a youth, to his father the following description of South- 
ern life: 

"Our bar is quartered at different country seats — not boarding; 
a Mississippi planter would be insulted by such a proposition, but 
we are enjoying the hospitalities that are offered to us on all sides. 
The awful pestilence in the city brings out, in strong relief, the 
peculiar virtues of these people. The mansions of the planters are 
thrown open to all comers and goers free of charge. Whole families 
have free quarters during the epidemic, and country wagons are 
sent daily to the verge of the smitten city with fowls, vegetables, 
&c, for gratuitous distribution to the poor. I am now writing 
from one of these old mansions, and I can give you no better no- 
tion of life at the South than by describing the routine of a day. 
The owner is the widow of a Virginia gentleman of distinction — 
a brave officer who died in the public service during the last war 
with Great Britain. 

"She herself is a native of this vicinity — of English parents, 
settled here in Spanish times. She is an intimate friend of my 
first friend, Mrs. G., and I have been in the habit of visiting her 
house ever since I came South. The whole aim of this excellent 
lady seems to be to make others happy. I do not believe she ever 
thinks of herself. She is growing old, but her parlors are con- 
stantly thronged with the young and gay; attracted by her cheer- 
ful and never-failing kindness. There are two large families 
from the city staying here; and every day come ten or a dozen 
transient guests. Mint juleps in the morning are sent to our 
rooms, and then follows a delightful breakfast in the open veranda. 
We hunt, ride, fish, pay morning visits, play chess, read or lounge 
until dinner, which is served at 2 P. M., in great variety, and 

•From Hodgson, Cradle of the Confederacy, 1876. (Mobile, Ala- 

102 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

most delicately cooked in what is here called Creole style — very 
rich, and many made or mixed dishes. In two hours afterwards 
everybody, white and black has disappeared. The whole household 
is asleep — the siesta of the Italians. The ladies retire to their apart- 
ments, and the gentlemen on sofas, settees, hammocks, and often 
gipsy fashion, on the grass under the spreading oaks. Here, too, 
in fine weather the tea-table is always set before sunset; and then 
until bedtime we stroll, sing, play whist or croquet. It is an in- 
dolent, yet charming life, and one quits thinking and takes to 

"This excellent lady is not rich, merely independent; but by 
thrifty housewifery and a good dairy and garden she contrives to 
dispense the most liberal hospitality. Her slaves appear to be in 
a manner free, yet are obedient and polite, and the farm is well 
worked. With all her gayety of disposition and fondness for the 
young she is truly pious; and in her own apartments every night 
she has family prayers with her slaves, one or more of them 
being often called upon to sing and pray. When a minister 
visits the house, which happens very frequently, prayers, night 
J and morning, are always said; and on these occasions the whole 
^ household and the guests assemble in the parlor; chairs are pro- 
vided for the servants. They are married by a clergyman of their 
own color ; and a sumptuous supper is always prepared. On public 
holidays they have dinners equal to an Ohio barbecue ; and Christ- 
mas, for a week or ten days, is a protracted festival for the blacks. 
They are a happy, careless, unreflecting, good-natured race, who, 
left to themselves, would degenerate into drones or brutes; but 
subjected to wholesome restraint and stimulus become the best 
and most contented of laborers. They are strongly attached to 
'old massa' and 'old missus,' but their devotion to 'young massa' 
and 'young missus' amounts to enthusiasm. They have great 
family pride, and are the most arrant coxcombs and aristocrats 
in the world. At a wedding I witnessed here last Saturday even- 
ing, where some one hundred and fifty negroes were assembled — 
many being invited guests — I heard a number of them addressed 
as governors, generals, judges and doctors (the titles of their 
masters), and a spruce, tight-set darkey, who waited on me in 

Life iist the Old South. 103 

town, was called 'Major Quitman.' The 'colored ladies' are in- 
variably Miss Joneses, Miss Smiths, or some such title. They are 
exceedingly pompous and ceremonious, gloved and highly per- 
fumed. The 'gentlemen' sport canes, ruffles and jewelry; wear 
boots and spurs; affect crape on their hats, and carry huge cigars. 
The belles wear gaudy colors, 'tote' their fans with the air of 
Spanish senoritas, and never stir out, though black as the ace of 
spades without their parasols. 

"In short, these 'niggers,' as you call them, are the happiest 
people I have ever seen, and some of them, in form, features and 
movements, are real sultanas. So far from being fed on 'salted 
cotton seed,' as we used to believe in Ohio, they are oily, sleek, 
bountifully fed, well clothed, well taken care of, and one hears 
them at all times whistling and singing cheerily at their work. 
They have an extraordinary facility for sleeping. A negro is a 
great night-walker. He will, after laboring all day in the burning 
sun, walk ten miles to a frolic, or to see his Dinah, and be at home 
and at his work by daylight the next morning. This would knock 
up a white man or an Indian. But a negro will sleep during the 
day — sleep at his work — sleep on the carriage box, sleep standing 
up; and I have often seen them sitting bareheaded in the sun, 
on a high rail fence, sleeping as securely as though lying in a bed. 
They never lose their equipoise; and will carry their cotton bas- 
kets or their water vessels, filled to the brim, poised on their 
heads, walking carelessly and at a rapid rate, without spilling a 
drop. The very weight of such burdens would crush a white man's 
brains into apoplexy. 

"Compared with the ague-smitten and suffering settlers that 
you and I have seen in Ohio, or the sickly and starved operatives 
we read of in factories and in mines, these Southern slaves are 
indeed to be envied. They are treated with great humanity and 

This is a true picture of the home and surroundings of the 
Southern planter of that day, drawn by an intelligent spectator of 
Northern birth and education. Such were the homes of Middle 
Georgia and of Middle Alabama. 

104 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

By Mrs. 0. A. Keach. 

This short chapter in the history of the Hardings is designed 
to record and preserve the interesting and definite proofs of de- 
scent from the London family of that name. 

Thomas Harding, founder of this distinguished Virginia 
family, probably came to Northumberland Co., with his uncle, 
Thomas Orley. Both came from London as the court records at 
Heathsville, conclusively prove. 

Thomas Orley is first mentioned in the will of Thomas Keen, d. 
Nov. 27, 1652, as one of the friendly "overseers" of the estate of 
his wife and children. 

On May 20, 1653, he claimed a tract of land for his own trans- 
portation and acquired other land in "Cherry Poynt neck." He 
was appointed constable for the Chicacone district Jan. 20, 1657, 
and was generally active in the community life until his early 
death. Thos. Orgy's will, d. Aug. 11, 1662, pr. Oct. 8, 1662, 
names his wife Rebecca — Sister Mary Harden wife of George 

Harden, John Harden son and Mary Harden his 


He does not mention his nephew, Thomas Harding in his will, 
and had doubtless made generous provision for him, but a later 
record mentions legacies from Thos. Orley which the children 
of Thos. Harding claimed. 

Rebecca, the widow of Thomas Orley, married Wm. Jalland. 

Two years after the death of Thos. Orley, on Sept. 22, 1664, 
a power of attorney was recorded from "George Harding citizen 
and grocer of London and Mary Harding his wife." The latter 
is described as daughter of Thos. Orley of London and Anne his 
wife deceased, and sister of Thos. Orley, late of Cherry Poynt in 
Va., planter, dec'd. 

The power of attorney was given to Capt. Wm. Hall of Lon- 

Hakdijstgs of London" and Virginia. 


don, mariner, who was to "demand, recover and receive" from 
Eebecca Orley late wife of Thos. Orley and from Win. Jalland of 
Cherry Poynt, planter, her now husband, all goods due sd Hard- 
ing from sd Orley's estate. A certificate of baptism accompanies 
the power of atty as follows : These are to certify to all whomme 
It may concern that Mary Orley the daughter of Thos. and Anne 
Orley was baptized at the parish church (charge) of St. Mary's 
White Chappel on the 25 of April 1622, this being a true copy 
Taken out of the Eegister by me. 

John Johnson D D Eect. 

Fran. Fielder 1 

Thomas Slightholm ] clmT ch wardens 
20 Apr. 1665 Recorded. 

Thomas Harding son of George and Mary Orley Harding of 
London had many descendants in Northumberland Co.* 

Young Thomas, the immigrant, with James Johnson, bought 
or traded for a "pattent" of land containing 400 acres on Nov. 
22, 1658, from the original patentee, Eichard Eice. One half of 
this patent was assigned Aug. 24, 1661, by James Johnson and 
Annie his wife unto James Claughton — the sd 200 acres * * * 
abutting N. E. on Mattapony river — with Thos. Harding as one of 
the witnesses. On the same day James Claughton made a deed 
to Thos. Harding for 100 acres of this patent on the Mattapony 
river. As this was Thomas Harding's first independent trans- 
action, he may have recently come of age. 

On Sept. 9. 1661, James Johnson and Anne his wife made 
a deed to Thos Harding for 150 acres "where the said Johnson now 
dwells," from this 400 acre patent in Mattapony. Later records 

♦Nov. 20, 1653, upon supposition of witchcraft against William 
Harding, with (Rev.) David Lyndsay as witness, the Court ordered 10 
stripes on the bare back, and forever banished (the sd Harding) from 
the county. He was ordered to depart in the space of three months. 
There is no further mention of this Harding, as he doubtless obeyed 
the order of the Court as soon as possible. The Southern colony was 
decidedly more lenient in its dealings with persons accused of witch- 
craft than the Massachusetts colony. 

106 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

show that Mattapony became the home place of the elder line of 
Hardings for several generations. 

In Nov., 1661, Thos Harding and Anne his wife made a deed 
to James Johnson.* 

Thomas Harding married Anne Moseley, daughter of Henry 
and Anne Mosely. 

The will of Henry Mosely, d. March 26, 1655, pr. Sept. 20, 
1656, names his wife and sons Henry and John. A son Wil- 
liam was evidently a posthumous child. Henry Mosely was about 
42 years of age at the time of his death, and his home was on 
Moseley's Creek. His widow, Anne Mosely, married second, John 

On Feb. 25, 1660, Anne Lyngey, wife of John Lyngey, gave 
a power of attorney to her son Henry Mosely. 

On Sept. 6, 1665, John Lyngey, who had married the child's 
grandmother, made a deed of gift to Anne Harding, the dau. of 
Thos. Harding, "for one cow calfe." . In his will, d. Aug. 1, 1667, 
Mr. Lyngey left a legacy to Thorn. Harding's oldest boy." He 
also mentions his sons in law (stepsons) William, John and Henry 
Mosely. Mary Hardwood is named as a legatee, and this may 
have been a mistake in copying the name of Mary Harding. 

The will of John Mosely, d. May 18, 1668, mentions his cozzens 
Thos and Ann Harding and brothers Wm & Henry Mosely. 

As one of the church wardens, Thomas Harding attended a 
vestry meeting March 25, 1671, called by the minister Mr. John 
Farnefold to determine the bounds of the glebe lands. 

Thomas Harding died intestate, probably in 1674, as on June 
16 of that year Anne Harding was by the court granted adminis- 
tration on the estate of her deceased husband, Thomas Harding. 
James Johnson was one of her securities. Somewhat later Mr. 

•The birth certificate of Thos. Harding's mother shows that John 
Johnson, D. D., was rector of St. Mary's Parish church in London, 
and the frequent association of James Johnson with Thos. Harding 
and his children raises an interesting question of probable relationship 
between Dr. Johnson and James Johnson, who was a prominent early 
citizen of St. Stephen's parish and left many descendants. 

Habdings of London- and Virginia. 107 

Kichard Parrot was attorney for Anne and Mary Harding, heirs 
of Thos. Orley, deceased. 

This citation from the Order Book establishes the Orley-Hard- 
ing relationship. 

The children of ( 1 ) Thomas and Anne Mosely Harding were : 

2. Anne mentioned in court records. 

3. Mary mentioned in court records. 

4. Thomas, b. Sept. 4, 1664, St. Stephens Par. register. 

5. Henry mentioned in court records. 

6. William, b. July 20, 1669, Parish Eeg. 

The order of births is not certain, but it would seem that 
Thomas was the oldest son. 

On Aug. 20, 1679, Anne Harding, now wife of Kichard Brad- 
ley, was by the court appointed guardian to her son, Thomas 
Harding, 14 years of age. 

Eichard Bradley died and Anne, his widow, m. a third time, 
Luke Eowland. 

4. Thos. 2 Harding (Thos. 1 ) came of age in 1685, and proba- 
bly shortly thereafter married a daughter of Capt. John Haynie. 
In March, 1691, Thos. Harding was member of a jury. On May 
20, 1691, he was appointed constable for Mattapony. Both Thos. 
Harding and his wife Haynie Harding, were dead be- 
fore Sept., 1691, as the following record of that date shows. 
Whereas, Mr. John Haynie, Sr., petitioned this court that Mr. 
Harding late of this county deceased died intestate, leaving an 
estate in lands and chattels and had issue by the said Mr. Haynie's 
daughter deceased also a son named Thomas Harding, who hath 
from his birth, being three years old, since been sustained by him, 
prayed that he might have the guardianship of the said child, 
Captain Haynie was by the court appointed guardian of the child. 

The next records refer to Mr. Thomas Harding, the immigrant, 
and the final settlement of his estate. 

On Feb. 19, 1692, the Court appointed a jury to audit the ac- 
counts of William Harding (recently of age) and other orphans 
of Thomas Harding, dec'd. 

May 18, 1692, the Court ordered the appraisement of the estate 
of Thomas Harding Sr., dec'd. The appraisers to make return to 

108 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

the next Court thereof, and also that Luke Eowland at that time 
exhibit his oath to the same. 

On May 22, 1696, Capt. John Haynie, guardian of Thomas 
Harding, orphan of Thomas Harding, Sr., brought suit against 
Luke Eowland, who married Anne the administratrix (and widow) 
of Thomas Harding, dec'd. Capt. Haynie died in 1697, leaving 
a will which was burned with other Court records in 1710. His 
son, Mr. John Haynie, Sr., was one of his executors and, on Nov. 
19, 1718, gave a "deed of Indenture with Livery and Seizen" to 
Thomas Harding. This was probably a bequest from Capt. Haynie 
to his grandson. 

The children of (4) Thomas and Haynie Harding 


7. Thomas, b. 1688, Court record. 

8. William, b. Feb. 15, 1690, Parish record. 

There may have been other children who have not been identi- 

7. Thomas Harding (Thomas, 2 Thomas 1 ) came of age about 
1709. He married Mary Berry, daughter of Wm. Berry. The 
will of Elizabeth Bledsoe, d. Feb. 13, 1708, names her grand- 
daughter Mary Berry, and her son-in-law Wm. Berry. 

The third Thomas Harding died in 1722. His will d. Oct. 
17, 1722, and pr. Dec. 11, 1722, names his wife Mary, gives his 
son William a tract of land in Mattapony, joining on the land of 
Claughton and Johnson. 

Son Samuel land in Mattapony. 

Son Thomas homestead and tract of land bought of James 

Daughter Jane 250 acres in Mattapony. 

Daughter Judah (Judith) 100 acres in North Farnham parish, 
Eichmond Co., part of Henry Corbin's patent. Wife Mary and 
George Ball executors. 

The wife of Capt. George Ball was Grace, dau. of Anthony 
Haynie and first cousin of Thomas Harding. 

The issue of Thomas and Mary Berry Harding were, 

9. William, m. Sarah, daughter of Joseph and Mary Mattrom 

Hardings of London and Virginia. 109 

10. Samuel. 

11. Thomas. 

12. Jane, m. George Humphreys. 

13. Judah. 

14. Mary. This last named dau. was born after the death of 
her father, as Mary Harding on Aug. 18, 1727, made a deed to 
George Ball for property for her daughter Mary Harding. 

Mary, the widow of Thomas Harding, m. second, Eosten Betts. 

5. Henry, son of Thomas and Anne Mosely Harding, was 
doubtless the namesake of his grandfather, Henry Mosely. The 
date of his birth is not known. It may have been 1666 or 67. 

He married Jane and had issue, probably Henry, Wil- 
liam, Thomas, John. 

1696 Nov. 20. Upon the motion of Henry Harding, adm. of 
William Harding, dec'd, it is ordered that Eichard Flynt, Jr., 
Thomas Bearcroft &c, appraise the estate of the sd deceased. 

6. William Harding was b. July 20, 1669, and was the brother 
of Henry. 

Again, Feb. 19, 1698, an appraisement was ordered of the 
estate of Wm. Harding deceased. 

Henry Harding probably died in 1698, as on May 19 of that 
year, the court appointed a jury to view work done on house of 
Eichd Thompson by Wm. Harding. 

Jane is mentioned as relict of Henry Harding, and she became 
the adm. of Wm. Harding's estate. 

On July 21, 1698, Jane is mentioned as the wife of Charles 
Ashton, and they were both sued by Mr. John Cralle as adminis- 
trators of Wm. Harding. 

It is believed by the writer that one of the sons of Henry and 
Jane Harding was William who lived in St. Stephen's parish. 
On May 19, 1713, Wm. Harding of St. Stephen's parish made a 
deed to Samuel Eobinson for 100 acres of land in Wicomico parish, 
part of Saunder's Quarter bought by Thomas Harding from whom 
it descends by inheritance. 

The early Hardings were short lived, as Thomas, the immi- 
grant, and his sons were all dead before 1700. There are numer- 

110 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

ous records of the Hardings in the old court books, and much 
valuable material for the family historian. 

However, Thomas Harding was not ancestor of all of that 
name in Northumberland. 

No further mention is found of William Harding, accused of 
witchcraft and ordered to leave the county in 1653. But among 
the headrights of Capt. George Eskridge, recorded Mch. 21, 1706, 
and assigned to him by Mr. Jno. Cottrell is Henry Harding who 
had doubtless been transported to Va. several years before this date. 
He may have been the Henry Harding who on Aug. 23, 1700, was 
a witness in a case before the court and is mentioned as the ser- 
vant of Mr. John Cockrell. 

The elder line of descent from Thomas Harding is traceable 
through the inheritance of land. Later wills and court orders help 
identify his other descendants. 

Removal of the Florida Indians. Ill 


Letter of Major Washington Sea well.* 

Fort Micanopy (E. F.) 

September 18* 1841. 
Dear Sister: 

Your letter of the 21 st inst. is received. Your account of the 
improvement of my children gratified me much, and I thank you 
for the expression of kind feeling in relation to myself. I was glad 
to hear that brother Jack was pleased with his trip to Washington 
and I hope his health has been benefitted by it. I was in hopes 
that you and Maria accompanied him. I was als-> giad to hear that 
cousin Milly's health was better and that there is prospect of her 

I have received a letter from M r Cruikshank requesting that 
my children be permitted to continue with him until November, 
so that they may appear before the court which sits in Washington 
in that month, which I have consented to. Immediately after 
they have appeared before the court, I am anxious that they should 
return to you, and if Boswell can spare the time, I will be greatly 
obliged to him if he will go for them. I enclose $50 to pay for 
the expenses of the trip. 

It is the general belief that the war here will be terminated 
this winter. Col. Worth is very sanguine that it will be closed in 
a few months and this appears to be the opinion of the officers 
generally. So far, he has been very successful in his speculations. 

♦Washington Seawell was a son of John Seawell, of Gloucester Co., 
Virginia, who was a prominent planter. He became a cadet July 21, 
1820, and was made captain July 31, 1836. He was brevetted Major 
18 July, 1841, for efficient service against the Florida Indians. He was 
a colonel in 1860, but retired July 20, 1862. On March 13, 1865, he 
was created brigadier general for long and faithful service in the 
army. He died January 6, 1888. He was a brother of John Boswell 
Seawell (born July, 1780), a prominent lawyer of Gloucester Co., who 
married Maria Henry Tyler, sister of President John Tyler. 

112 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

He has now in about 280 Indians, ready for imigration. They 
consist principally of Wild Cat's band. Two other bands are 
expected in a few days and if they come, which it is not doubted 
they will, there will be only Halleck * * * and Sam Jones' bands 
remaining. Halleck has sent a message to Col. Worth that his 
people are in great distress and that he is coming in. 

I am very busy making arrangements to leave day after to- 
morrow for Tampa, where I am ordered to repair to take charge 
of the Indians now at that port, to conduct them to the West. 
After performing this service, I will be ordered to report to Wash- 
ington, where I will avail myself of the opportunity of visiting 
Gloucester. I do not know of the exact time I shall leave Tampa 
with the Indians, but presume it will be early next month, and 
should the Arkansas Eiver, when I reach it, be high enough for 
Steam Boats to proceed as far as Fort Gibson, I shall expect to 
be in Washington early in December. 

I have read the President's veto on the Bank Bill, and I agree 
with you that it is sufficient evidence that the constitution could 
not be trusted in safer hands. I am glad to see that he possesses 
so much moral firmness. It is disgusting to see how some of the 
leading Whigs are attacking his conduct, because he had the inde- 
pendence to act in opposition to their wishes. No doubt they are 
themselves willing to sacrifice their honor to promote their am- 
bitious views, and expect the President and all others of the party 
to do the same. 

It is very sickly throughout Florida. They have the yellow 
fever at St. Marks, Tallahassee and several other places. I was 
sick 4 or 5 days about a month since, but am now quite well. 

With my love to Brother Jack and Maria, I remain, 
Your affectionate Brother 

W. Seawell 
To M rs Maria H Seawell, 

Gloucester County, Ya. 

Please say to Boswell 
that I expected to have 
heard from him before 

Burton Memorandum. 113 


Robert Burton served in the War of the American Revolution, 
and the Continental Congress. In 1775 he removed from Mecklen- 
burg County, Virginia, to Grantville, North Carolina, where he 
died in 1825. He was a son of Robert Burton and Priscilla, 
his wife, and grandson of Hutchings Burton and Tabitha Minge, 
daughter of Robert Minge and Mary Hunt, daughter of 
William Hunt. The memorandum was found among the papers 
of James Anderson, of Beattie's Ford, North Carolina, a son-in- 
law of Robert Burton. It was sent by his son, Rev. Robert Burton 
Anderson to George Lee Burton, atty-at-law, Louisville, Kentucky 
(a great grandson of said Col. Robert Burton), who sent a copy 
to the Editor. 

"William Hunt, 1 a Frenchman, a Dr. of physick, removed to 
America, the time unknown, and settled at Kesmons warehouse 2 
on James river, Charles City County, intermarried with Tabitha 

and had issue George, John, William, and daughter Mary 

who was born 15 May, 1695, and who married Robert Minge 3 an 
American, and another daughter, name unknown, who married 
John Macon. 4 Mary had two daughters, Tabitha and Martha. 
Tabitha intermarried with Hutchings Burton and Martha with 
George Baskerville. R. Minge died and Mary intermarried with 
William Allen: issue, Ann, Wm. Hunt, John, Valentine, Susanah, 
G. Hunt, and Mary. Noel Burton 5 intermarried with Judith 
Allen whose family was from Wales. Hutchings Burton had issue 
by Tabitha, — John, Hutchings, Noel, Robert and James Minge, 
and two daughters, Martha and Mary." 


1 This William Hunt was probably the William Hunt, who was 
one of Nathaniel Bacon's friends and "died before the rebels were 
reduced to submission." (Nov. 11, 1676, aged 77 years.) He was 
interred at "Bachelor's Point," Charles City Co. (See William and 
Mary College Quarterly, IV, p. 124.) 

2 "Kesmon's Warehouse" was probably Kennon's Warehouse, near 

114 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Swann Neck Creek in Charles City Co. Here Col. William Kennon 
lived before the Revolution, and the wharf there was known in recent 
times as Wilson's Landing. 

3 Robert Minge was son of James Minge and Amadea Harrison, 
daughter of Robert Harrison, of York County. The latter, James 
Minge, was son of James Minge, who wrote the laws of Bacon's As- 
sembly in 1676. 

4 John Macon, son of Gideon Macon and Martha, his wife, was 
born Dec. 17, 1695. 

5 Noel Burton, father of Hutchins Burton, who married Tabitha 
Minge, married Judith Allen and was great-great-great-grandfather 
of George Lee Burton, who sent the memoranda above t&i the Editor. 

Robert Burton, father of Col. Robert Burton, made his will 
in Goochland, which was proved Oct. 18, 1748, and names his sons 
Robert, William, Noel, and daughters Anne, Judah, Priscilla, and 
grandson Charles. In 1758, Priscilla Burton made a gift to her son, 
Robert Burton. 

Sir George Yardley. 115 


This place has been variously referred to in the Records as 
Flower de Hundred, Flower dew Hundred, &c, but recent in- I 
vestigations show that it got its name from Sir George Yardley's I 
wife, Temperance Flowerdew. I 

In the early days of the colony the territory of the Weyanoke 
Indians lay on both sides of James River, and their chief town lay * 
at the head of Powell's Creek. The land on the south side was 
known as Greater Weyanoke, and the land of the north side as 
Little Weyanoke (Tanks Weyanoke). 

In 1617, Sir George Yardley received from the Indian King 
the gift of Tanks Weyanoke, and in 1618 he patented one thou- 
sand acres on the south side, west of a creek, and called both creek 
and place Flowerdew Hundred. At a point of land called in 
the early records "Tobacco Point," and which is now known as 
"Windmill Point," he erected, in 1621, the first windmill in the 
United States. In 1619, the plantation was represented in the 
first Legislative Assembly by Edmond Rossingham, and John 
Jefferson, the supposed ancestor of Thomas Jefferson. In certain 
records Rossingham is referred to as Yardley's nephew. 

Before 1624 Sir George Yardley sold Flower dew Hundred to 
Capt. Abraham Peirsey, one of the leading merchants of Virginia. 
In that year there were on Peirsey's land, which included Windmill 
Point, twelve dwellings, three storehouses, four tobacco houses and 
one windmill. Sir George Yardley died in 1627, and his widow, 
Temperance married 2dly., Col. Francis West, brother of Lord 
Delaware, and deputy-Governor of Virginia. The same year died 
Abraham Peirsey, the then owner of Flowerdew Hundred, whose 
wife, Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Hinton, was a widow of 
Nathaniel West, another brother of Lord Delaware, and married 
3rdly., Col. Samuel Mathews. Peirsey left two daughters, Eliza- 
beth, who married 1st. Captain Richard Stephens and 2d. Sir 
John Harvey, and Mary who married Captain Thomas Hill. 


116 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

After Peirsey's purchase Flowerdew Hundred was called "Peir- 
sey's Hundred/' but, in 1635, Mrs. Elizabeth Stephens patented it 
as "Flowerdewe Hundred." Shortly afterwards she sold to Dil- 
liam Barker, mariner. 

At the close of the 17th century, Flowerdew Hundred was 
owned by Captain John Taylor, of Prince George County, who de- 
vised it to his daughters Henrietta Maria and Sarah, who mar- 
ried respectively John Hardiman and Francis Hardiman. They 
sold it to Joseph Poythress, and at the close of the 18th century 
it was the property of John V. Willcox, whose descendants still 
own it. 

Two questions puzzled the historians: What was the maiden 
name of Sir George Yeardley's wife? and why was the plantation 
on the south side called Flowerdew Hundred? 

For a long time these questions remained unanswered, but 
recent investigations conducted in England at the instance and 
expense of G. C. Callahan, of Philadelphia, have brought the an- 
swer. The only clue that offered itself was the statement made by 
Edmund Rossingham to the Privy Council that Sir George Yardley 
was his uncle. Fortunately his litigations with Ralph Yardley 
disclosed the fact that Lady Yardley was his aunt. A furthei 
search in Chancery Proceedings produced the suit Rossingham v. 
Knevett & this gave the maiden name of Mrs. Rossingham & Lad} 
Yardley. However, the matter would not have been absolutely 
certain if Edmund Rossingham's grandmother Martha, who by 
the time she made her will had changed her name by a second mar- 
riage from Flowerdew to Garret, had not bequeathed her signet 
ring to her daughter Temperance Yardley otherwise Flowerdew. 
It seemed perfectly natural that Sir George Yardley should name 
his plantations on the southside after his wife Temperance Flower- 

Papers showing the immense research made for the relation- 
ships of Sir George Yardley and his wife are before the writer, 
and a selection is made of the most interesting. 

I. Parentage of Sir George Yardley and the 2d marriage of his 
wife Temperance to Col. Francis West. 

Sir George Yardley. 117 


The result of the search which has been made concerning the 
parentage of Sir George Yardley, establishes beyond question, that 
he was the son of Ralph Yardley, citizen & merchant taylor of Lon- 
don. In the inquisition taken after the death of Ralph Yardley he 
is said to have been seised of a capital messuage in Southwark called 
le Home, which property he bequeathed by will to his five children 
Ralph, George, John, Thomas & Anne. In his will he also mentions 
a daughter by a former marriage, whose married name was Earoy. 
A search among the wills proved in the P. C. C. at Somerset House 
produced the will of Edward Irby citizen & grocer of London. In his 
will dated the 27th of February 1616/17 he mentions the great mes- 
suage called the Home situate in Southwark, and bequeaths £40 to his 
orother in law George Yardlie now oeing at Virginia upon condition 
that he makes assurances of the said messuage to the testator's son 
Edward. According to Hotten's Lists of Emigrants to America (from 
which extracts are enclosed) there was no other George Yardley then 
living in Virginia. This appears to put the matter beyond all doubt. 

No mention has been met with in any printed book of Lady 
Yardley's second marriage to Francis West. The Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography, which asserts positively that Sir George was son 
of Ralph Yardley the merchant taylor, says that her maiden name 
was West. This seems rather unlikely. The abstracts of Chancery 
Proceedings & note from the proceedings of the Privy Council rela- 
tive to the dispute between Francis West & Ralph Yardley, the apothe- 
cary, may prove interesting. 

Abstracts of the will & inquisition of Ralph Yardley the elder had 
been made before Waters' Gleanings had been seen. 

A note had been made of the letter from John Chamberlain to 
Sir Dudley Carleton in which he refers to Captain Yardley, a mean 
fellow, knighted & going as Governor to Virginia, dated 28th Novem- 
ber, 1618, but that also is printed in the Gleanings. 

[Abstract] Chancery Inquisition post mortem. Series II. Vol. 
650. No. 130. 

[A. D. 1625] Writ dated 3 March 22 James I 

The Borough of Southwark. 

Inquisition taken at St. Margarets Hill in the parish of St. Saviour 
in the Borough of Southwark co. Surrey on the 11th of March 33 
[A. D. 1625] James I, before John Gore esq. Mayor of the city of 
London, escheator of the King in the said borough, after the death 
of Ralph Yardley citizen and merchant tailor of London. 

118 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

The jurors [named] say that the aforesaid Ralph Yardley was 
seised in his demesne as of fee, of and in a capital messuage called 
le Home, formerly divided into two several messauges, in the said 
parish of St. Saviour. The said Ralph Yardley, being thus seised, on 
the 25th of August 1603 made his last will by which he bequeathed 
all his freehold lands and tenements in Southwark or elsewhere to his 
children Ralphe, George, John, Thomas and Anne Yardley, to hold to 
them and their heirs for ever. The said Ralph Yardley died on the 
*lst of July 1618. His son & heir Ralph Yardley was aged twenty one 
and more at the time of his father's death. 

The jurors further say that the capital messuage aforesaid was 
and is held of the Mayor, Commonalty & citizens of the city of 
London, in free socage, as of their manor of Southwark by a yearly 
rent of 2s. and is of the clear yearly value of one grain of pepper dur- 
ing a certain demise made by the said Ralph Yardley to a certain 
Richard Yerwood citizen & grocer of London, dated the 16th of July 
1603, for the term of 100 years. After the determination of the said 
demise, the premises aforesaid will be of the clear yearly value of £3. 

24 Harte Will of Ralph Yardley 

Citizen and Merchant tailor of London 
dated 25 August 1603. 
[Abstract] I desire that my goods shall be divided into three equal 
portions accordings to the custom of the city of London. 

I bequeath one third part to my wife Rhoda. 

I bequeath one other third part to be equally divided between 
my children Ralphe, George, John, Thomas and Anne Yardley, to be 
paid to my sons when they shall attain the age of twenty one, and to 
my daughter when she shall attain the age of twenty one or be 

I bequeath 20s. to the poor of the parish of St. Saviour in South- 
wark where I now dwell, and to such of the Bachelors and sixteen 
men of the company of Merchant tailors, London, as shall accompany 
my body to burial, 20s., for a recreation to be made unto them. And 
to the vestry men of the same parish 20s. for a recreation to be made 
unto them. 

I bequeath small legacies to my sister Palmer, to my cousin John 
Palmer, her husband, to my daughter Earby (my first wife's wedding 
ring,) to my son Erbye her husband, and to my cousin Richard 

♦This is obviously a mistake. It is written over other words 
which have been erased. 

Sir George Yardley. 119 

I give to my brother Thomas Yardley a gold ring. 

I bequeath all my freehold lands & tenements in Southwark or 
elsewhere to my said children, Ralph, George, John, Thomas & Anne 
Yardley, to hold to them and their heirs for ever. 

Executor. My son Ralph Yardley. 

Overseers. The said Richard Yerwoode & my son Edward Earbye. 

Witnesses. John Hall, public notary, Hugh Ireswell his appren- 
tice, and John Alanson. 

Proved on the 27th of February 1603/4 by Ralph Yardley, son & 

Will of Ralph Yardley 
P. C. C. Citizen & Apothecary of London 

18 Berkeley Dwelling in the parish of St. Alban, Wood Street. 
Dated 5 June 1654. 
Proved 4 Jan. 1655/6. 
[Abstract] I bequeath to my son John Yardley & his heirs my copy- 
hold tenement in Stoke Newington co. Middlesex whereof I made a 
surrender to the Lord of the Manor of Stoke Newington, dated the 
[A. D. 1638] 28th of October 14 Charles I. I also bequeath to him, 
with remainder to his son Andrew Yardley, my messuage in Mark 
Lane, London upon condition that they pay my son Ralph Yardley an 
annuity of £20. Out of these bequests I desire my son John to pro- 
vide for my grandchild Elizabeth Marsham until she shall be eighteen 
or married. 

I give my son in law Robert Archer & my daughter Rose his 
wife two messuages in the parish of iSt. Katherine Crechurch in 
London, & desire my said son in law to provide for my grandchild 
Ralph Marsham until he is sixteen years of age. 

I give to my daughter Anne Harris three messuages in Kings- 
ton on Thames, co. Surrey, & my livery gowns to my son in law Simon 

I make bequests to my grandchildren John, Robert, Katherine & 
Elizabeth Archer, Rhoda Archer, and Elizabeth, Anne, Ralph, Rose 
& Prudence Harris. I bequeath to my son John & my son in law 
Robert Archer the leases of the house where I now dwell & of. the 
house in Coleman Street, the profits thereof to be for the maintenance 
of my granddaughter Rose Marsham, and I leave £100 in trust for 
my grandson Thomas Marsham. Also certain money is to be ex- 
pended about the recovery of the copyhold estate due to my grandson 
Ralph Marsham out of the manor of Ramplingham co. Norfolk. 

I bequeath to my son John, & son in law Robert Archer my four 
messuages in the parish of St. Alban in Great Wood Street, London, 

120 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

which I lately purchased of Francis Plumsted, for the use of my 
grandchildren Rose, Ralph & Elizabeth Marsham. 

I make bequests to my cousin Katherine Browning, my sister 
Panke, my cousins Anne Cooper, John Hind & Richard Alexander, & 
my apprentice Marke Stratton. 

Executor. My son John Yardley. 

Overseers. My sons in law, Robert Archer & Simon Harris. 

Witnesses. Elizabeth Harris, Marke Stratton, Ro: Walpole, 

Codicil dated the 7th of December 1655. 

I bequeath to my servant Marke Stratton the use of all my imple- 
ments in my shop for three years after my death, & then he is to pay 
my executor for them. All simples & compositions & distilled water 
are to be valued by two of the Trade & he is to pay for them within 
a year of my death, and he is to enjoy the rest of my lease of my 
now dwelling house & shop at £16 per annum. I request the Master, 
Wardens & Assistants of my Company that Mark may be made free 
though his time be not accomplished. 

Witness Marke Stratton, Ro. Walpole scrivener 

Proved on the 4th of January 1655/6 by John Yardely son & 

34 Weldon Will of Edward Irbie 

Citizen & grocer of London 
dated 27 February 1616/17. 
[Abstract] I bequeath my freehold messuages in the Minories with- 
out Aldgate, London, to my wife Catherine, with remainder to my 
son Edward. I desire that my wife shall convey to my son Edward, or 
to such persons as he shall appoint as feoffees, to his use, such estate 
right & title of in & to all those houses, messuages or tenements called 
by the sign of the Home situate in Southwark Co. Surrey, which I 
hold by lease for a long time yet to come, so that the said Edward may 
enjoy the reversion of the same immediately after the decease of my 
said wife, during the residue of the term granted by the lease which 
is unexpired. 

I make bequests to my son John & my daughters Anne, Winifred 
& Catherine. 

I give to my brother in law Ralph Yardlie & his wife £5, and to 
his two children 40s. each. 

I will that my executrix shall pay unto my brother in law George 
Yardlie now being in Virginia, upon condition that he do make, exe- 
cute & perform unto my said son Edward & his heirs, such assurances 
of the said great messuage called the Home situte in Southwark 
aforesaid to the use of my said son Edward, his heirs & assigns as is 

Sir George Yardley. 121 

limited, mentioned, specified & agreed upon by certain articles in- 
dented made between his brother Ralphe Yardley on the one part and 
myself on the other part, the sum of £40, the same to be paid unto 
him within fourteen days after the making & perfecting of such assur- 
ance as aforesaid. 

Executrix. My wife Catherine. 

Witnesses. Nicholas Reeve, scrivener, William Manley, Thomas 
Taylor & Edward Pierce. 

Proved on the 24th of March 1616/17 by Catherine Irby relict & 

Chancery Proceedings Charles I. W. 63 No. 42. 

Francis West of the city of Winchester, co. Southants, esquire, 



Ralph Yardely of London, an apothecary, defendant. 

[Abstract] Bill dated 1 Feb. 1629/30 

[A. D. 1628] 

The complainant shows that about the last day of March, 3 Charles 
I, he married Dame Temperance Yardely, late wife of Sir George 
Yardely, knight, and by means thereof and of the last will of the said 
Sir George was to have had a full third part of all the estate of the 
said Sir George in Virginia or elsewhere, over & above all household 
stuff being in Sir George's house in James City at the time of his 
death, which third part so belonging to the complainant amounted to 
at least £3000, the said Sir George's estate, of which he bequeathed 
a full third part to his wife, Dame Temperance, being worth £10,000 
at least. The said Dame Temperance proved the said will, of which 
she was executrix, and within one year after her marriage with the 
complainant she died in Virginia without having made any will, by 
means whereof her said third part of right belonged to the complainant. 
The said third part mainly consisted of tobacco growing in Virginia 
or transported into England, as also of servants, negroes, &c, and of 
a plantation of 1000 acres of land with tobacco at Stanley in Warwick 
River in Virginia, and being all appointed by Sir George's will to be 
sold for tobacco money or other commodities of that country and to be 
transported into England to be sold there, a third part thereof was 
to be delivered to the said Dame Temperance for her own use. This 
was done partly in Dame Temperance's life time & partly since her 
death. But Ralph Yardely, the defendant, having knowledge of this 
& of Dame Temperance's death, and knowing by Sir George's will 
that a third part belonged to his said wife, and by her death to the 
complainant, and the other two parts to Sir George's three children, 
(the complainant being then in Virginia where Dame Temperance 

122 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

died) the said Ralph obtained letters of administration of the good3 
of the said Sir George and by colour thereof possessed himself of 
all the personal estate of the said Sir George Yardeley. About last 
Easter the complainant arrived in England, and hearing that the said 
Ralph had possessed himself not only of Sir George Yardley's estate, 
but also of the complainant's third part thereof, he repaired to the 
said Ralph Yardeley & asked him to tell him what the said estate 
amounted to, and to pay him a full third part of the same. All which 
the said Ralph Yardely utterly refused to do. 

The demurrer of Ralphe Yeardley, defendant, to the bill of Francis 
West esq. complainant. 

The defendant says that by the complainant's own showing letters 
of administration of the goods of Sir George Yeardley, knight, have 
been granted to this defendant. It does not appear by any thing set 
forth in the bill that the complainant has any purpa~*v in the per- 
sonal estate of Sir George. This defendant is advised by his counsel 
that neither in law or in equity is he bound to give the complainant 
any account of the said estate, as is required by his bill. 

Proceedings Between 
Francis West esq. & Ralphe Yardley, apothecary. 
Acts of the Privy Council (Colonial) Calendar. 
p. 149 Whitehall, 30 June, 1630. 
[abridged copy] 
A petition was this day presented to the Board by Francis West 
Esq. later Governor of Virginia, showing that Sir George Yardley, 
knight, about three years since by his last will bequeathed to Dame 
Temperance his then wife (whom he made his sole executrix) all his 
household stuff in his house in St. James City, and likewise ordained 
that all his other estate in Virginia should be sold by her; and dis- 
posed of for tobacco, to be conveyed into England, and that a third 
part thereof should be for the use of his said wife, and the other two 
parts for his three children. The said Sir George soon after died, 
and the Petitioner marrying his widow, did during her life wholly 
refer unto her the ordering of all the said Sir George's estate, who 
according to the intent of the said will converted such part thereof 
as aforesaid into tobacco, and sent the same for England, which com- 
ing into the hands of Ralphe Yardley citizen and Apothecarie of 
London, and brother to the said iSir George, and he being by this means 
possessed thereof, and understanding that the Petitioner's said wife, 
was since deceased in Virginia, under pretence of affection to the said 
children procured to himself as well the administration of the said Sir 
George's estate, as also the administration of the goods and chattels 

Sir George Yabdtjbt. 123 

of the Petitioner's said wife, and being thus possessed of the estate 
aforesaid, doth refuse to account with the petitioner for the same, or 
to come to any reasonable or friendly mediation or agreement with 
him, and therefore the Petitioner humbly sought to be relieved herein 
by order from the Board. 

Chancery Proceedings. Charles I. Y. 7 No. 34. 
The replication of Ralphe Yardley complainant to the answer of 

Francis West esq. defendant. 
[Abstract] The repliant denies that Dame Temperance Yardley, the 
defendant's late wife, ever sent any tobacco out of Virginia to this 
repliant in England besides the seaven thousand weight mentioned in 
the answer. But he says that about the same time she sent into 
England 100 hogsheads of tobacco which were not sent to him but to 
one Thomas Wolfrey of Southampton who has not yet given any 
account of it to this repliant. This repliant further says that the de- 
fendant, since the death of the said Dame Temperance, has secretly 
conveyed away great quantities of tobacco and other the personal 
estate of Sir George Yardley, and has converted the same to his own 
use. The defendant ought to restore the same to this repliant for 
the use of the children & orphans of Sir George Yardley, to whom in 
equity the same belongs. 

List of Emigrants to America 1600-1700. 
Edited by John Camden Hotten. 
A List of Names; of the Living in Virginia Feb. 16th 1623/4 
Sir George Yeardley, Temperance Lady Yeardley, 
Argall, Francis and Elizabeth Yeardley. 

The Muster of the Inhabitants of James City, taken the 24th of 
January 1624/5. 

The Muster of Sir George Yearley, Kt. &c. 

Sir George Yearlley, Knt. came in the Deliverance 1609. 

Temperance Lady Yearlley came in the Faulcon 1608. 
Elizabeth Yearlley aged 6 yeares ) 
Francis Yearlley aged 1 yeare I children born here 
Argall Yearlley aged 4 yeares I 

P. C. C. Will of Francis West 

33 Seager of Winchester, co. Southants, esquire 

dated 17 December 5 Charles I. [A. D. 1629.] 

124 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

[Full abstract.] 

I desire to make provision for Jane my now wife, one of the 
daughters of Sir Henry Davye, knight, in case she survives me. 

I desire that my wife, as soon as she may after my death, shall 
sell all my lands, goods, plantations, servants, &c, either in England 
or Virginia, (except jewels, plate, linen and household stuff) and shall 
have the whole disposing, profits and ordering thereof until such 
time as my son Francis West shall accomplish his full age of one and 
twenty, my said wife in the meantime bringing up my said son in 
learning and in the fear of God. When my said son shall come of 
age my wife shall deliver to him one half of my said estate to be 
sold as aforesaid. If my said son shall die under age my said wife 
shall have all my said estate of lands, plantations, servants and goods 
aforesaid to her own use forever, that is to say, such lands & things as 
I shall be then seised of in fee simple to her & her heirs forever, and 
all my said personal estate whatsoever to her own use forever, if she 
happens to have no issue by me. And if she happens to have any 
issue by me, then I devise the said whole estate, or money to be made 
upon the sale of the lands, plantations, servants & goods aforesaid (if 
my said son Francis happen to die during his minority) and the whole 
benefit thereof to my said wife for her life. But if my said son 
Francis shall live to be twenty one, and I shall have no issue by my 
said wife Jane, then I devise only one half thereof to her for her life. 
After the death of my said wife, I devise one full moiety of the whole 
estate aforesaid (if my son Francis shall die during his minority) unto 
such children as I shall have by my said wife to be equally divided 
between them, saving that such eldest son as I shall have by my said 
wife Jane shall have a double portion. If my said wife shall take 
a second husband after my death, then the moiety of such estate as 
shall come to her by virtue of this my last will shall be divided equally 
between such children as I shall have by her, saving a double portion 
to the eldest son. 

I bequeath to my said wife Jane all such jewels, linen, plate, money 
& household stuff as I shall be possessed of at the time of my death 
to her own use forever. 

Executrix. My wife Jane. 

Overseer. Sir Henry Davye, knight, to whom I bequeath £5. 

Provided that if the said Francis West and Jane do die without 
issue of their bodies between them begotten, that then the one half 
of all the estate aforesaid shall be in the power of the said Francis 
West to bestow and give to whomsoever he pleaseth. 

Witness. Tho. South, Tho. Hill. 

Proved on the 28th April 1634 by Jane West relict & executrix. 

Sir George Yardley. 125 

II. Family of Lady Yardley. 

P. C. C. 

78 Sloane Will of Stanley* Flowerdewe 

of iScottowe co. Norfolk, gentleman 
dated 10 May 1620. 

I bequeath all my goods to my kinsman Hammond Claxton of 
Gray' Inn, co. Middlesex esquire, to be disposed of by him for the 
better maintenance of my mother, so that no part comes into the 
hands of her husband my father in law Captain Godfrey Garrett. 
And whereas, I have mortgaged certain lands in Hethersett co. Nor- 
folk to my said father in law for £300, I will that my heirs at the 
common law shall pay him the money due for the redemption of the 
said lands, and then to have the said lands to them and their heirs 

Executor. My kinsman, Hammond Claxton. 

Witnesses. Cha. Walker, Richard Jarvis, Elizabeth Walker, Anne 
Jarvis, John Dyson, Public notary. 

Proved on the 16th of August 1620 by Hammond Claxton, the 

P. C. C. Will of Martha Garrett 

149 Hele. of Scottow co. Norfolk, dated 

3 February 1625/6 


I bequeath to Edmund Rossingham my grandson all my messuages 
and lands in Scottow or elsewhere in the county of Norfolk, and to 
his heirs for ever. 

I give unto my daughter Temporaunce Yardie alias Flowerdewe 
my seal ring of gold. 

I give to my kinswoman Mary Claxton, wife to Hamon Claxton 
of London esquire, my black cloak and fan of white feathers. 

To my goddaughter Amy Hardy e 20s. 

To the poor of Scottow 40s. 

To Mr. Burton, minster of Olton lOg. to preach my funeral 

To my servants named various bequests. 

To the said Edmund Rossingham, the residue of my goods. 

♦Stanley Hundred in Warwick County, Va., which was the prop- 
erty of Sir George Yardley, doubtless got its name from the Flowerdew 
family, in which the name "Stanley" appears. 

126 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Executor. My grandson, Edmund Rossingham. 
Witness. William Hardye. 

Proved on the 4th. of December 1626 by the executor named in 
the will. 

P. C. C. 

23 Windsor. Will of Edwaed Flowerdew 

of Stanfilde Hall, co. Norfolk 
dated 15 June 1583. 
The testator mentions the will of his father John Flowerdew. 
He bequeaths to the daughters of his nephew Anthony £10 each 
to be paid to them on their wedding days. 
Proved on the 5th of May 1586. 


. B. This is a short note of a very long will. 

P. R. O. Chancery Inquisition post mortem. Series II. 
Abstract Vol. 210 No. 132 

A. D. 1586 

Inquisition taken at Harlston in co. Norfolk on the 12th of Octo- 
ber 28 Elizabeth, after the death of Edward Flowerdew late of Hether- 
set, esquire, one of the Barons of the Exchequer. The jurors say 
that the said Edward was seised in his demesne as of fee of and in the 
manor of Standfeild Hall and other lands in Norfolk, which by his 
deed dated the 14th of December A. D. 1573 16 Elizabeth he settled 
upon himself & his wife Elizabeth and upon his own heirs & assigns. 

The jurors also say that the said Edward was seised in his de- 
mesne as of fee, of and in a moiety of the manor of Hethersett in co. 
Norfolk and of lands in Wymondham in the said county. 

The said Edward Flowerdew died on the 31st of March A. D. 
1587 last past, Elizabeth his wife survives him. 

Anthony Flowerdew is his next heir, being the son & heir of Wil- 
liam Flowerdew, brother & heir of the aforesaid Edward. The said 
Anothony is aged twenty-nine. 

P. R. O. Chancery Proceedings. Charles I. 

Bundle R. 20 No. 22. 
Edmund Rossingham of London, gentleman, plaintiff. 


Ralph Yardley, of London, Apothecary. 
[Abstract] Bill dated 1 March 1629/30. 

The plaintiff shews that he was persuaded by Sir George Yardley 
at adventure with him into Virginia, when the said Sir George was 
governor of that plantation. He went the more willingly because the 
said Sir George was then married to the sister of the plaintiff's mother. 
He made many journeys into England, Holland & elsewhere on Sir 

Sir George Yardley. 127 

George's behalf, and also left with Sir George in Virginia a stock 
of cattle which were of the proper goods of the Plaintiff, for all of 
which he ought to have received £400 at least. Nothing was paid 
during the lifetime of Sir George Yardley, & after his death about 
three years ago in Virginia, administration of his estate was granted 
to his brother, the defendant. He utterly declines to make any pay- 
ment to the plaintiff for the said debt. The plaintiff thereupon ap- 
plied to the Privy Council and was awarded £200 out of Sir George's 
estate, which sum the defendant utterly refuses to pay. He prays 
that a writ of subpena may be directed to the said Ralph Yardley- 
Answer dated 10 March 1629/30. 

The defendant believes that Sir George Yardley married the 
sister of the plaintiff's mother, but he does not think that he was 
persuaded by Sir George to go to Virginia to assist him in his affairs, 
but that he went there in the hope of advancing himself by his own 
endeavours. He believes that Sir George employed the plaintiff 
to sell his tobacco in Holland, but he has often heard Sir George com- 
plain that he had very much prejudiced him in that employment. The 
plaintiff told this defendant that Sir George had paid him £100 for 
his pains. He does not know that the plaintiff ever left any stock of 
cattle in Virginia with Sir George, but about Christmas 1625. Sir 
George being then in this defendant's house in London he heard the 
pltf. superficially ask Sir George how his stock did in Virginia, who 
said that he has been informed that his cow had a calf. Whereupon, 
the Plaintiff being then indebted to this defendant seven pounds for 
lodging & physic, & estimating that the calf might be worth so much, 
he entreated Sir George to pay this defendant the said debt in lieu 
thereof, which he did, though he then affirmed that he would by no 
means have meddled therewith had it not been that this defendant 
was his brother. The defendant knows of the orfer made by the 
Privy Council but before the said order was entered he petitioned 
to inform the Council of the equity of the couse on behalf of Sir 
George's children — Argoll, Francis & Elizabeth Yardley, and it was 
agreed between him & the plaintiff that the plaintiff should prefer 
his bill into this court. If the plaintiff can prove that the money is 
really owing to him, the defendant will pay it to his uttermost ability. 

Chan. Proceedings. Charles I. R. 63. No. 108. 
Rossingham v. Knevett. 
P. R. O. Chancery Proceedings. Charles I. Bundle R. 63. No. 108 
Edmond Rossingham of the Inner Temple, London, Gentleman. 



Thomas Knevett of Ashfield Thorpe co. Norfolk, esquire, defendant. 

128 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Abstract Bill dated 1640. 

The plaintiff shews that in or about the year 1580 Anthony 
Flowerdewe late of Hethersett, co. Norfolk esq. and Martha his wife 
were seised in their demesne as of freehold for the term only of their 
natural lives, and the life of the longer liver of them, the reversion 
or remainder expectant to the first son of the said Anthony and to 
the heirs male of such first son, and for want of such issue to the 
heirs of the body of the said Anthony and for want of such issue then 
to the right heirs of the said Anthony, of or in one capital messuage 
called Thickthorne and divers other lands, woods, etc., containing 
about 400 acres being in the town & parish of Hethersett aforesaid. 
The aforesaid Anthony & Martha his wife are both dead and Stanley 
Flowerdewe the only son of the said Anthony is dead also without 
direct heirs, so that the aforesaid messauge & lands ought to de- 
scend to the plaintiff by virtue of the said entail in remainder upon 
the aforesaid Anthony Flowerdewe and the heirs of his body, he 
being son & heir of Marie Rossingham the wife of Dyonis Rossing- 
ham, gentleman, and daughter & heir of the said Anthony Flowerdewe. 
The plaintiff further shews that Edward Flowerdewe of Stanfieid co. 
Norfolk, formerly one of the Barons of the Exchequer, being a near 
kinsman of the said Anthony was entrusted by him with all the deeds, 
court rolls & evidences concerning the premises and concerning other 
lands belonging to the said Anthony, for want of which deed the plain- 
tiff although heir in tail to the said messuage & premises, being now 
out of possession, is entirely prevented from recovering the same. 
All the said deeds & evidences have come into the hands of the de- 
fendant, whose grandfather Sir Thomas Knevett was executor to the 
said Edward Flowerdewe to whom they had been entrusted by the 
said Anthony. 

Answer dated the 27th November 1640. 

The defendant says that he does not know of what lands the 
plaintiff was seised, or whether he is heir to the said messuage & 
lands. Neither does he know whether his grandfather was executor 
to Baron Flowerdew or if the said Baron was entrusted by Anthony 
Flowerdewe with his deeds. But this defendant has in his custody 
divers evidences & deeds which were in the custody of his grand- 
father Sir Thomas Knevett concerning the premises named in the 
bill, and he believes they formerly belonged to the Flowerdews. He is 
quite willing to deliver the said deeds to the plaintiff, as he thinks 
they may be of much advantage to him in clearing his title to the 
premises in case he shall prove to be the heir as is alleged in the bill. 





■5 oo-d 


-2 °d 



O P 


- M <M 

02 'd 

73 <U 

130 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


By Fairfax Harrison. 

I John Goodrich (1618-1698) of Isle of Wight County, Vir- 
ginia, planter, was in the colony in 1638, for in March, 1698, 
at the age of 80, he made a deposition, which survives in the Isle 
of Wight records, as to events in the colony 60 years before. He 
died a few months later, for his will, dated August 30, 1695, was 
proved June 9, 1698. This will names his son. 

II John Goodrich (1652-1695) of Isle of Wight County, 
proved June 9, 1698. This will names his son 

III John Goodrich (?-1749) of Isle of Wight County, who, 
by his will proved June 1, 1749, names a son John, probably the 

IV John Goodrich (1722-1785) of Nansemond, who m., 
1747, Margaret, dau. of Joseph and Agatha Bridger, and died at 
Grove House, Topsham, in Devon. There is a monument to him and 
his family in Topsham Church. He was a merchant and ship- 
owner in a large way of business at Norfolk, Virginia, trading as 
John Goodrich & Co. In 1775, at the outbreak of the American 
Revolution, he sided at first with the revolutionary party and im- 
ported gunpowder for their use, but subsequently was won over to 
the loyalist side by the Governor Lord Dunmore. He was then 
imprisoned and such of his property as could be found was se- 
questered, but eventually he was released and went to England, 
with his wife and several of his sons, as shown by his monument 
at Topsham. One of his sons, Edward, fought on the revolu- 
tionary side and his sons served in the Continental army and Vir- 
ginia militia. For John Goodrich and his family see Sabine, 
Loyalists of the American Revolution, I, 481, and Va. Mag., XV, 
160, His daughter 

V Agatha Wells Goodrich (1752-1838), of whom a minia- 
ture portrait is preserved at Tor Abbey in Devon, m. Robert Shed- 


den (1741-1826), who in 1776 was a merchant at Portsmouth in 
Virginia. Supporting the loyalist cause, his property in Vir- 
ginia was sequestered, like that of his father-in-law. He removed 
to Bermuda and subsequently to New York, where he resumed 
business. When the British evacuated New York, he removed to 
London, where he established a commercial house "of the highest 
respectability," and prospered. He died in 1826 and is buried 
in Paulerspury Church, where there is a monument to him with 
an elaborate inscription. See Sabine Loyalists, II, 294. His 
widow died at Stalwoods, Isle of Wight, leaving four sons, of whom 
the second was 

VI Eobert Shedden", of Brooklands, Hants, whose daughter 
and heiress 

VII Emily Munro Shedden" (1804-postf 1872) m., 1827, 
VI Robert Sheddix, of Brooklands, Hants, whose daughter 

VIII Millicent Maria Johnes Cart (1829-post 1872) m. 
1854, John Stuart Coxon, whose son 

IX Capt. Lionel Cary, E. K, assumed the name Cary on suc- 
ceeding to Tor Abbey in 1917 after the deaths of his maternal 
uncle Col. Lucius Cary, and his cousin? (nephew?) Launcelot 
Cary (killed in action in Elanders). 

132 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 



Burr Harrison & Ann Barnes married July 31, 1722. 

Levin Powell— Sarah Harrison Feb 6th, 1763 

Burr Powell — Catherine Brooke Jan 5th, 1792 

Lloyd Noland — Ann Whiting Powell Jan 5th, 1814 

Lloyd Noland— Elizabeth W. Smith Jan 22nd, 1829 

Wm. B. Cochran— Catherine M Powell Noland Nov 5th, 1835 

Burr P. Poland — Susan Chaplain Wilson Nov 11th, 1845 

R. W. N. Nolan — Mary Louisa Minor Nov 1st, 1843 

were married by Rev. R. K. Mead 
R. W. N. Noland— Kate Y., dau. of John Spotswood Wellford, 

married Oct 31, 1861 
Robert Grattan Noland — Ann Tarr 
Preston Wellford Noland — Rosalie Sinclair Merrill married 

April 25, 1905, by Rev. R. Grattan Noland and Rev. Jere 



Lloyd Noland, son of Thomas Noland (son of Philip) & Elinor 

Luckett born Dec 4th, 1790 
Burr Harrison Born May 21, 1690 
Catherine Brooke " 1737 
Levin Powell " 1739 
Sarah Harrison " May 14, 1768 
Burr Powell « June 9, 1770 

Anne Whiting Powell born March 31st 1793 
Eliz. W. Smith Sept 25th, 1801. 

iThe Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments &% 
Philadelphia: Published by Kimber & Sharpley, No. 50 North Fourth 
St. Property of Mrs. Rosalie M. Noland, Richmond, Va. 

Noland-Harrison-Po weel-Giemore. 133 

Catherine Mary Powell, daughter of L. K & A. W. P. born 

Nov 3, 1814 
Burr Powell " " " " Oct 20, 1818 

E. W. N. born Feb 23d 1822 
Ann Whiting, daughter of L. K & E. W. S. born March 12, 

Sara Ella, daughter of L. N. & E. W. S. born April 6th, 1832 
Anna Lloyd, daughter of L. N". & E. W. S. born April 25th, 1835 
Noble Barnedge, daughter of L. N". & E. W. S. born March 

3rd, 1838 
Eichard William Noland, the son of Lloyd Noland & Ann 

Whiting Powell, was born Feb 23rd 1822 
Mary Louisa, the daughter of Peter Minor and Lucy Gilmer, 

was born 8th July, 1823 
Lloyd, son of E. W. N. & M. L. Noland, was born 16th 

December, 1844 
Lucy, born April 12th, 1846 
Charles Minor, born Oct. 19, 1847 
Catherine, born March 14, 1850 
Burr Powell, born January 6th, 1853 
Frank Minor, born March 30th, 1855 
Eobert Grattan, born Jan'y 8th, 1857 
Preston Wellford, son of R. W. N. & Catherine Y. Noland, 

born Feb. 16, 1864. Baptized by Eev. Thomas Walker 

Gilmer Oct 27, 1866 

George Gilmer, son of George Gilmer & Mary Peachy Walker 
was born 19th of January, 1743, married Lucy Walker, daughter 
of Thomas Walker & Mildred Thornton (born 16 May, 1751) 
27th August 1767. 

Peter Minor born 30th June, 1783, 

Married Lucy Gilmer, (born 13th Oct. 1785) 31st May, 1806 

Hugh Minor, born 31 July, 1807 

Edward Minor, born 27 March, 1809 

Martha Divers Minor, born 30th Nov., 1810 

Franklin Minor " 21st March, 1812 

134 Tylers Quarterly Magazine. 

George Gilmer Minor " 4th Dec., 1816 

Peter Carr Minor " 21st March, 1816 

Lucy Walker Minor " 4th Nov, 1818 

Jno Skinner Minor " 3rd Oct, 1820 

May Louisa Minor " 8th July, 1823 


Ann Whiting Noland Jan 21st, 1823 
Thomas Lloyd Noland July 4th, 1834 
Ann Whiting Noland March 31, 1831 
Anna Lloyd Noland April 23d, 1838 
Noble B. Noland Nov 28, 1858 
Elizabeth W. L. Noland at Glenora Oct 28, 1888 
Lucy, dau of R. W. N. Noland Died Dec 19th, 1846 
Catherine died March 5th, 1851 
Frank M. Noland died January 6, 1873 
Lloyd Noland died Nov. 1875 

Burr P. Noland died June 22d 1902, New York City. 
Charles Minor Noland died at Middleburg, Va., Sept 28, 1913 
Robert Grattan Noland Died at Chillicothe, Ohio, April 7, 1916 
Died in Middleburg Sept 20, 1859 Mary Louisa Noland 
Died in Richmond Nov. 30th, 1886 R. W. N. Noland 
Died in Richmond, Va., Feb. 17, 1901, Kate Wellford Noland 
Died in Richmond, Va., Feb 4, 1919, at 12 :10 A. M. Preston 
Wellford Noland. 

Diary of Kichard N. Venable 1791-92. 135 


[Richard N. Venable died in 1838. So his life was spent half 
in the eighteenth century — he gives the year of his birth, 1763. 
He was the son of Nathaniel Venable, of Prince Edward County, 
merchant, a man eminent for character and sound sense, both of 
which have been found in many of his descendants. 

Richard N. Venable was educated at Hampden-Sidney College 
(then an academy), graduated at Princeton in 1782, studied law 
at William and Mary, and after a few years of active practice, set- 
tled down in Prince Edward County, more as a man of plantation 
affairs, perhaps, than as a lawyer. He served several terms in the 
Legislature, and was a member of the Convention of 1829. From 
1792 until his death he was a trustee and supporter of Hampden- 
Sidney College. Mr. Venable, throughout his career, was inter- 
ested in internal improvements — by river, canal, and railway. 

These few extracts from a lawyer's diary will throw some light 
upon the number of lawyers in our Legislatures. The lawyer 
knew the country up and down, and represented it as a matter of 
course. That was a very pleasant life in some respects, moving on 
from court to court, and putting up so often at the houses of good 
friends. The MSS of this diary is owned by Miss Addie C. Vena- 
ble, of Hampden Sidney, Va. 

A. J. Morrison.] 

Jan. 22, 1791. Went to Henry Court 65 miles, from then to 
Franklin C. H. 37 miles, returned by Sam Calland's to Peytons- 
burg, 55 miles, from there to Prince Edward 60 miles and re- 
turned to Peytonsburg 11 February. 

Wednesday 16 February 1791. My birthday. 28 years old. 
Now living with John Wimbish at Peytonsburg in Pittsylvania. 

3 March 1791. Thomas Arthur came on the bench [at Frank- 
lin Court], the rest of the court immediately ran off, and left 
Arthur sitting like an owl on a chicken roost. Arthur left the 
bench and we proceeded to business. 

136 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Saturday 23 April 1791. Eeturned to Lynchburg, took a sur- 
vey of the town, improvements were arising fast, three years ago 
only two or three small houses at the place, now there are numbers 
of small houses and about 20 very good houses — all things look 
new, stumps and grubs not taken out of the main street. 

May 1, 1791. How attentive this man is (Col. Thomas Eead, 
of Charlotte County) to all his little affairs, as he is pleased to 
call them — this man at the noon of life appears to have finished the 
business of the day. There is a pleasure in being not quite so 
situated and surrounded with conveniences. 

May 2. At Col. William Morton's, 10 miles from Charlotte 
Court House — piety, honesty, & industry, blessed with a numerous 
rising offspring. 

May 4. Came home, 25 or 30 miles, much devoted to reflection. 

Sunday 22 May, 1791. Stay at home, devoted to rest, reading, 
and contemplation. The rest of the family all go to meeting — 
How delightful is retirement to one whose life is crowded with 
such frequent scenes of bustle, strife, and jarring opposition. 

Saturday 4th June 1791. Gen'l Washington came in the 
evening [to Peytonsburg, Pittsylvania County]. Stayed at Tavern, 
set out next morning before sun rise. 

Monday 6th June. At Charlotte Court House. Great anx- 
iety in the people to see Gen'l Washington. Strange is the im- 
pulse which is felt by almost every breast to see the face of a great 
good man — sensation better felt than expressed. 

Tuesday 7th June. Gen'l Washington arrived at Pr. Edward 
Court House, all crowding the way where they expect him to pass, 
anxious to see the saviour of their country and object of their love. 

Sunday 12th June. Heard Archibald] McBobert preach 
in the capitol [Eichmond]. 

Monday, 13th. Spent the day in Richmond. Went to view 
Eoss's Canal, which is now making to build mill in fall of James 
Eiver — prospect of there being great and useful works at a fu- 
ture time. 

Tuesday, 14th. General Court and Court of Appeals. This 
surely is the seat of law learning — courts of justice are here sitting 
almost from one end of the year to the other. 

Sunday 26th June. Eeading Milton &c [at Peytonsburg]. 

Diary of Eiciiard N. Venable 1791-92. 137 

June 27, 1791. To Halifax Court. Fell in company with 
Thadeus Hall(?), and went to his father's with him. Had a 
full detail from him and a certain Mr. Bryant of their voyage 
down Tenasee to Muscle Shoals with Z. Cox in April last. As they 
say, they began a settlement with 25 men on the largest island 
in the Muscle Shoals, supposed to contain 1000 acres of land. 
Choctaw Indians are friendly, but are under no apprehension that 
the whites mean anything more than to trade with them. The plan 
of Cox & Co. is to hold out the pretence of trade till they are 
strong enough, and then claim the land under a grant from 

Aug 3, 1791. At Prince Edward Court House. Spent an 
hour with Eev. John Smith [late President, Hampden Sidney 
College]. He talks of going to Philadelphia. Went to F[rancis] 
Watkins' — consulted of the Yazoo business.* 

Aug 6, 1791. Just five years since I began practice of the 

10th Sept. Prince Edward Court. Z. Cox came yesterday 
and talked most on Tennessee and Yazoo companies — a junction 
of the companies proposed. Went in evening with John Watts, 
Cox, and A. B. V [enable] to Francis Watkins. Spent the even- 
ing in discussing the business, nothing resolved. 

Sept. 11th, forenoon, same business with Z. Cox to New Lon- 
don — nothing resolved. 

10th Oct. 1791. Preparing papers at F. Watkins' for Yazoo 

Oct. 15. Abraham B. Venable [brother of Richard N. Vena- 
ble] set out to Congress. Walter Coles and William Watkins ac- 
company him, who are now going to finish their education at 

9th Dec. 1791. Went to Ginning's Ordinary [Amelia County] 
found him and his company drunk. Spent the evening like a 

*See Virginia Magazine o/ History, etc., July, 1912. Extracts 
from acc't book of Francis Watkins, showing something of his busi- 
ness as Treasurer of the Yazoo Company, with names of stockholders. 

138 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Richmond, 15th Dec. In the evening attend the play with a 
number of old acquaintances. 

17th. Play again — much entertained with the scenery and 
painting representing a shipwreck. 

Jan. 1, 1792. To Mrs. Coles, 27 miles, on way to Charlotte 
Court. Surely this is the seat of industry, virtue and economy. 
How wide is the contrast betwixt the dwelling of these, and the 
habitation of sloth, vice, and extravagance. Those are the out- 
lines, it is the business of imagination to finish the picture. 

May 10, 1792. Spent the day at Mr. Henry's [Patrick 
Henry] . Mr. Henry is getting old and has many family cares. 

May 15, 1792. Mecklenburg Court. In evening with Mr. 
Byrne [James Byrne] to Charles Kennon's, a kind hospitable man 
who married Robert Munford's daughter, and now lives where 
Munford formerly did. I take a view of the improvements made 
by Munford, all of which have the appearance of magnificence, 
but alas how changed ! I see also Mrs. Munford who gives us a 
family history, but these republican days have defaced it much. 

17 May. Came up to a sermon near McKentree's Bridge on 
Banister [Halifax County], heard Kelly preach, a Methodist and 
a man of no small share of eloquence — well pleased with the 
sermon.* Home, 14 miles from James Bruce's [on Terrible 

30th May. Very little tobacco planted. 

June 11th. Locusts all gone — appeared May 2. 

Petersburg 24 June 1792. Go with some of the merchants to 
church. This is St. John's Day. The Masons parade in form. 
Afternoon, go out to old Mr. Richard Taylor's where I spend the 

Oct. 8, 1792. With A. B. V [enable] at F. Watkins'— there 
David Ross, his son James N". the subject of Yazoo prospects 
employed our attention. 

♦This must have been James O'Kelly, who about 1792 began his 
Republican Methodist movement, and carried many people with him 
in Southside Virginia. Bishop Ravenscroft, for instance, was for some 
years a Republican Methodist. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes. 139 


Sir John Clay. — In Volume XXII of William and Mary 
Quarterly a deed is published from the records of Hanover County, 
dated October 7, 1794, in which the Eev. John Clay, father of 
Henry Clay, is styled Sir John Clay. A similar reference occurs 
in the records of Chesterfield County Book 8, p. 175. As there is 
no evidence that the Eev. John Clay inherited the title from his 
ancestors, or was himself distinguished in that way by any sover- 
eign, it would seem that the use in this case was a remarkable in- 
stance of survival of a custom in the Middle Ages. Mrs. M. H. 
Burrell, of New York, in a recent letter to the editor, calls his at- 
tention to the fact that "Sir" was a term arrogated to himself by 
the parish priest. Instances of its use are recorded by the Oxford 
Dictionary, and sometimes to the disparagement of the clergy. 
What makes the case of Sir John Clay remarkable in the Virginia 
Records is : ( 1 ) Its use so many years after the latest example 
given in the Oxford Dictionary; (2) Its uniqueness, as it is the 
only instance of such use in the Virginia Records; (3) That it 
is applied to a minister of the Baptist Church, which had little 
leanings to aristocratic pretentions; and (4) that he was the father 
of 'the great commoner, Henry Clay. 

On the other hand, these very facts render the explanation sug- 
gested by Mrs. Burrell exceedingly unsatisfactory to Rev. S. 0. 
Southall, of Hanover C. H., Virginia, who compiled the abstract 
of the Hanover records for the William and Mary Quarterly Maga- 
zine. Several family records of the Clays do carry back the tradi- 
tion of a Sir John Clay to an earlier John Clay, the immigrant, 
and whether the tradition is founded on fact or not, Mr. Southall 
prefers to find in this belief an explanation of the title as applied 
to Rev. John Clay in preference to the solution proposed by Mrs. 

Anecdote of John Randolph. — When Mr. Randolph came be- 
fore the Legislature for re-election in 1826, for United States 

140 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 

Senator, he was defeated by John Tyler, then Governor of Vir- 
ginia. The election was the occasion of much excitement in Vir- 
ginia, and some acrimony was injected into the affair by the news- 
papers. Notwithstanding this, when the two met not long after- 
wards at the Richmond races, Randolph approached the Governor 
with extended hand and said: "And how is your Excellency, and 
when I say your Excellency I mean your excellency/' Mr. Ran- 
dolph had been much condemned for vituperative speeches in the 
Senate, but this showed that he could do the generous act as grace- 
fully as any man; and Mr. Tyler always spoke of his words with 
a smile of pleasure. (This anecdote was told the Editor by Presi- 
dent Tyler's widow, the late Mrs. Julia Gardiner Tyler.) 

Curle. — In Vol. IX, p. 124, of William and Mary Quarterly, 
an account is given of the Curie family of Elizabeth City County. 
The father of the immigrants, Thomas, Pasco and Samuel Curie, 
has been since disclosed by an entry in the Heraldica, Vol. I, 3d 
Edition. Under the head of the "Skinners' Company, Appren- 
ticeships," is entered 1664, Pasco Curie, son of Nicholas, of Lewes, 

Bassett Family. — In his interesting book "The Ancestry of 
Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States 1889-1893/' 
Mr. Keith traces the Virginia Bassett family to William Bassett 
of Newport in the County of Southampton, Yeoman, "who was 
buried Dec. 4, 1646. The emigrant William Bassett, his supposed 
son, who came to Virginia and was a member of the Council, calls 
himself on his tombstone as "of the County of Southampton in the 
Kingdom of England." In his will he names his nephew Joseph 
Foster, to whom he leaves a neck of land purchased of John Poun- 
cey, between Diascon and Mr. Richmond Terrell's, New Kent 
County; and 6000 lbs. of tobacco each to his two nieces Ann and 
Mary Foster, when of age or married. The will was dated August 
28, 1671, and proved Jany. 4, 1672. The executors were "my deare 
Brother Nathaniel Bacon Esquire" and Mr. George Lyddall. There 
is in the York Co. records a power of attorney from Anne Bannister, 
wife of Moses Bannister, of Newport, in the Isle of Wight, in the 
County of Southampton, Butcher, and Mary Foster of the same 

Historical and Genealogical Notes. 141 

place, spinster, to Capt. Matthew Eider, of London, mariner 
"Comander of the Ship Barnabie, now bound for York Kiver" 
"to collect of Coll. Nathaniel Bacon Esq and Mr. George Lyddall, 
executors of William Bassett, late of the Parish of Blissland in the 
County of New Kent deceased, or either of them, the severall 
legacies of 6000 pds of tobacco & caske apiece given and be- 
queathed to each of us the said Ann and Mary by the last will 
and testament of the said William Bassett." This power is dated 
April 2, 1685, and was proved in York Court March ye 24, 
1685-6. Joseph Foster, Col. Bassett's nephew, resided in the ad- 
joining parish of St. Peter's, New Kent Co., and was captain, 
colonel, &c. In the parish register are various entries of the 
Fosters. (See Wm. & Mary Quarterly, II., 219.) 

142 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine. 


The Conquest of the Old Southwest. By Archibald Henderson, Ph. 
D. C. L. New York, The Century Co. 1920. 

This is a book of 395 pages dealing with the subtle problems of 
the back country of Virginia and the Carolinas. And well has Dr. 
Henderson done his work, and it wag no ordinary work that had to be 
done. We can almost imagine that the old spirit of the pioneers have 
entered into his soul — such enthusiasm has Dr. Henderson thrown 
into his sentences. Too long have Jamestown and Plymouth Rock at- 
tracted the attention of the historian! Here in the settlement of the 
mountains and the westward migration to the Mississippi and the 
Ohio, Dr. Henderson finds the real history of the growth and evolu- 
tion of the American democracy. A simple review of the notes and 
bibliographies stated in the back of the book shows the incredible 
labor to which he has subjected himself in evolving from countless 
loose items a connected narrative of romantic and thrilling interest. 
There is in the mingling of the deeds of the trader, the hunter, the 
land speculator, the Indian fighter — deeds of heroism, deeds of daring, 
deeds of supreme self-sacrifice, and deeds also of lawlessness — some- 
thing which suggest to us at once the presence of the heroic patriot and 
the unscrupulous representative of private interest. The settlement of 
the old Southwest was a stage in the irresistible tide of migration of 
peoples seeking room for expansion and economic independence. It 
constituted the beginning of our national existence as an American 
people, and was followed by wave after wave of settlement westward 
across the American continent till with the exhaustion of the cultivated 
free land between the Appalachian range and the Pacific Ocean the 
emigrations have lost the old spirit of adventure. 

In Dr. Henderson's attractive book we are introduced to many 
well know characters — to Dr. Thomas Walker, of Albemarle, the ex- 
plorer of Kentucky; to Daniel Boone, the Kentucky pioneer; to Rich- 
ard Henderson, the founder of the Transylvania Company; to John 
Lewis, to James Robertson, and to many other of the makers of his- 
tory. In those days conditions were so new that States had no mean- 
ing to the emigrants. Richard Henderson is called a North Carolinian, 
but he was born in Hanover County, Virginia, and so were John Lewis 
and James Robertson both natives of Virginia. Daniel Boone was 
born in Pennsylvania, and he was no more a North Carolinian than 
the Scotch-Irish were Pennsylvanians, because they abided in Penn- 
sylvania a short time, or the Germans Virginians because they set- 
tled in the upper counties of the Virginia Valley. Dr. Henderson 

Book Reviews. 143 

claims that the prime determinating principle of the progressive 
American civilization of the 18th century was the passion for the 
acquisition of land — perhaps he should have said "better land." The 
love of power and riches lay underneath it all. The book is a great 
one and should have an extensive circulation. 











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Vol. II. No. 3. JANUARY, 1921 

Idler's (©uarterty Jlfetorical 


(genealogical JWaga^ne 

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 

^pler'g (©uarterlp 2|tetortcal anb 
Genealogical ilaga^me 

Vol. II. JANUARY, 1921. No. 3. 


Owing to an error, the pages of the July issue were numbered as in con- 
tinuation of the last volume. The paging of the October issue proceeds as 
if the July issue was correctly numbered from 1 to 72. 

Owing to the high cost of printing, the editor finds it necessary to ad- 
vance the price of this magazine, beginning with the July number, 1920, from 
$3 to $4 per year. Single numbers will be sold at $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary College Quarterly, which 
was the original name of the present magazine, have become very scarce, 
single copies, as far as had, may be obtained for $2 a-piece. 

Address all communications to LYON G. TYLER, 711 Travelers Bldg., 
Richmond, Va. 


Propaganda Again . . . . r 146 

Mr. Jefferson and His Detractors. ., 151 

John B. Floyd — A Defence 154 

Virginia and North Carolina at the Litchfield Law School 157 

Rebellious Song 159 

Charles City Co. Petitions 160 

James City County Petitions 177 

Formicula-Stuart-Bankhead , 194 

Record of the Smith Family i 196 

Williamsburg in 1805 201 

Wigs , 203 

York County Records 204 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 207 

Lincoln and Fort Sumter 208 

pier's; ©uarterlp iitsitortcal anb 
(Genealogical JHaga^tne 

Vol. II. JANUARY, 1921 No. 3 


In the April number of this Magazine there was an article 
entitled "Propaganda in History." The article was later revised, 
published in pamphlet, and sent out to many of America's fore- 
most scholars. It contained a protest against the spirit which 
has entered American life too generally, poisoning the well of 
truth, and bringing history into disrepute. From a Northwestern 
University comes a reply from an able professor: "The problem 
is a serious one, as you point out. I am with you, I will stick 
by my guns, and speak and write according to my research, but 
the appreciation one gets is indicated by the knocks that one gets 
on all sides." Another gentleman from a Northeastern College 
of much dignity and reputation writes: "Certainly we should 
put a guard on ourselves and help to restrain the unscientific and 
unhistorical spirit of others." 

Still another gentleman, who is celebrated as a philologist 
and had been connected with some of America's greatest un- 
versities, speaks of the pamphlet as "an illuminating and con- 
vincing protest." Finally, a fourth, who stands in the front rank 
of American historians, commends the pamphlet for its "pungency 
and veracity." 

In this issue an additional comment on the propaganda evil may 
not be out of place. The pamphlet referred to divided propa- 
gandists into two classes: the "sinners" and the "victims," and 
an apt case of each has recently presented itself to the editor's at- 
tention. A good instance of the sinner is afforded by Mr. Robert 
H. Murray in the Edinburgh Review for October, 1920. This 
gentleman publishes an article on the "Pilgrim Fathers," which 

146 Tylee's Quarterly Magazine 

is so full of inconsistencies that it is impossible to class him among 
the innocent. 

The article has the customary way of snubbing out of exist- 
ence both Jamestown and its popularly elected House of Burgesses 
of 1619, the first expression of democracy on this continent, and 
concludes with the statement: 

"But for the Pilgrim Fathers the speech of Shakespeare and 
of Bunyan would not be spoken half the world over. Our blood 
is in the veins of the Americans; our law is in their Courts and 
our faith is in their hearts." 

Here it is; all Americans are descended from the Pilgrim 
Fathers ! One wonders at such logic, for if the Virginia settle- 
ment had no influence on the Pilgrim settlement, why should 
the settlement in Maryland, or South Carolina or Pennsylvania 
or New York be dependent on the Pilgrim Fathers? 

Then take this paragraph: 

"They (the Puritans) believed in liberty, even if it was only 
the liberty to worship God in their own fashion. They believed 
in equality, but it was the equality of the elect before God. They 
believed in fraternity, though they refused to think that wisdom 
was to be discovered by counting the heads of the brethren." 

What is this but in the same breath representing the Pilgrim 
Fathers as both lovers of liberty and tyranny, as champions of 
equality and inequality, and as believers in both democracy (fra- 
ternity) and aristocracy. Such ideas are destructive of one an- 
other, and the plain truth is that the Puritan State had nothing of 
real freedom, equality or democracy about it. Indeed, few coun- 
tries ever had a more despotic government than the New England 
colonies during the 17th century.* 

When our writer discusses the Mayflower compact he de- 
scribed it as "a constitution — the first in New England or old 

♦In his "Fathers of New England," Volume VI., of the Chronicles 
of America, Dr. Charles M. Andrews, professor of History at Yale 
College, says: "By no stretch of the imagination can the political 
conditions in any of the New England colonies be called popular or 
democratic. Government was in the hands of very few men." 

Propaganda Again 147 

England." But it was no such thing. It was a covenant only, 
in accordance with which the 41 signers agreed to live together 
in a body politic, and by virtue thereof "to enact, constitute and 
frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions and 
offices, from time to time as shall be thought most meet and con- 
venient &c, unto which we promise due submission and obedience." 

Now these very words show that the compact proclaimed neither 
laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions nor even offices. These things 
were yet to follow, and as a matter of fact the Mayflower com- 
pact did nothing more than what was done in the case of all the 
companies contemplating settlement in America. The persona 
interested must have first assembled, organized as a body politic, 
and drawn up a paper in which the powers they wished to exercise 
were clearly outlined. The signature by the King conveyed only 
his sanction to their previous action. 

In the case of the Pilgrim Fathers the powers assumed under 
the Mayflower compact were little more than those granted under 
the patent obtained from the London Company, Feb. 12, 1620, 
and under which they sailed to America, for that too authorized 
them to make "orders, ordinances and constitutions for the better 
ordering and dyrecting of their servants and business," not re- 
pugnant to the laws of England.* 

Indeed, the Pilgrim Fathers were so far from thinking that 
they had done anything out of the ordinary that they made haste 
the very next year to seek and obtain from the Plymouth Com- 
pany, under whose dominion they found themselves, a charter 
incorporating them into a body politic with the power "to estab- 
lish such laws and orders as are for their better government." 
And under this charter and another they obtained in 1630, with 
broader powers, they lived out the brief period of their existence 
as a colony.f And Palfrey says that a royal charter was much de- 
sired by them. 

Be that as it may, the fact remains that the Mayflower com- 
pact created neither a government nor a constitution, if by that is 

*Records of the Virginia Company, L, 303. 
f Palfrey, New England. 1, 194; 382. 

148 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

meant "a plan of government." Nor was democracy born with 
the compact. Whether the government was to be a monarchy, an 
aristocracy or a democracy had yet to be determined. 

When the government got into operation, it was an aristocracy. 
The right to vote at Plymouth was limited, and in 1643, while 
there were 600 persons on the military list, only 230 persons were 
allowed the ballot.* The Plymouth Colony was soon swallowed 
up by the great Massachusetts Bay Colony, where the power over 
the hundreds of freemen and servants that came with Endicott 
and Winthrop in 1628 and 1630 was exercised at first by only 
eleven persons; and though that number was shortly increased, 
citizenship was construed as a privilege and not a right, and made 
to depend upon membership in the Congregational Church. Dur- 
ing most of the 17th century five-sixths of the people were de- 
prived of the ballot, a condition not very much changed down to 
the American Revolution. So stubborn indeed was the power of 
the aristocracy maintained, that the people of Rhode Island had 
to rise in rebellion in 1842 to break up the inequality surviving 
in the freest of the New England States. 

The other writer whom I choose to regard not as a "sinner" 
but as a "victim" of Propaganda, is Dr. N. W. Stephenson, born 
in Ohio, and now holding the chair of history in Charleston Col- 
lege, South Carolina. This gentleman is an amiable example of 
a really strong scholar, who yet finds himself unable to resist 
the Lincoln Propaganda. He does not wholly subscribe to the 
deification of the martyred President, but that the Propaganda 
octopus has him in its strong grasp is shown by his distortions 
of history in the following closing paragraph of his "Abraham 
Lincoln and the Union," forming Volume xxix, of the Chron- 
icles of America. 

"The passage of sixty years has proved fully necessary to the 
placing of Lincoln in historic perspective. No President, in his 
own time, with the possible exception of Washington, was so bit- 
terly hated and so fiercely reviled. On the other hand, none has 
been the object of such intemperate hero-worship. However, the 

♦Plymouth Records VIII, 173-177; Palfrey, New England, II, 8. 

Propaganda Again 149 

greatest of the land were, in the main, quick to see him in perspec- 
tive and to recognize his historic significance. It is recorded of 
Davis that in after days he paid a beautiful tribute to Lincoln and 
said, 'Next to the destruction of the Confederacy, the death of 
Abraham Lincoln was the darkest day the South has known/ " 
In this paragraph the suggestion of a compliment to Lincoln 
is evident. The words are so stated that they appear to carry an 
authoritative and convincing decision. Under the pretext of a 
mere fellowship of abuse, Lincoln takes his stand by Washington, 
and the perspective of sixty years is illumined with a "a beautiful 
tribute" to Lincoln from his old arch enemy Jefferson Davis. 
But the suggestion is controverted by the facts, and on slight 
examination Dr. Stephenson's splendid fabric of eulogy melts and 

Lincoln was abused, but why the comparison with Washington, 
unless it was to enhance Lincoln's importance? It is not true 
that Washington was abused more than any of the Presidents. 
Hundreds of contemporary writers pay their veneration to Wash- 
ington, and the abuse comes from a few intemperate politicians 
like Freneau and Callender. Thomas Jefferson, John Quincy 
Adams, John Tyler, James Buchanan and Woodrow Wilson were 
far more intemperately abused than ever Washington was, though 
this fact itself counts for little in derogation of their character. 
What an enemy says is not worth considering, unless supported 
by strong disinterested evidence. Dr. Stephenson fails utterly to 
see that Lincoln is the one case of a president against whom the 
severest criticisms come from his intimate friends — Lamon, Hern- 
don, Don Piatt, McClure, and cabinet members of his own ap- 
pointment — Seward, Stanton, Chase and Blair. Nothing like 
veneration for him was expressed during his life time, making his 
case conspicuously different from that of Washington and Jefferson. 

And as to "the beautiful tribute" passed by Mr. Davis on Lin- 
coln, only a victim of Propagandism could find a compliment to 
Lincoln in the words of the Ex-Confederate President. If Mr. 
Davis is correctly quoted, as I presume he is, he referred merely 
to the opportunity which Lincoln's assassination gave to the South 
haters in the North to carry through their plans of reconstruction. 

150 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

With one joyous shout these venomous representatives of the worst 
passions of the country classed all Southerners as assassins with 
Booth. And gleefully they went to work to put all former rebels 
under the heel of the military and the ignorant negro. Had Lin- 
coln lived, though there is little assurance that he would have suc- 
cessfully opposed any plan of the radicals, the necessary stimulus 
to excessive cruelty afforded by the action of Booth would have 
been lacking. 

Mr. Davis had excellent personal reasons to regret the death 
of Lincoln. On the charges of a band of scoundrels hoping to get 
a reward, and whose leader, one Connover, was subsequently landed 
in the penitentiary at Albany, Andrew Johnson issued a proclama- 
tion that the death of Lincoln "was incited, concocted and pro- 
cured by and between Jefferson Davis" and certain other well 
known Confederates, and offered a hundred thousand dollars for 
his apprehension. And perhaps not even Davis' generosity to an 
enemy could quite overlook the fact that Booth's unfortunate shot 
would be almost certain to assure to Lincoln an estimate in the 
eyes of the North far beyond his actual worth. 

Undoubtedly then the death of Lincoln proved "a dark day/' 
not for the good Lincoln had done to the South or would have done, 
but for the evil that others did do and have done, among whom 
the propagandists of the present day are not the least guilty. 

As a matter of fact, Lincoln's character is not to be deter- 
mined by those speeches and messages of his which were dressed 
up for the occasion, but by his private conversation and his public 
and official acts. The evidence is overwhelmingly that he posi- 
tively revelled in impure suggestions, and that as a statesman he 
was vacillating and unstable, lacking in proper pride and self- 
respect, and, while not naturally venomous like Thaddeus Stevens 
and Charles Sumner, callous to the obligations of humanity as 
defined in the International Law. There is little doubt that had 
the entire wiping out of the Southern people, or the failure of his 
war, presented itself to him, he would have unhesitatingly adopted 
the former alternative. We have his own words to this effect, 
when on August 3, 1862, he declared to his cabinet that "he was 
pretty well cured of any objections to any measure except want 
of adaptedncss to putting down the rebellion." 

Mr. Jeffersox and His Detractors 151 


In the Eichmond Enquirer for 1805 appears a series of edi- 
torials defending Mr. Jefferson from attacks levelled against him 
by Federalists relating to his conduct of the government of Vir- 
ginia during the American Eevolution. Owing to the difficulties 
of his situation, which were not at the time fully understood by 
everybody, some dissatisfaction, of which Mr. George Nicholas 
was spokesman in the House of Delegates, was manifested in 1781, 
when the States was invaded by the British under Arnold and 
Cornwallis. The House on June 12, 1781, adopted a resolution 
that an enquiry be made into "the conduct of the executive of 
this State for the last twelve months." 

Mr. Jefferson demanded and courted an enquiry, and so in 
November of the next session the House appointed a committee 
consisting of John Banister, John Tyler, George Nicholas, Turner 
Southall and Haynes Morgan to report to the House any charges 
against Mr. Jefferson, if any could be found. And although Mr. 
George Nicholas, as is seen, was a member, the committee unani- 
mously reported that the rumors in question were "groundless," 
and, thereupon, on December 19, 1781, the sincere thanks of the 
Senate and House, constituting the General Assembly, were 
voted Mr. Jefferson for his "impartial, upright and attentive 
administration of the powers of the Executive while in office." 

John Tyler, a member of the committee, was made speaker 
December 1, and when the committee reported, it was made his 
duty to voice the thanks of the assembly to Mr. Jefferson from the 
speaker's chair, which he did in "a warm and affectionate manner." 

In the "Vindication," in the Richmond Enquirer* the follow- 
ing letter from Judge Tyler is printed : 

"Mr. Jefferson finding at the end of the second year of his 
administration, in 1781, that some people were discontented with 
his conduct with respect to Arnold's and Cornwallis' invasions 
declined offering for the office of Chief Magistrate, but neither 

*Richmond Enquirer, Sept. 10, 1805. 

152 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

resigned nor refused the acceptance of it. His particular friends, 
however, expressed a wish to appoint him again • but on its having 
been moved that an enquiry should take place the succeeding ses- 
sion into the conduct of the executive for the last year, nothing 
more was said on the subject, but General Nelson, who then was 
at the head of the militia, was elected Governor. Mr. Jefferson 
was sent to the Assembly in the fall or spring following and there 
called on the house for the threatened examination in a very hand- 
some address, but by this time even those who thought him cul- 
pable began to think otherwise on a real reflection and a better 
information, and the house, by a general vote, directed their thanks 
to be delivered to him from the chair, by John Tyler, then their 
speaker, who did it accordingly in a warm and affectionate manner. 

The appointment of General Nelson was at Staunton, where 
the Assembly sat. Mr. Jefferson I believe was immediately sent 
to Congress, and from thence to France, where he continued seven 
years, discharging his important affairs, highly to the interest 
of his country, and greatly to the satisfaction of the government 
of France. Eichmond, September 9, 1805. John Tyler." 

After this, for many years these charges of inefficiency in the 
gubernatorial office were entirely suppressed, and Mr. Jefferson 
passed from post of honor to post of honor, serving as member 
of Congress, minister plenipotentiary to France and Secretary of 
State under Washington. But in 1796 Mr. Charles Symmes, of 
Alexandria, a virulent Federalist, revived the old exploded charges, 
and was answered by Mr. Jefferson's friends, who drew the record 
on him. 

It appears rather queer that, when soon after John Adams came 
in as President, he should so flout a man holding the vice-presi- 
dency, as to appoint Symmes, his worst detractor, collector of 
the port of Alexandria, then the most lucrative Federal office in 

The tale was next handed over to Mr. William Smith, a 
Federalist of South Carolina, who with a view to influence the 
election in that State represented it with additional coloring in 
his pamphlet styled Phocion. 

Was a signal service like this to be treated with ingratitude? 

Mr. Jefferson and His Detractors 153 

Adams appears to have thought not. "This furbisher of refuted 
falsehoods, this shameless fabricator of extracts of letters," was 
soon tricked out by Adams in the honorable garb of minister to 

The administration of John Adams came to an end in 1801, 
and Jefferson succeeded to the Presidency. The muck rake was 
laid aside for a time, but once more got busy at the beginning of 
Jefferson's second term. By that time there was little left of the 
Federalist party in Virginia; but such as was left survived in 
the persons of some of the most embittered partisans to be found 
anywhere in the Union. One of these was Thomas Turner, who, 
making many ugly additions to the old story, went so far in a 
letter to a sympathetic correspondent in Boston as to declare the 
great Jefferson "a dastardly traitor to the trust reposed in him." 

Symmes, Smith and Turner richly deserved some punishment 
for their misrepresentations and ugly temper, but true to his poli- 
tical beliefs, instead of turning Symmes out of office, and putting 
Turner into prison, as Adams had done his defamers, Mr. Jeffer- 
son was content to leave to his friends the matter of refuting the 
calumnies in the newspapers. Symmes remained in the office 
which Adams bestowed upon him, and Turner was merely turned 
over to the pen of Thomas Ritchie, Editor of the Richmond En- 

154 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


Norfolk, Va., April 15, 1912. 
To the Editors of Harpers Weekly: 

An article on Sumter in your issue of April 8, 1911, says: 
"Chief counsellor to the President, and really at the front of 
military affairs as Minister of War, was a subtle schemer who 
foresaw what was to come and was making plans accordingly. 
John B. Floyd, taking advantage of the powers of his office and 
the pro-Southern attitude of the majority of the Cabinet, had 
scattered the little army of the United States to far-off posts or 
positions where they would fall an easy prey to organized attack. 
Throughout the Southern armories he had distributed vast quanti- 
ties of arms and ammunitions of war, free gifts to the states that 
were soon to rise." 

This charges two acts of faithlessness to his official duty: 
(1) exposing the army, (2) transferring arms and ammunition. 

As to the first charge on December 6, 1875, Adjutant General 
Townsend showed that the changes in the stations of troops during 
Floyd's incumbency were unimportant. (Vol. I., Battles & 
Leaders of the Civil War, p. 7). If the charge was true, why did 
not Floyd's successor, Judge Holt, change them? He had ample 
opportunity, and most of the troops captured by the Confederates 
had been transferred to the danger point by him. (Serial num- 
ber 122', Official War Records, p. 23). Was he also a "subtle 
schemer ?" 

As to the second charge, Judge Black — Buchanan's close friend 
and no friend of Floyd — says: "A Committee was appointed by 

*In the Richmond Dispatch for August 7, 1911, appears a letter 
of Mr. Robert M. Hughes on somewhat similar lines, which was of- 
fered to Harper's Weekly, but not published. Subsequently Harpers 
Weekly published the above letter in its issue of May 11, 1912, and 
it is reproduced here, with the consent of the editors as also of Mr. 
Hughes, because of its historic value. 

John B. Floyd — A Defence 155 

the House in January, 1861, to ascertain how the public arms dis- 
tributed during the year 1860 had been disposed of. Mr. Floyd 
was not present at the investigation, he had not a friend on the 
Committee; it was organized to convict him if it could. It re- 
ported the evidence but gave no judgment criminating him. On 
the contrary, the opinion was expressed by the Chairman that the 
charges were founded in rumor, speculation and misapprehen- 
sion." . 

"There was a law for the distribution of arms among the dif- 
ferent states for the use of their militia. Under it the Ordnance 
Bureau, without any special order from the head of the department 
gave to each state that applied for it, her proper quota of muskets 
and rifles of the best pattern. During 1860 the number dis- 
tributed was 8423, of which the Southern states received 2091 
and the Northern 6332. Long range rifles numbering 1728 were 
also distributed, and all went to Northern States except 758, 
which went to certain Southern States. . . . The fact that 
the Southern States neglected to take their quota satisfied the 
Committee that there could have been no fraudulent combination 
in 1860 between them and the War Department. That concluded 
the case, since it was impossible for a sane man to believe that 
such a plot could have been formed and acted upon at a previous 
time and yet had no existence in the year immediately preceding 
the war. But the Committee went back, and it was proved that, 
in 1859, before any war was apprehended, before the election of 
Lincoln was dreamed of, Floyd ordered a transfer of 115,000 
muskets from Northern to Southern arsenals. . . . These 
arms were worthless and unserviceable. . . . We had 500,- 
000 of them . .' . and Floyd ordered 115,000 to be sent to 
the South, doubtless for mere convenience of storage." (Black's 
Essays, 266 & seq.) 

That Floyd had no such motive for the transfer is shown by 
the following facts : 

(1) He was then opposed to secession. 

(2) He was a Virginian, and not a musket of the lot went to 

(3) He knew the splendid material for cavalry in the South. 

156 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Yet not a sabre, carbine or revolver was sent to the South by his 

(4) He knew the South's poverty in field artillery, yet did 
not send a piece South. 

(5) No ammunition was sent by him. (Curtis's Buchanan, 
Vol. II., p. 416). 

If it was wrong to send arms South in 1859 and 1860, it was 
worse to leave them there early in 1861. Yet the inventory of 
the Norfolk Navy Yard for July 1, 1860 showed $654,526 of 
stores : and for April 10, 1861 it showed $664,884. 

Were Secretaries Toucy and Welles also "subtle schemers " 

This same article quotes the concluding part of Floyd's tele- 
gram to Anderson (authorizing him to surrender rather than sacri- 
fice his command), and implies that it was an insinuation to An- 
derson to betray his trust. 

The fact is that this was not in Floyd's original draft, but was 
added by Buchanan ten days later. (Crawford, Story of Sumter, 
pp. 73-5). 

In your issue of February 17, 1912, on the Fort Donelson fight 
in February 1862, it is stated that Floyd was then under a federal 
indictment. The statement is not true. Floyd resigned on Decem- 
ber 29, 1860. On January 25, 1861, he was indicted for alleged 
complicity in the abstraction of certain bonds of the Indian Trust 
Funds in the Department of the Interior. He was also indicted 
for alleged malversation in office. On hearing of it, he returned 
to Washington, gave bail and demanded a trial. On March 7, 
1861, the Court records show the following order on the complicity 
charge : 

"In this case, there being no proof to sustain the charge, a 
nolle prosequi is entered." 

The Court records also show that the malversation charge was 
quashed by the Court on March 20, 1861. 

Robert M. Hughes. 



By A. J. Morrison. 

The Law School at Litchfield, Connecticut, established by- 
Judge Reeve before the Revolution and continued by Judge Gould 
until about 1832; was a famous log institution, and not more im- 
posing physically than many of our 'two-room ? schools now under 
ban. Reference is had occasionally to the fact that some Virginian 
or North Carolinian followed studies at the Litchfield School. It 
will be of interest to many people to have a full list, as accurate 
as possible. That given below is taken from Dwight Kilbourne's 
Bench and Bar of Litchfield County, published in 1909. School 
catalogues were not numerous before 1825. The first catalogue 
(apparently a general catalogue) of the Litchfield School was 
issued in 1828, the conspicuous Tariff year, when the Southern 
patronage of the school fell off sharply. 

Chancellor Wythe died in 1806. The trend to Litchfield began 
soon afterward. Of the students there from the two states, twenty- 
one from Virginia and twenty-one from North Carolina, not many 
were what are called big guns in after life. We may fancy that 
most of them were Federalists. 

1811. John Davis Virginia. 

Thomas G. Polk North Carolina. 

1812. Isaac T. Preston Virginia. 

1813. Stephen Cambreling North Carolina. 

Thomas Deyereux North Carolina. 

William F. Taliaferro Virginia. 

1814. Arthur H. O'Hara North Carolina. 

1815. John B. Davies Virginia. 

Thomas P. Devereux North Carolina. 

1817. George P. Devereux North Carolina. 

Joseph C. Kerr North Carolina. 

John Y. Mason Virginia. 

Boyer F. Miller Virginia. 

158 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Edmond Wilkins North Carolina. 

1818. Francis L. Hawkes North Carolina. 

Tipton B. Harrison Virginia. 

Joseph E. Lloyd North Carolina. 

Ethelred Limdy Virginia. 

William H. McFarland Virginia. 

James H. Smith North Carolina. 

— — James S. Taylor Virginia. 

1819. Robert McCauley Virginia. 

Alpheus Gustin North Carolina. 

Joseph A. Hill North Carolina. 

1820. John L. Wilkins North Carolina. 

1821. William J. Mason Virginia. 

John J. Vanmeter Virginia. 

1823. Benjamin B. Hawkes North Carolina. 

Arthur A. Morson Virginia. 

William B. Nuttall North Carolina. 

Edward Pasteur Virginia. 

John Wager Virginia. 

1824. John L. Wight Virginia. 

1825. Benjamin Lowndes Virginia. 

Reuben Pickett North Carolina. 

1826. Enos H. Barnes Virginia. 

William D. Beckett North Carolina. 

1827. Robert H. Speed Virginia. 

1831. Edward D. Winslow North Carolina. 

1832. David Barclay, jr Virginia. 

Hannibal Chandler Virginia. 

Bracney T. Spires North Carolina. 

Rebellious Song 159 


(From the Records of York Co., Va.) 
At a Court held for York County, July the 19th, 1725. Present 

Lawrence Smith, Graves Packe, Thomas Nelson, Samuel 

Timson. Gent., Justices. 
William Robertson, Gent., attorney for our sovereign Lord 
King George, informs the court that Elizabeth Hansford, the wife 
of Thomas Hansford, did publicly sing a scandalous and oppro- 
brious song, highly reflecting upon our said Lord the King, and 
also did curse and revile our said Lord the King, as in the in- 
formacon is set forth, to which she pleaded not guilty, thereupon 
a jury, to wit: Jones Irwin, foreman, Robert Sheild, John Robin- 
son &c were sworn to try the issue & they haveing heard the evi- 
dence on both sides retired & being agreed on their verdict re- 
turned to the bar & delivered the same in these words : "We find 
the deft guilty of singing the Song that is expressed in the in- 
formacon, which verdict on the mocon of the sd Attorney of our 
Lord the King is admitted to record, and thereupon it is con- 
sidered by the court and adjudged that the Deft be fined the sum 
of twenty shillings for the use of our said Lord the King & 
ordered that the Defen* & Thomas Hansford her Husband pay 
the same with costs als Ex . 

Note: Thomas Hansford mentioned in this paper was the grand- 
son of Thomas Hansford, hanged by Sir William Berkeley in Bacon's 

160 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


One of the useful works done by the iState Library is the arrange- 
ment of the petitions presented to the Virginia Legislature, accord- 
ing to Counties. A selection is made from the Charles City Co. Peti- 
tions on file in the Archives Department. 

Petition Against the Paper Money, 1780. 

To the Honble the Speaker and the rest of the Members of the 
house of Delegates, 
The Petition of sundry freeholders & inhabitants of Cha s 
City Humbly Sheweth, That your Petitioners from the first rise 
of the dispute Between Great Britain and her Colonies, have been 
zealously and Steadily Attached to the American cause & on all 
occasions whereon their readiness to comply every demand of 
men and Money to support it; having in no Instance fallen short 
in their quota in either, But on the contrary exceeded in Many, 
our Zeal is not in the least abated, nor we trust will not abate, 
Tho we beg leave most humbly to represent to your Hon. house 
some grievances that w r e feel, and ill judged Measures that we 
think have been lately pursued. From what cause they have 
sprung we will not presume to say, tho the resolutions of both 
houses imposeing an oath on their members seem to point out 
one, but trust your Honble house will maturly and impartially 
consider what we shall urge, and if you find there has been errors 
you will correct them, and thereby give ease and content to your 
faithful Subjects, & again unite the whole state in the common 
Cause, which alone can insure peace and Independence — 
The first and ultamate wish of us all, Just before the Sittg of 
the last Assembly we saw some resolutions of Congress recom- 
mending it in the strongest terms to the legislatures in the Ameri- 
can union to adopt a plan they Proposed of calling in all the 
Money they had Issued by taxes in the course of one year and Is- 
suing New on funds to be by them established, which was to pay 
and redeem the old at the rate of one for forty. We cannot but 
say we thought it impossible that, that Honble body, shou'd be 

Charles City County Petitions 161 

serious in the demand; or that if they were, it would ever be 
comply'd with, when we look back to the Several Solemn declara- 
tions by them made, that they would redeem their Money agreeable 
to the Tenor of the Bills. But were much more Surprized when 
we found The Assembbly of this State, who had also on three 
Several Occasions made the same declarations as to their quota 
of Money among the foremost to adopt the Plan thereby as we most 
humbly Apprehend violateing the public faith & Irreparably de- 
stroying the honour of the commonwealth. We look upon it as a 
maxim not to be Controverted by the deepest Sophisters that a 
Violation of Publick faith is one great Step to national ruin and 
we fear its dreadful effects will too soon be felt here, if you in 
your wisdom do not fall on some Measures to prevent it. The 
only Plausible reason that we have ever heard for the measure is, 
that the holders of the Money never could expect to receive a hard 
Dollar for a paper one which they had obtained for commodities 
at so much greater price than their real value. We will not pre- 
sume to argue with you, & shall therefore only remind you, that 
Congress received for a very great part of this Money the com- 
modities of the Country at their Value in Gold and Silver, and 
had they required a tax to have been laid Sufficient for the ex- 
penditure of the Current year, & an additional one, the produce 
of which to be destroyed, Advantage might have been taken of 
the great depretiation of the Currency and the redundancy of 
the Money is two or three years have been consumed, and the re- 
mainder might have been refunded so as to be paid in a number 
of years with much more ease and conveniency to your people than 
the present plan proposes. We think it impossible to comply with 
the Law without ruin to ourselves and families, clearly foresee- 
ing that when we are called on for the last Payment, Money will 
have risen so much in Value that we shall not be able to procure 
it in any other manner but by the Sale of our estates which will 
be bought up by the Money Holders at their own Price. To pre- 
vent this we Observe the Legislature has given an alternative in 
Several Commodities; but it is with deep concern that we find not 
one of those within our reach. We hope therefore if this Bitter pill 
must be swallowed you will make it as palatable as Possible by 

162 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

adding the Article Indian Corn, Which perhaps may save ns, but 
at all events it will shew your Petitioners that you are not partial, 
& have the same tender regard for your Subjects in the lower parts 
of the Country, that you have for those in the upper. We observe 
the Money to be issued under this act is not made a legal tender, 
& that the Two Million Struck by another act is not even to pass 
in payment of Taxes. What policy cou'd dictate such as Innova- 
tion in our Laws we are at loss to say, tho we have been informed 
that the cry of Justice is the Plea, to whom do you Extend it; 
to no individual but the enemies of your Country, and a few 
miserable Misers who have refused your Money in payment for 
their bonds from the beginning; they first intending to bring it 
into dispute and thereby ruin the American cause, but latter car- 
ing not what were the consequences if they cou'd but increase 
their hoards of ill gotten pelf. If any have suffered it is your 
friends, who have received it on all Occasions, & used every means 
within their power to Support its credit — They will by this Meas- 
ure will be laugh'd to scorn for their folly by your enemies, who 
will hug themselves in their Sagacity, and will immediately pro- 
ceed to distress those whom we most humbly think ought not to 
have been put Into their power, But if this shou'd not be the case, 
we beg leave to call your Serious attention to the Subject on an- 
other Score, can this be a time to try Projects on so momentious 
a Subject as your Currency, when a powerfull and invading enemy 
is at our doors and when we are in want of every necessary to 
oppose them, if the change should damn your Money ; and we have 
but too much reason to suppose it will, the Sinews of war will be 
broken, and we reduced to the most dreadful of all Situations, 
the bowing the neck to Cezar. Again will you not by this Measure 
destroy the credit of the new Money to be issued by Congress the 
old you say cou'd not keep up its credit tho it had all the properties 
of Money. Is it not absurd then to expect that the new will do it, 
which has none of them, we think the position too plain to be 
contradicted; & therefore most earnestly and fervently pray that 
an act may Pass making the Money to be Eemitted by Congress 
& the two Millions ordered by the Assembly a legal Tender in all 
cases; arid that the latter may be received in payment of all 

Chaeles City County Petitions 163 

taxes, & we hope no more may be struck hereafter but on the 
same footing. The Eesolutions of Assembly empowering the Exe- 
cutive to make Seizures of Several Enumerated Articles for the 
Army we complain not of, well knowing its wants must be Sup- 
piy'd, tho we think it wou'd have Appeared better, and have repre- 
sented your people in their true characters, which is ever to grant 
what they have, if they had first have been requested to furnish 
their Superfluities, and on refusal then to have used force; fully 
Convinced of the Utility of the Measure we ask not a repeal But 
apply to your Justice for an amendment, Our Grain, Flour &c 
are to be taken at a Value set on them by the Assembly; this is 
new and we humbly think it unjust and Partial, Unjust because 
we say it is impossible for any body of men to be Judges of the 
plenty or Scarcity of a Commodity in the different parts of this 
great Country according to which the price will vary. Partial 
because the makers of Hemp Tobacco &c are left at liberty to 
obtain the best price they can get for their Commodities and are 
thereby better enabled to pay the demands made on them by the 
State, The power Given to Seize Cattle we think carried too far, 
If our barren Cows are taken from us our Stocks must be de- 
stroyed in a very short time, as it is from them only that we can 
expect an Increase of stock the next year. If this plan is pur- 
sued we shall be exceedingly distress'd over our lands being worn 
out and poor, & will promise nothing without manure; our whole 
Prospect of Paying our Taxes And supporting our families there- 
fore depends on the Preservation of our Stock, which cannot be 
effected without an alteration in that part of that resolution, which 
we therefore hope will be made and that the articles furnished 
for the army or its use may be Valued by Impartial people on 
Oath, and that all Certificates given for them may be received in 
payment of all Taxes whatever. We beg Pardon for taking up 
so much of your time, but as the Several Subjects are Momentous 
and of great consequence to the Community in General, as well 
as your Petitioners We hope to stand excused. We beg leave 
again to call your attention to the Several matters contained in 
this our Petition and hope that you will grant such reiief as in 
your wisdom Shall think just and right. 

164 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Taken from No. 1 :* William Merry, Benj a Mountcastle, Charles 
Holdsworth, Joseph Vaiden, Major Willcox, William Collier, 
Henry Duke, Edw d Finch, Edw d Russell, Jn° Otey, Henry Mount- 
castle, Edw d Maynard, William Maynard, Henry Brewer, James 
Johnson, William Atkinson, Jacob Johnson, James Binge, Edw d 
Stubble-field, Tho s Blackhearst, Charles Parrish, Jn° Hilliard, 
Jn° Brown, J r ., Ja s Parrish, Avilliam willcox, Gedion Roach, 
Tho s Blanks, William Edwards, William Parrish, James Timber- 
lake, Samuel Lennard, Henry Poynter, Joseph Mountcastle, Rich- 
ard Mountcastle, Stephen Shell, Abraham Brown, George Marable, 
James Blackhearst, David Merry, John Harwood, William Len- 
nard, Samuel Poynter, John New, William Holdsworth, Thomas 
Willcox, John Bullifant, Jr. 

Bradf d Williams, John Pavely, Francis Hill, Edw d Marable, 
Wyatt Walker, Charles Collier, Tho s Harwood, William Harwood, 
Hen. Armistead, W m Brown, James Nance, Littleberry Perry, 
John Christian, Thomas Spragn, John Atkinson, David Fields, 
Rob* Drake, W m Marrable, J. Dancy, Isaac Hill, Joseph Bradley, 
David Roper, Th° Malthis, William B. McH., Edw d Christian, 
Allen M. Brown, James Hurt, John West, William Chancy, John 
Colgin, Tho s Robinson, E. Powell, John Menitree, Samuel Riddle- 
hurst, Daniel Crighton, Tho s Perry, John Nance, Sam 1 Major, 
John Willcox, John Major, Ben Edmondson, George Waddill, 
William Austin, Thomas Pearson, Francis Drake, Geo. William- 
son, Francis Hardyman, Tho s Morecock, Benj. Blagrove, Richd 
Corbell, Stephen West, James Hill, Edw d Clarke, Mark Wood, 
John Wood, Henry Hervey, Joel Christian, Malcolm Grant, Tho s 
Ballard, Alex r Walker, J r ., Will G. Munford. 
Taken from No. 2 : Peter Royster, John Bradley, Edw d Chris- 
tian, Henry Bowles, Gedion Bradley, John Irby, William Terrell, 
W m Gill, Charles Carter, Littleberry Irby, Banj a Bradley, W m 
Tyree, W m Hardyman, Sam 1 Christian, James Hardyman, John 
Wills, W m Rocke, John Gregory, Francis Irby, Sen 1 *., Benj a Buck, 
Jeffery Gilliam, W m Pike, Benj a Morris, Henry Fuqua, Gedion 
Hamblett, Geo. Hamblett, Gedion Bradley, Sam 1 Johnson, W m 

♦Refers to another copy circulated. 

Charles City County Petitions 165 

Rcyall, James Bradley, Benj. Carter, James Thompson, Tho s Brad- 
ley, Tho s Butler, Jolm Knibb, John Eavins, Ja s New, Geo. Baker, 
Eaton Nance, Will Adams, W. Clark, Tho s Binns, John Edloe, F. 
Walker, B. W. Williams, Will Edloe, Paul Jones, David Minge, 
Turn r Southail, W m Dancy, Francis Durfey. 


Charles City Petition, Novem r 8 th , 1780. 
Eefferred to Propositions. 

Petition of Thomas Goodwyn's Heir. 

To the Honorable the Speaker and Members of the General As- 

The Petition of Harman D. Beadles, Heir at Law of Thomas 
Goodwyn deceased. 

That some time in the Spring of 1779 the said Thomas Good- 
wyn was drafted from the militia of the county of Charles City 
as a soldier in the 9 th Virginia Regiment and continued therein 
until the time of his death which happened in the year 1780 or 
1781 at the Hospital at Charleston, that his death was occasioned 
by wound he received at the Southward. 

Your petitioner shews, that the said Thomas Goodwin during 
his life, received no pay or depreciation, nor the petitioner or any 
other person to his knowledge, since his decease for his services, 
and that his entering into a defence of his country's cause, is 
supported by two certificates, accompanying the present request. 

Humbly prays, that the Auditor of public accounts may 
be directed to issue to your pet r the pay and depreciation 
due to the said Thomas Goodwin and he will &c. 


Beadles Pet r 9 Oct. 1792— Claims 
reasonable Congress 14 Oct 92 

166 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Petition of the Quakers. 

To the Senate, and House of Delegates in Virginia. 
The Memorial of the People called Quakers. 
Kespectfully sheweth. 

That whereas a Memorial was presented to the House of Dele- 
gates at the last session of Assembly on behalf of the Religious 
Society of Friends called Quakers in this State, seting forth that 
from Conscientious scruples they had at all times heretofore de- 
clined the use or Custom of covering the head in honor to any 
man. or body of men whatever; Or voluntarily contributing to 
the support of an hireling Ministry; For Eeasons in the said 
Memorial mentioned; and praying relief, or Indulgence from 
these Impositions. But finding from the proceedings of that 
House, that notwithstanding there were certain Eesolutions en- 
tered into, not unfavorable to your Memorialists, yet from the 
Multiplicity of other business, or some other cause nothing ap- 
pears to have been effectually done. The subscribers therefore 
in discharge of the trust reposed in them by the said society, 
beg leave at this early period of the Session to request that a 
further consideration of the Matters contained in the said Memo- 
rial may again be taken up, and that such relief be granted as 
to you in your wisdom may seem just and Reasonable. 

Robert Pleasants, 
John Hunnicutt, 
Pleasants Terrell. 

Signed on behalf, and by appointment of the Society 
of Friends at their yearly Meeting held in Charles City 
County from the 20th of the 5th month, to the 23d. of 
the same inclusive, 1793. 


Quakers Memorial Octo 22 d 1793 

Ref d to Religion reasonable H H. rejected Chaplain 
30th Oct r , ? 93 

Charles City County Petitions 167 

Petition of the Quakers Against Slavery, 1831. 

To the Senate and House of Delegates of Virginia in general 

The Memorial and Petition of the religions Society of Friends, 
of Virginia yearly Meeting respectfully shews. 

That yonr Memorialists under a deep sense of the responsi- 
bility which rests upon them, both as Citizens of this State and 
as a Christian community, desire to call your attention to a Sub- 
ject of the utmost importance. From the Republican nature of 
our government the citizens of this State possess in a preeminent 
manner the privilege of presenting their views of important Sub- 
jects for Legislative consideration, and on some Occasions, they 
must be under the imperious obligation of doing so. In addition 
to this obligation, which arises from the formation of our govern- 
ment, and the inseparable connection of our interests with the pros- 
perity of our country, we feel a higher motive for the present 
memorial — the influence of a Christian solicitude for the preser- 
vation and happiness, not only of ourselves, and those identified 
with our homes, and the tenderest ties of nature — but also of our 
fellow citizens and our beloved Country in the most comprehen- 
sive construction of the term. In common with all other Chris- 
tian denominations, we believe that the most High rules in the 
nations of the earth ; exercising his Power and Providence through- 
out his vast incalculable dominions. All history combines in an 
unbroken chain in Support of a belief in the interposition of God 
in human affairs. The rise and fall of Empires bear testimony 
which cannot be resisted of the riches of his goodness, the chas- 
tisements of his displeasure and sometimes of the terrors of his 
judgments. These dispensations of an Over-ruling Providence 
have ever been in intimate connection with the laws he has estab- 
lished for the government of his rational creatures. While his 
wrath has been revealed from heaven against the children of dis- 
obedience — while the most potent empires have sank beneath the 
stroke of his rod — his goodness, power and Providence through 
all ages have been displayed on behalf of those who have made 
his righteous Law their rule of action who depended on the di- 

168 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

rection of his Wisdom : and trusted for deliverance and support 
in his Almighty arm. 

The present important crisis demands in a peculiar manner 
an humbling remembrance of the goodness and Sovereignty of the 
Almighty. The people of the United States and of the Common- 
wealth have abundant cause for reverent acknowledgement of the 
interposition of a gracious Providence. His blessings have been 
bountifully dispensed to us; and his hand has been made mani- 
fest in preserving us from many impending dangers. As intel- 
ligent beings we are called upon to bow under a sense of the Sov- 
ereignty to God. We are bound to acknowledge the immutability 
of his Law, and the perfection of all his attributes : and to look 
to Him for direction in the administration of our public affairs. 
In this state of mind there cannot be a doubt, that if we follow 
his counsel in the fulfillment of his Law, his blessings will be 
showered down upon us, and his Arm of Power will be a wall of 
preservation round about us. Solemnly impressed with a sense, 
that we cannot annul his Judgments; and that in the way of 
obedience we may confidently trust in his providential care, we 
would call your attention to an evil in our country — an evil which 
has been of long continuance, and is now of increasing Magnitude. 
We allude to the condition of the African race in our land. We 
need not we apprehend on the present occasion descend in detail 
into the consequences of this evil, either present or perspective — • 
as respects that suffering and degraded class of the human family, 
or as relates to us and to our fellow Citizens. It is admitted on all 
hands, that the first principles of our Eepublican institutions, 
and the immutable laws of justice and Humanity have long been 
violated. Not only have the effects of this System upon our Na- 
tional prosperity been seen, but its demoralizing tendency and its 
ultimate awful consequences have been sufficiently developed to 
demand legislative interference. 

We believe that as our present difficulties and dangers origi- 
nated in a departure from the laws of Justice & Humanity which 
the Creator has fixed for the government of his rational creatures 
in their intercourse with each other; so nothing short of an aban- 
donment of the cause for which the present state of things has 

Chakles City County Petitions 169 

arisen, can be regarded as an effectual remedy. We have seen, 
that by a perseverance in a system repugnant to the laws of God, 
and subversive of the rights, and destructive to the happiness of 
man, there has been an awful increase, both of the difficulties and 
the dangers by which we are surrounded. We therefore solemnly 
believe that some efficient System for the abolition of Slavery in 
this Commonwealth and the restoration of the African race to the 
inalienable rights of man, is imperiously demanded by the laws of 
God, and inseparably connected with the best interests of the 
Commonwealth at large. The Voice of justice and humanity has 
been repeatedly raised on behalf of the Victims of oppression. 
But the appeal embraces not the sable children of Africa alone; 
The peace, the safety, the prosperity and happiness of all classes 
are included in the policy dictated by the spirit of our government, 
the feelings implanted in our nature, and the Laws which the great 
Sovereign of the universe has himself promulgated from Heaven. 

Under the View of the claims of Justice and humanity on 
behalf of a deeply injured race, and the Various responsibilities 
which rest upon this Commonwealth in regard to their present 
condition, we submit for your consideration the propriety of pass- 
ing an Act, declaring that all persons born in the State ever after 
some period to be fixed by law shall be free, and also that the 
State of Virginia provide some territory, or solicit the aid of the 
United States in providing one for the formation of a Colony for 
people of colour, and also to aid in removing Slaves as may be 
given up for that purpose. 

We implore the continuance of the mercies and blessings of 
God, upon our beloved Country. We pray that he may graciously 
condescend to direct your understandings by the Wisdom which 
is from above, in considering and resulting the most momentous sub- 
ject, in which the rights and happiness of the present and future 
generations are so deeply involved: that through your instru- 
mentality, his benedictions may be shed upon our country and 
the blessing of those who are ready to perish may come upon you. 

Signed by direction and on behalf of a meeting of the Eepre- 

170 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

sentatives of the Society aforesaid, held in Charles City County 
the 24th of the 11th month 1831 by 

Fleming Bates. 
Endorsed : 

Quakers Dec r 14 th 1831 ref d to select com ee 

Petition of B. Harrison Against Gill Seines. 

The memorial of B. Harrison to the Genl. Assembly of Ya. 
respectfully represents that he is the Proprietor of a fishery on 
the waters of the James Eiver which was formerly very productive, 
but which of late years has become comparatively worthless by 
reason of the introduction of gill nets, a species of seine which 
threatens the entire destruction of that valuable fish the shad, 
unless the laws of the State are interposed for its preservation. 
The Berkeley fishery has been the property of its present Pro- 
prietor and his ancestors for upwards of a century, and has been 
cleared of numberless rocks and other obstructions at vast ex- 
pense. Three years previously to the use of float seines or gill- 
nets it had yielded a clear income of $1500 or $1800, since their 
introduction it has scarcely defrayed the expences of fishing it. 
although considerable additional expence has been incurred in 
extending the scope of the seine. In one instance a rock has been 
brought on shore for the removal of which your Memorialist of- 
fered $500. The gill net takes its name from the circumstance 
of its entangling the shad in its messes by the gills. It is also 
called the float seine from the manner in which it is fished being 
stretched across the channel of our Eivers and floating with the 
increasing or receding tide. The meshes being large enough to 
admit the head but too small for the passage of the body, the fish 
becomes entangled by the gills in its effort to extricate itself. 
From the peculiar formation of the shad, the gill net is particu- 
larly destructive to the females, the slender bodies of the males 
enabling them to pass through the meshes of the net with com- 
parative safety. From his own observation he is inclined to be- 
lieve that four fifths of the shad thus taken are females. 

The experience of Persons well informed on the subject, 

Charles City County Petitions 171 

amongst them, the venerable Judge Peters of Pennsylvania, is 
conclusive to your Memorialist the shad frequent the waters which 
give them birth, if this opinion be sustained by facts, it is all 
important for the preservation of that fish that at least, a small 
portion of the female be permitted to ascend our Eivers to cast 
their spawn. With the hundreds of float seines which are seen 
stretched across the channel of the James Eiver from its mouth 
to the falls at Eichmond, it seems a miracle that a single shad 
should ever escape. 

Your Memorialist is of opinion that the float seines affect 
much more injuriously however the proprietors of the fisheries, 
by preventing the ascent of the fish up our Eivers, in as much 
as they act as obstructions to the passage of the fish at the season 
when they are attempting to ascend the Eivers for the purpose of 
breeding their young and your Memorialist respectfully sug- 
gests to your Hon. Body that they be treated as obstructions. He 
therefore prays, that the law of the last session in relation to gill 
nets on the Potomac, be extended to the waters of James Eiver. 
He further begs leave to suggest that as the fishing interest, may 
become important to the State of Va. its preservation would be 
greatly promoted, by requiring in future that all Dams erected 
across the head waters of our Eivers, be constructed in such a 
manner as to present an inclined plane or slope on the lower side 
for the more easy ascend of the fish. 

In case however that your Honorable Body deem it inexpedient 
to suppress entirely the use of gill nets in the waters of James 
Eiver, then your Memorialist prays that the proprietors of haul- 
ing seines be protected by law against the use of gill nets or 
float seines, within the range of their respective fisheries. 

And your Memorialist will ever pray. 

Benj. Harrison. 
Endorsed: Benj" Harrison Jan>' 18th 1833. ref d to Eoads. Feb 
6th reasonable 

Petition of Benjamin Harrison Eegarding Eobert Morris. 
To the Legislature of Virginia. 
The petition of Benjamin Harrison respectfully represents 

172 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

to your Honourable Body that he is the only heir and Devisee 
of Benjamin Harrison of Berkeley, who was apprenticed as a 
merchant to Robt: Morris Esq late of Philadelphia: That during 
his apprenticeship he contracted a warm and cordial friendship 
for his patron and friend Mr. Morris, which on every proper oc- 
casion he evinced by word and deed. 

It is well known to your Honb 1 Body, that during the Revolu- 
tionary Struggle when the public confidence was at the lowest ebb, 
and the Credit of the United States, not only unable to bring a 
single additional Regiment into the field but insufficient to clothe 
the patriotic soldier struggling for his Countries right, M r Rob- 
ert Morris in the hour of peril and financial difficulty tendered 
his purse to his country, and in the estimation of competent judges 
was Second only to Washington in achieving their independence 
which is our countrys boast. 

At the close of the Revolutionary contest, M r Morris became 
embarassed in his pecuniary affairs. 

It was at this time that your petitioners father strained every 
nerve to relieve his friend, and Sacraficed a large real estate in 
the City of Richmond to Support his Sinking credit. 

The accompanying document marked A, being a letter from 
the President of the Bank of North America in Philadelphia, the 
son in law of Robert Morris, will be deemed Sufficient evidence 
that your petitioners father had advanced Robert Morris $45,000. 
But this Sum availed nothing. 

M r Morris, the benefactor of his Country, was committed to 
jail, and the greater part of his immense estate has been permitted 
to be wasted. 

Your petitioner now Solicits, that the heirs of Robert Morris, 
being M r & M rs Nixon of Philadelphia, who have manifested a 
willingness and in fact have agreed that the just demands of 
your petitioners father, Shall be discharged out of the proceeds 
of the Sales of Land properly belonging to the estate of the late 
Robert Morris : 

That your Honb 1 Body in consideration of the premises, will 
remit and transfer to them, all right, title, and interest to any and 
all lands held in this commonwealth in the name of Robert Morris 

Charles City County Petitions 173 

esqre late of Philadelphia, which have accrued to the common- 
wealth under the opperation of the forfeiture Laws for the non- 
payment of taxes. 

The fact of your Honb 1 Body, having exercised the liberality 
of releasing all forfeited Lands, by the extinguishment of all ar- 
rearage tax due the commonwealth, on all Lands Situated on the 
east of the Alleghany Mountains, by acts of your Honb 1 Body 
bearing date the first day of April and the ninth day of April 
1831 : Your petitioner in his humble views, can not conceive 
justice to individual Land holders West of the Alleghany Moun- 
tain, nor uniformity of Pollicy of the commonwealth, having for 
its object, due regard to constitutional principles in the adminis- 
tration of its Revenue and other laws in this partial and unequal 
Legislation: If the whole community and the Commonwealth was 
benefited by this Geographical distinction, Silence would become 
every citizen, but such is not the fact. 

Your petitioner, with due defference to your Honb 1 Body, 
prays that the laws on this subject made and provided on the first 
and ninth days of April 1831, may be made uniform; at least so 
as to embrace the lands of the late Robert Morris of Philadelphia 
and thereby extinguish all arrearage tax and restore the Lands 
that have accrued to the Literary fund under the opperation of 
the former laws of this Commonwealth. 

Your petitioner would humbly represent, That acts of injus- 
tice have grown out of the various forfeiture laws of your Honb 1 
Body, not known here, But in practical extent in the West, is felt 
and deplored by the distant and non-resident Land holders, which 
are in effect destructive to Land titles acquired many years past 
under the Solemn Seal and pledged faith of this commonwealth. 

Such laws are unconstitutional and the consequences produced 
thereby inconsistent with the Land law and policy of May 1779, 
made and provided for the organization of the Land office of Vir- 

Your petitioner would respectfully Suggest, that the code 
of forfeiture laws, is not in unison with the spirit and genious 
of a strict constitutional government, and the System in practical 
effect and consequences is confiscation, and a repeal of the Land 

174 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

law of 1779 under which the Guarantee was held out to all per- 
sons, especially to foreigners and non-residents, to participate in 
the appropriation of Waste and unappropriated Land in the west- 
ern parts of this Commonwealth. 

Your petitioner would further respectfully alledge, that this 
System of forfeiture laws under the protection and auspices of 
the Legislature of Virginia, was sustaining a character of pecula- 
tion, that inflicts discredit on the antient Dominion, and destruc- 
tive to the vested rights of original Land holders, who may have 
improvidently omited to pay tax regularly. That the excessive 
increase of new grants for the Land already granted, was a Source 
of great alarm, and a Subject that demands the early interposi- 
tion and correction by your Honb 1 Body. For the continuance 
of such a course by the Western population of Virginia, is not 
only calculated to bring the land titles into disrepute, but opens the 
door to litigation and so far as the Heirs of Kobert Morris are 
concerned your petitioner prays a review and repeal of these laws 
and relief from your Honb 1 Body, and he will ever pray &c 

Benjamin Harrison. 

Stating that E. Morris deed formerly of Philad a was indebted 
to the petr's father in the sum of $45,000 for money advanced, and 
praying that the right which has accrued to the Commonwealth in 
the lands lately belonging to the estate of the said Morris & 
which shall become forfeited for the non-payment of taxes, may 
be released to Mr. & Mrs. Nixon of Philad a , who are the heirs 
of said Morris, & have agreed that the sum shall be applied to the 
payment of the aforesaid debt due to the petitioners father. 
Endorsed : 

Benjamin Harrison 
Urging the Commonwealth to release its 
title to certain lands, which belonged 
to Eobert Morris, late of Philadelphia. 
Feb* 4th 1834 ref d to C. P. J. Feby 13 Rejected Christian 

Charles City County Petitions 175 

Letter of Thomas Nixon. 

Philad a Feby 6 1831. 
D r Sir 

Your favor of 15 th Jany was duly reed & in reply have to repeat 
what I have done in my former communication to yon which you 
appear not to have received. With the commission of Bank- 
ruptcy against E. Morris having been rendered null & void by a 
late decision of the court — all property belonging to the estate of 
P. Morris reverts to the heirs of R. Morris — but by a will of Mr. 
P. Morris leaving all property which he may be possessed to his 
wife Mary Morris, and she having subsequently dee'd leaving a 
Will in which she gives all her property to a Daughter Mary 
Nixon excepting a sum given to her sons Thomas & Henry Morris, 
the Property, of course a legacy, descends & belongs to her — a 
question however arises how far the Property is now still bound 
to his creditors & particularly to the Judgment creditors — many 
of whom have covered their Judgments — you will at once per- 
ceive that it becomes Mrs. Mxon to act with great caution & cir- 
cumspection to prevent being involved in disputes arising out of 
the various interests & therefore under the advice of council It 
has been deemed most prudent not to interfere in the rights or 
wishes of any particular creditor, but let them pursue such steps 
as they may deem most for their interest & in case of any dif- 
ficulties arising out of such proceedings let the court determine 
as to their respective claims. 

With this view of the subject I have only to assure you that 
should the Securities given to your father's estate by the late P. 
Morris not have proved sufficient, you can obtain the balance out 
of other property in Virginia. 

It will afford the family much pleasure feeling that the debt 
due is one which was contracted under the feelings of friendship 
& ought to be liquidated. 

With great respect 

I remain Tho. Nixon 

In speaking of the securities I notice in the schedule of Prop- 
erty given in by Mr. Morris some property in Norfolk & Gosport 

176 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

— as also some bonds given to secure your father who was acting 
as agent for him with Directions to sell the property & pay himself. 
Also an order on some lands to secure the farther payment of his 
Debt in the Tennessee Lands & which I mentioned to you when 
last I had the pleasure of seeing you. 

(Endorsed) M r Mxon on the V a lands of Rob 1 Morris, important 
Addressed: Benjamin Harrison Esqr 
Charles City County, Virginia. 

James City County Petitions 177 


On file in the Archives Department of the State Library. 

Petition of the Directors for the Hospital for Lunatics.* 

To the Honorable, the Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of 
The Memorial of the Court of Directors of the Hospital for 
Lunatics, Ideots, & other Persons of unsound Mind. Humbly 
sheweth, that soon after the last Session of the late General As- 
sembly, M r James Gait proposed to your Memorialists a Resigna- 
tion of his Office of Keeper of the said Hospital, which they were 
of Opinion might impede, in some Degree, the charitable Purpose 
of that Institution; not only from the loss of an Officer who has 
ever given them Reason to be satisfied with his Conduct, but from 
the Difficulty, as your Memorialists apprehended, of procuring a 
Successor, on Account of the Lowness of the Salary. This being 
M r Gait's Motive for resigning, your Memorialists prevailed with 
him to continue his Services, by engaging to represent his Case 
to the General Assembly; and to this they beg leave to subjoin, 
that the Salary given to the Matron of the Hospital is so incon- 
siderable as to occasion a Vaacancy in that Office, which they fear 
is not likely to be supplied without some better Provision for a 

Your Memorialists conceived it to be their Duty to make this 
Representation, & humbly submit the same to the Consideration 
of the General Assembly. 

hospital Memorial — ref d to Trade — June 5 th 79 
Ad m All d £200— to W. G. 
Acl m All d £200 to Matron 
June 14th 1779 

*For a history of the Williamsburg Hospital, see Tyler, "Wil- 
liamsburg, the Old Colonial Capital." 

178 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Petition of Charles Bellinl* 

To the honourable the Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Dele- 

The Petition of Charles Bellini humbly sheweth: 
That his salary as Clerk of Foreign Correspondence is so very low 
that, at the present high Prices, every convenience & necessary of 
Life sell at, it will scarcely purchase him Fire- Wood & Candles; 
it being no more than twenty Shillings per Day. That upon the 
Removal of the Seat of Government, he will lose the Perquisites 
which he receives from the College, and will be unable to hold the 
Office, unless this Honourable House shall make him some additional 
allowances. He does not expect the same Salary as the Clerk of 
the Council, but he humbly hopes that the small Sum of twenty 
Shillings per Day, will not be thought sufficient for the support of 
a Family. 

He therefore prays that his Case may be taken into Considera- 
tion and such Provision made for him as shall be found to be rea- 

Bellini's Pet n Nov r 10 th 1779 
Referred to Trade, reasonable 
Allowed £600 $ Annum 

Petition of John Blair.! 

To the Hon ble The Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of Dele- 
gates — The Petition of John Blair. 
Humbly sheweth, that there was due to your Petitioner for his 
Salary as one of the judges of the High Court of Chancery 6666 lh 

*Charles Bellini came from Italy and settled in Albemarle County 
in 1773. When Mr. Jefferson reorganized the College of William and 
Mary in 1779, he appointed Bellini to the first chair of Modern Lan« 
guages in America. He died in 1803, and was succeeded by Louis H. 


fJohn Blair, Jr., (1731-1800) was son of John Blair, President 
of the Virginia Council. After serving as one of the chancellors of 
the State, he was made by Washington Associate Justice of the United 

James City County Petitions 179 

Tobacco the 1 st of July last, at which Time commences the new 
Eegulation made in the last Session of Assembly respecting the 
Payment of Salaries, leaving all Arrears which might be due for 
the Time previous to that Period entirely unprovided for in conse- 
quence of which your Petitioner must either lose that Part of his 
Salary, or accept a Payment in Paper Money now become quite 
inadequate & even useless to him, & this without having ever had 
it in his Power to receive it which would have been of Use, unless 
this Hon bl House should in their Wisdom & justice provide a 
Eemedy for this & other Cases of a like Nature, which is humbly 
submitted by their dutiful Petitioner. 

John Blair. 


Blair's petition June 18th 1782. referred to Trade. 
June 21 st 1782 referred to the next Session of Assembly. 
Reported Dec 1 ' 12 th 1782 Provided for by an Act passed at the 
last session. 

Petition of the Justices. 

To the Honble the Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Delegates. 
The Petition of the Justices of the County of James City 
Humbly sheweth that the public Jail* in the City of Williamsburg 
is at present not made use of by any but the Corporation of the said 
City and the jail of the said County is out of repair & unfit for 
use That it would save the expense of repairing the County Jail, 
to the said County, and do no injury to the public if the said public 
Goal should jointly be .used by the County of James City & the 
Corporation of the City of Williamsburg. Your Petitioners there- 
fore humbly pray that an Act may pass for that purpose. 

James City Justices, June 5 1784, their petition, reasonable — 
(rep d ) referred to propositions. 

*For an account of the Public jail, i. e., the jail belonging to the 
Colony as distinguished from the City Jail of Williamsburg, see 
Tyler, History of Williamsburg, p. 221. It is still standing. 

180 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Petition of John Watkins. 

To the hon bl ° the Speaker & Gentlemen of the House of Dele- 
The petition of John Watkins now humbly sheweth 
That your petitioner was appointed Steward to the Continental Hos- 
pital in Williamsburg on the 20 th of April 1778 by Doct r William 
Eickman, Director, and continued in that capacity till the 20 th 
of October 1780, at which period considerable arrearages on Acco 1 
of pay & became due to your petition for which he has never re- 
ceived any compensation. He therefore prays, your Hon ble House 
may take his case into Consideration, and allow him the deprecia- 
tion of his pay & subsistence for the service afore-mentioned, and 
your Petitioner shall pray &c. 


Watkin's Pet June 11 th 1784, Eef d to Claims, June 16 th 1784, 



Petition of Gabriel Maupin. 

To the Hon ble the Speaker & Gent: of the House of Delegates. 

The Petition of Gabriel Maupin Humbly Sheweth 
That your Pet r early in the late Contest with Great Britain, in 
the Year 1776, received the appoint mt of Keeper of the Magazine 
in and near the City of Williamsburg; in which Capacity he acted 
until the close of the War; and in consequence of his assiduity in 
his office, the General Assembly at their session in the fall of 1779 
gave your Pet r the Eank and Priviledge of a Captain. 

Your Petitioner therefore having devoted his Service in this 
Department during the whole of the War, and executed the Duty 
of it with Care, and punctuality, humbly hopes that the General 
Assembly will extend to your Petitioner the same Bounty in Lands, 
as have been given to a Captain: and your Petitioner as in Duty 


Maupin Pet r , June 11 th 1784, Eef d to Props, prays for Captain's 
bounty (rejected), (speciality) 

James City County Petitions 181 

Petition of the Lessees of the Governour's Land.* 

To the Honourable the Speaker and the Members of the House 
of Delegates. 

The Lessees of the lands commonly calPd the Governours land 
in the County of James City beg leave humbly to represent to this 
Honourable House that in consequence of an act entitled an Act 
directing the sale of certain public Lands and for other purposes 
giveing to the University of William and Mary all the Interest 
of the public in the land aforesaid, your Memorialists are threat- 
ened with law suits by the professors of the said University to de- 
prive them of the leases they hold for part of that Land previous 
to the revolution. Your Memorialists beg leave to represent that 
they hold their leases from an Authority deem'd Competent at 
the time they were made and never questioned till now. They 
cannot but feel With Singular Sensibility that the Security of 
property which they enjoyed under the former Government should 
be hazarded by a revolution in effecting which they have not 
yeilded in Zeal and Services to any other citizen of the State. At 
the same time they are persuaded that neither the Justice nor 
humanity of the Legislature woud have permitted them to pass 
the Act in question, but they conceived it woud have been 
parental of Law suits to disturb many Citizens in a title to their 
possessions never doubted before and reduce them and their 
families to great distress and perhaps unavoidable ruin from the 
Expence of such a litigation: much less can it be conceived that 
the Legislature intended to establish a Semenary of Learning and 
Morals in oppressive law suits and the ruin of individuals. For 
when it is considered that they are to contend with their private 
purses against a public fund and powerfull Body; it may well be 
conceived that many of them however Just their Title; or how- 
ever favourable the event of the suits may be to them, must be 

*In 1619 3000 acres were laid out for the support of the governor's 
office between Jamestown and the mouth of the Chickahominy river. 
They were tilled at first by employees of the London Company, but 
after the revocation of this charter in 1624 the lands were leased on 
terms of 21 years to individuals. In 1784 the "governor's land" 
was given to the College by an act of the Legislature. 

182 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ruined in the contest. Is is from a conviction of the consequence 
of being exposed to such a prosecution more than from any doubt 
of their Legal Title ; that they claim the interposition of the Legis- 

From these considerations, they rely on the Justice of this 
Honourable House for a Compliance with their prayer that they 
may be quieted and Secure'd in the possession of their property 
under the Leases which they have fairly purchases long possessed 
and never forfeited and that they may continue hereafter to pay 
the Bents to the Professors of the said University or to any others 
that the General Assembly may think proper as they have hereto- 
fore done to the former Governour of this Commonwealth. 

John Ambler, W m Lee, W m Wilkinson Ju r , John Warburton, 
Guardian for the orphan of John Harris, dec d . 

Lessees of y e Gov rs Land their Pet° Nov r 22 d 1785 Eef d to Courts 
of Justice reasonable rep d 

Petition of Williamsburg for the Capitol Building. 

To the Honorable 

The Speaker, and the other Members of the House of Delegates 
The Petition of the Mayor, Eecorder, Aldermen, and Common 
Council of the City of Williamsburg. 
Humbly Sheweth, 

That the late Capitol in the said City, which the General As- 
sembly were some time past pleased to give to your petitioner for 
the purpose of a Grammar School, and the branches of education, 
for the term of ten years ; at the time of the donation, was much 
out of Eepair— That your Petitioners have already expended a 
considerable sum of Money in repairs and are desirous by means 
of subscriptions and otherwise of having the said Building farther 
fitted up, so as to afford more comfortable accommodations for the 
students placed there, but are apprehensive of meeting with great 
discouragements, from the consideration that their present grant 
is of a limited duration, however probable it may be, that at the 
expiration of it, the general Assembly might be inclined to renewal. 
Your Petitioners therefore humbly beg, that unless some bet- 

James City County Petitions 183 

ter disposition should occur to your honorable body, the said 
building may be vested in your petitioners in fee simple, subject 
however to forfeiture whenever it shall cease to present the 
benevolent purpose of the donation. And your Petitioners, as in 
duty bound will ever pray &c. 

A Copy 

Will Eussell Town Clerk 


W ms burg Pet n December 10 th 1785 Ref d to Props.s reasonable. 

Resolved that it is the Opinion of this Committee that the 
Petition of the Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common Council 
of the City of Williamsburg praying that the Capitol in the said 
City may be vested in the Petitioners in fee for the Purpose of 
education, subject to revert to the Commonwealth, in case it be 
otherwise appropriated by the Corporation, is reasonable. 

Petition of Williamsburg 

To the Honble the General Assembly of Virginia. 

The Petition of The Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen and Common 
Council of the City of Williamsburg, Humbly Sheweth: 

That your Petitioner made application to the last Assembly 
for the use of the Capitol for the purposes of a Grammar School, 
which was granted to them in as ample a manner as was desired; 
that they have in consequence thereof framed an Ordinance for 
the Establishment of .such a school, or an Academy, on a plan 
which they trust when carried into execution will render it highly 
beneficial, not only to the said City but to the whole community, 
and, that they are taken some steps toward raising a fund for the 
proper support of it. But your Petitioners find that the buildings 
have been so much injured during the war, that it will, they ap- 
prehend, take a larger sum of money to repair them than they can 
hope to procure by voluntary contribution. Your Petitioners 
therefore pray that your Honourable House will permit and auth- 
orize them to raise by lottery a sum not exceeding one thousand 

184 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

and fifty pounds to be applied towards repairing the Capitol & 
Buildings annexed to it, and establishing a Fund for the support 
of the Academy. Your Petitioners also beg leave to represent to 
your Honorable house that the inhabitants of this City are fre- 
quently subjected to difficulties from a want of power in its Court 
of Hustings to receive Probats of Wills and Deeds and to grant Ad- 
ministrations, the generality of the Citizens not possessing the 
means of travelling with any convenience to distant Courts : and 
they pray that your Honorable House will relieve them from 
these difficulties by empowering the Court of Hustings of this 
City to receive Probats of Wills and Becord the same & to grant 
Administrations, and to admit Deeds to Proof & Eecords in the 
same manner as the County Courts do. The Frequent Interrup- 
tions, occasioned by the War, in the exercise of the various Civil 
Powers, in this part of the Country especially, and other circum- 
stances of the late times have given an opportunity to so many 
Idle and disorderly persons to fix themselves in the City of Wil- 
liamsburg and have left behind them so many Evils that an un- 
remitting attention is necessary to guard against and Correct them. 
That your Petitioners are not vested with a power of Levying 
Money to pay the officer who must be almost constantly employed 
in keeping the peace of the City and preventing the inequalities 
lately grown too prevalent, and they have found the other Modes 
of raising Money for this purpose to be too precarious and too 
Burthensome to individuals. 

They therefore beg that your Honorable House will grant them 
a power to impose and Levy a Tax on the White and black Tith- 
ables of this City, not exceeding one shilling and three pence on 
each Tithable in the Course of a year for the purpose of paying 
the Salary or Salaries of on one or more constables — and your Peti- 
tioners as in duty bound &c. 

Will. Finnie Mayor 

Will. Kussell Town Clerk. 

A Copy 

James City County Petitions 185 

Petition of Dr. John Sequeyra.* 

To the hon ble the Speaker & Gent" of the House of Delegates 

The Petition of Doctor John de Sequary humbly sheweth, that 
your Petitioner hath for one Year attended as a Physician the 
Hospital for the Maintenance of Lunatics, Idiots & Persons of 
insane Mind, for which he hath had no compensation made him. 
He therefore prays that you will take his Case unto consideration, 
& grant him such Allowance for his Services as you shall think 
proper, & he as in duty bound will ever pray. 

Petition of Doctor Sequaryra. Octo r 26 th 1779, ref d to trade 
reasonable, allowed £2'50 for the year past, reported 

The Petition of Dr. William Carter, 1693. 

To the Honorable the Speakers and Members of the General 
Assembly the Petition of William Carter humbly shews That 
your petitioner served as Surgeon to the Continental Hospital 
established at "Williamsburg during the late War to wit from the 
first of July 1776 to the 31 st July 1781 a period of five Years and 
upwards; that for these services he has never yet been allowed 
the Bountey in Lands promised by Law; altho' several officers in 
the same department, who served a shorter period, and your peti- 
tioned humbly conceives did not render more faithful services 
have been allowed that bounty by resolutions of the General Assem- 
bly: Your petitioner therefore humbly prays that the justice and 
bounty of the General Assembly in like manner may be extended to 
him for services equally meritorious : and he as in duty bound will 
pray &c. 

[Endorsed:] Petition of Doctor William Carter 22 d Oct 1787 

*Dr. Sequeyra was appointed first physician to the Hospital in 
1773. He held ofiice till 1793. 

136 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Petition of Walter Hopkins. 

To the Honorable the Speaker, & Gentlemen of the House of 
The Petition of Walter Hopkins humbly sheweth That your 
petitioner was in the month of December 1776, employed by Col 
William Finnie Quarter Master General in this State, & with 
the approbation of His Excellency the Governor, as appears by 
his instructions hereto annexed, to take a tour into North and 
South Carolina, in search of Clothing & Military Stores for the 
use of the Army, it being at a time when Articles of that kind were 
not to be had within this Commonwealth; prevailed upon there- 
fore by his usual readiness to promote the Interest of his County 
& from assurance that upon this occasion, his own should be com- 
bined therewith, your petitioner at this inclement Season under- 
took the fatiguing route, and after visiting the intermediate Marts 
arrived at length at Charles Town in South Carolina, where to 
his great Mortification he found that an embargo was laid on the 
exportation of all goods from that State, the like Scarcity in some 
degree existing there as was in Virginia; thus finding all pros- 
pect of success in the execution of his Commission totally frus- 
trated, he immediately set out & returned to Williamsburg when 
the Honbl. Executive & Quarter Master, were not satisfied with 
your Petitioners Conduct, & of the cause which produced the dis- 
appointment. Yet so it is. that although your petitioner was to 
have received a Commission on the Amount of the Monies, which 
he was authorized to lay out, whether they were actually applied 
or not, he has hitherto been made no Compensation either for his 
expence during this long journey, or for his trouble & loss of time; 
having it in his power to evidence these facts to your Honorable 
House he hopes they will take his Case into that deliberation, grant 
him such relief as they in their Wisdom shall think right & he as 
in duty bound &c. 

Auditors Office Nov r 23 d 1784 
No warrant has ever issued from this office for the within ser- 
vice — neither will any issue without the direction of the Legisla- 
ture or the Executive — Certified the day & year above. 

B. Stark 

James City County Petitions 187 

The auditors do not conceive themselves authorized by Law to 
make any allowance to any assistant in the Quarter Master De- 
partment without the interposition of the Legislative or Executive 
as above mentioned. 

B. Stark 

Hopkin's pet : November 24 th ; 1784: referred to claims: Referred 
to the Executive for settlement, Reported 

Petition of Major John Lee. 
To the hon ble the speaker & other members of the house of 
Delegates, The Petition of John Lee humbly sheweth, that your 
petitioner in the year 1775 was appointed an ensign in Cap* John 
Green's company, enlisted eighteen men & in October following 
marched to W ms bg, that some time in the month of November 
your petitioner with fifteen men was on guard at Jamestown, 
when two of the enemy's vessels sailed up James river on a plun- 
dering party, on their return in a very windy night one of them 
a large sloop struck on a sand bar, of which your petitioner had 
notice from a sentinel posted near the place, went with the guard 
& fired on her ; after some considerable resistance her crew quited 
her & went on board the other vessel, having first set fire to her 
in several places upon which y r petitioner with the men under his 
command went on board extinguished the fire & took possession of 
the vessel, her riging & cargo, which consisted of a quantity of 
Ivory, beef & pork in barrells, ammunition & some other military 
stores, as soon as the capture of the vessel was notified a guard 
was put on board of her & being advised to take an inventory of 
her cargo & stores y r petitioner went on board for that purpose, 
but the officer who then commanded the guard on board being 
older in command than your petitioner ordered him to desist 
saying that he then had the management of the vessel & wou'd 
take the proper steps with her. y e petitioner does not know nor 
does he believe that any inventory was taken. Sometimes after the 
vessel was fitted up for a cruiser for the State & was put under the 
command of Cap 1 Edward Travers. In the spring of 1777 some 
part of the vessels riging was sold & your petitioner received eight 

188 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

dollars for himself & party which is all y r petitioner ever has re- 
ceived although he was offered by M r W m Holt immediately after 
the capture the sum of five hundred pounds for the vessel & 

Your petitioner further respectfully sheweth that early in the 
year 1776 (being then a Lieutenant in the 1 st Virg a regiment.) 
he was appointed a Cap of Mareens to serve on board the sloop 
Liberty commanded by Cap 1 Walter Brook & recruited twenty 
eight men for that service & continued on board that vessell 'till 
December following when the assembly then sitting passed an 
an act for raising three reg ts of infantry for the defence of this 
State & tha.t the marine officers shoucl compose a part thereof, 
whereupon y r petitioner, being directed thereto by the executive, 
reinlisted about forty of the men who were under his command in 
the marine service & early in the year 1777 enlisted twenty other 
recruits & marched them to W ms bg sometime about the month of 
June a regiment being formed out of the State troops to join in 
the grand army in the northern service occasioned some man- 
oevering among the troops who expected to have been continued in 
this State, & the resignations of some of the officers upon which 
Cap* John Allison & y r petitioner were appointed Majors, Cap* 
Allison being the senior officer was assigned to the first & y r 
petitioner to the second regiments, which last was to continue in 
Garrison in the State. Y r petitioner being dissatisfied with this 
arraignment endeavoured through Col : Brent then commanding 
officer in W ms bg to procure an exchange with Major Allison who 
was about to march to the northward, but being disappointed in 
this y r petitioner applied to the executive & obtained permission 
to march with the first regiment as a captain, preferring that 
post to a majority in a reg* which was to remain in Virg a from 
a conviction that he might render his country more service where 
there was a formidable enemy to contend with than by continuing 
in garrison where none probably woud be seen. He accordingly 
marched to Headquarters with the first reg* & served in it as a 
captain 'till the spring of 1778 when the 2 d Reg* joined the army 
at Yaley Forge and y v petitioner received for commission & took 
rank as major in that regiment. In the winter of seventy-nine, 

James City County Petitions 189 

& eighty being ordered to the southward y r petitioner returned to 
Virg a joined the troops at Petersburg, & by order of Gen 1 Muhlen- 
burg marched with a detachment under command of Col: Buford 
& joined the southern army then commanded by Gen 1 Gates, wherci 
your petitioner continued 'till late in the fall, when he was sent 
back to Virg a with some dispatches, & continued with the troops 
till sometime in the year 1781, when the State troops who had 
enlisted for the war were separated from those of the Continental 
line & not being sufficient in number to form two compleat regi- 
ments the command of them was given to the senior Lieu* Col. 
Dabney & the other senior officers. Y r petitioner conceiving him- 
self to be the oldest Major in that line contended for his right but 
was informed by Col: Dabney that the Governor had given the 
Major's command to Capt. Alexander Dick whereupon y r peti- 
tioner knowing that Cap* Dick had been an officer in the Marine 
service, had not recruited a man nor had any command in either 
of the State regiments, wrote to the Governor informing him of 
these circumstances & requested a board of officers to determine 
the right between Cap* Dick & himself. Your petitioner was 
promised that this enquiry should be made, but being taken very 
sick he was obliged to leave camp, retire into the country for his 
health & before he was able to return to Camp & pursue his right 
the State Troops were discharged. Y r petitioner humbly conceives 
that as to the first part of his claim, nothing can be more just 
than he should receive some retribution for the loss of the vessell 
which though it unquestionably belonged to him & those who as- 
sisted in the capture was taken from them & applied to the use 
of the State. To this application y r petitioner claims he has been 
thus tedious to shew that he was among the first who embarked 
in his country's cause, that his unceasing efforts to promote its 
interest have been made with alacrity, that his retirement from 
the army, if being prevented from pursuing his right by an ill 
state of health can be conceded as such, was not the effect of his 
own wishes, and that upon principles of general justice or of in- 
dividual right, he is equally entitled with most who have received 
& who expect to receive the bounty of their country. Your peti- 
tioner therefore prays that he may be paid his proportional part 

190 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

of the value of the vessel & cargo above alluded to & that a certi- 
ficate may issue to him for the payment of his commutation, and 
as on duty bound y 1 ' petitioner will ever pray &c. &c. 
Lee's Petition 4th Ma. 1791, ref d to Claims 

John Lee's Petition, Vessel rejected, cop d 30., 91, Winton 

Petition of Dr. Joseph Hay. 

To the Hon le the Speaker & house of Delegates 
The Petition of Joseph Hay Sheweth 

That your Petition was appointed surgeon's Mate in the Vir- 
ginia State Hospital at the commencement of the war, that he 
was afterwards appointed apothecary to the said Hospital & con- 
tinued in that situation till the dissolution of the Hospital, that 
he was afterwards appointed Surgeon to the said Hospital on its 
reestablishment under the Direction of D r Pope & was made Super- 
numerary in November 1781 after the Capture of York — Your 
Petitioner begs leave to observe that he was in actual service up- 
wards of five years, & that every other Surgeon of the said Hospi- 
tals has been allowed a Bounty in Lands except Himself. 

Your Petitioner therefore prays this Hon bl House will take 
his case into their consideration & will allow him the same Bounty 
in lands that has been allowed to the other Surgeons in the same 
Hospital & of the same Bank & Y r Petitioner &c 

J. Hay 
[Endorsed:] Hay's Petition, 11 th Oct r 1792; to Props 
16 th Oct 1792, Reasonable, Reported. 

Petition of John Lambert. 

To the honourable, the general assembly of the commonwealth of 

The petition of John Lambert, a subject of the king of Great 
Britain, humbly sheweth: 

That John Harmer, formerly the burgess of the City of Wil- 
liamsburg in this commonwealth, where he has resided for many 
years and carried on trade in perfect friendship and with the 

James City County Petitions 191 

attachment of the people (as many now alive can testify) : had 
long before the late war removed to Great Britain 1 , and there con- 
tinued to cultivate his former regard to the people of Virginia: 
that he possessed several very considerable estates in Virginia; 
all of which were supposed; in strictness, to come within the con- 
fiscation law: that the said John Harmer, conscious, that he 
could shew, as is well known, by many respectable citizens of this 
State, how strongly he had deprecated the American war, and 
labored, as far as in him lay to prevent it, determined, notwith- 
standing the war, to send his brother George Harmer over to 
solicit a restitution of his estate : relying upon the indulgence, for 
which his conduct had entitled him to hope from the general 
assembly: that the said George Harmer presented his petition 
for that purpose, and obtained the restitution of whatsoever part 
of the said John Harmer's estate was conceived to be unsold, as 
well as a sum of money for a limited time; which facts will be 
proved by a law of the land: that from some cause or other; per- 
haps from the ignorance of the said George Harmer of any por- 
tion of the said George Harmer's estate remaining unsold, except 
what he particularly marked out, he did not obtain restitution of 
about eight hundred acres of land in the county of Amherst, on 
which an inquisition had been found but no sale had taken place : 
that the said John Harmer is now dead, having left your peti- 
tioner his heir at law, and devisee of the said land : that the said 
John Harmer, trusting to the justice of Virginia, never applied 
for and never received the smallest compensation for his prop- 
erty from the British government. Your petition therefore prays 
that the right of the commonwealth, whatsoever it may be, may be 
released to him ; and as in duty bound he will pray &c. 
Lambert's petition 
[Endorsed:] Dec r 13. 1798 C ts Justice. Decern 26 th 1798. 

Petition of Wilson Miles Cary. 

THE honourable the speaker, and gentlemen, of the House of 
Delegates, the petition of Wilson Miles Cary humbly sheweth, 

192 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

that he is possessed of a mulatto house servant, of the name of 
London, having a wife and family in the City of Williamsburg, 
who he conceives under God was the great means of saving his, 
and his wife's life in a carriage with frightened horses, and being 
desirous of countenancing and rewarding such active exertions, 
he prays the honourable assembly to emancipate the said slave by 
an act of assembly and your petitioner shall ever pray. 

Wilson Miles Cary 
Nov 1 ' 30, 1809. 

Petition of the Rector and Vestrymen of Bruton Parish. 

To the General Assembly of Virginia, 

The petition of the Rector & Vestrymen and Trustees of the 
Parish of Bruton to the General Assembly of the State of Virginia 
respectfully represents — 

That the Glebe of the said Parish is destitute of any buildings 
or improvements, except what have been placed thereon by the 
present incumbent; that these consist of small Log Cabins for the 
accommodation of his slaves, & are in a state of decay; and that 
the value of the land would be greatly increased by substantial 
& permanent buildings, which a tenant for life, & greatly ad- 
vanced in years, cannot be expected, or afford, to erect: They 
therefore humbly request that an Act of your Body may pass auth- 
orizing the sale of the Premises, but reserving the interest of the 
purchase money to the present Rector, during his residence under 
that character. 

They further request that they may also be authorized to sell 
a small tract of land of about one hundred & fifty acres, lying on 
the head of Queen's Creek & commonly called the Factory,* which 
they hold by devise for charitable purposes, but which from the 
ruinous state of the buildings & other circumstances has become 

*This factory was established about 1769 opposite to Queen Mary's 
Port on Queen's Creek by a joint stock company, of which Peyton 
Randolph was President. It made cotton and linen cloth. Tyler, 
History of Williamsburg, p. 56-57. 

James City County Petitions 193 

unproductive; as also a small lot of ground of four or five acres, 
called Whaley's free school, on the road leading to the Capitol 
Landing & without any buildings. 

If these two pieces of land were sold & the purchase money 
vested in some public funds in the name of the Mayor or Aldermen 
of W m sburg, the interest thereon to be by them appropriated to 
the education of poor children within the Parish, your petitioners 
are persuaded that the laudable object of the Donors wou'd much 
more effectually & amply be complied with, than can under present 
circumstances be attained. 

John Bracken Eector of Bruton Parish 
Major Miles Cary, Ant y Eobinson, John W. Smith, W. Browne, 
W m Coleman, James Henderson, Eo : Saunders, Ferdinand S. 
Campbell, Eobert Nelson, John Coke, Edmund Christian, W ms - 
Burg. Bec r 20, 1813. 

Eector &c. of Bruton Parish — Petition. 

Dec r 22 d 1813 ref d to C ts of J., reasonable 

194 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 



Great-Great-Grand-Mother, Margaret Evelyn, of England, of 
noble family. She married James Douglas Stuart of Scotland. 
They had one child, a daughter, Matilda Stuart. They then 
moved to Venice and there Matilda met and married Serafina 
Formicula, a descendant of one of the Doges of Venice. They had 
one child, a daughter, Evelyn Formicula. Her father being an in- 
timate friend of Lord Dunmore, the first Governor of Virginia, 
came over to America with him, and they settled at Eltham on 
Munroe's Creek, and when they died, they were buried at Eltham, 
and left their daughter Evelyn as the ward of Lord Dunmore, but 
when Dunmore left Virginia for England, Evelyn was left in the 
care of her relatives the Stuarts, and very early in life she mar- 
ried, and when a young widow married her cousin Stuart Bank- 
head. One child was born to them, our Mother, Eliza Stuart 
Bankhead. Evelyn again being widowed married a third time 
Robert Gilchrist Robb, who was a widower with three children, 
Eliza, Ellen and Robert. Evelyn had two children by this mar- 
riage Margaret and Roberta. Evelyn married three times and 
was a widow when she died at the early age of 31. Our Mother 
was married twice before she was 20. 

Serafina Formicula was a man of very high culture and sub- 
scribed Five Hundred Dollars to building an Institute in Rich- 
mond which was devoted to "Science, Art, and Philosophy," later 
on the building was changed to a Theatre and was burnt, and the 
Monumental Church (which now stands) was then built as a 
memorial to those who lost their lives in that fire. 

Eliza Stuart Bankhead was a widow, (Mrs. Waring) and mar- 
ried our Father, Henry Thomas Garnett. She was a near cousin 
of President Monroe and Madison. This list made out January 
10th, 1917, by 

Roberta Garnett SJcinJcer, Morris, Coontz, 
St. Augustine, Florida. 

Roberta Garnett married 3 times. 

Note. — Serafina Formicula, mentioned in the above account, ap- 
pears to have first resided in Williamsburg, and is mentioned among 

Formicula — Stuart — Bankhead 195 

the lot owners in 1783. About that year he resided in Richmond, 
and was owner of a tavern. For a time he managed the famous Eagle 
Tavern. He is mentioned by Mordecai in his "Richmond in By-Gone 
Days" as a subscriber to DuQuesnoy's Academy of the Fine Arts. His 
son-in-law, Stuart Bankhead, died in 1805, and there is in the Richmond 
Enquirer for September 5 a long obituary. Formicula was doubtless 
a friend of Lord Dunmore, but his daughter could hardly have been 
his ward, as Formicula lived in Virginia long after Dunmore left it. 

196 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


Communicated by Samuel 2SF. Warren. 

As written by Anne Smith (born 1762), oldest daughter of Col. 
Samuel Smith, formerly of Essex County, Va., and later of Gran- 
ville Co., N. C. 

For an account of the early generations of this Smith Family, 
compiled by the editor from the records of Middlesex and Essex 
Counties, Va., see William and Mary College Quarterly, IX, p. 46. 
It begins with Alexander Smith, great-grandfather of Col. Samuel 
Smith. In Book VI, of the Virginia Land Grants, under date Sept. 
21, 1674, he is granted 110 acres in Middlesex County, adjoining the 
land "on which e now lives," a dividend of Major Courts, dec'd, and 
the Glebe land. There is a tradition in the family that Alexander 
Smith was son of Joseph Smith, of Bristol, and that he had a brother 

A True and Exact Copy or Eecord of the "Smith Family" 

as Written by Anne Smith, Oldest Daughter of 

Col. Sam Smith and Mary Webb Smith, His Wife. 

"As well as can be reccollected by the writer 'The Smith family' 
Emigrated from Scotland. The ancestor of the following Smith 
family came from Scotland, whose name was Alexander Smith; 
he married an English Lady, whom if I reccollect was named 
Anne Coxe; she had a brother named Maurice Coxe. Samuel 

Smith born married to Anne Amis born 

Samuel Smith, son of Sam and Anne Smith above was born in 
Essex Co., Va., Dec 3-1729— old style. Sam Smith died Oct 
6-1800 in Granville Co. N. C, Mary Webb born in Essex Co Va 
Oct 21-1740 old style. Deceased Nov 20-1827 between 2 and 3 
O'clock in morning. North Carolina. 

Samuel Smith and Mary Webb were married in May. . . .1761 
in Virginia. 

The following are the children of Sam and Mary Smith. 

Anne Smith was born Sunday Evening May 9-1762, Essex 
Co, Virginia. 

Mary Smith was born Sunday evening Sept 18-1763, Essex 
Co, Va was married to William Williamson in Feb. 1800. Dec'd 

Record of the Smith Family 197 

March 21-1814 in full assurance of a blessed immortality; her 
last words, "Jesus can make a dyeing bed feel soft as downy 
pillows are," Adams Co, State of Ohio. 

Samuel Smith was born on Wednesday Sept 25-1763 in Va., 
was married to Elizabeth Harrison on May 15-1792, who was 
born 28 of Feb 1772'. 

He died in the faith of The Lord Jesus June 4-1816, Caswell 
Co, 1ST. C. She died in Caswell Co, N. C, 1838, on the 17 of 

Elizabeth Smith was born Tuesday the 7th of April, 1767, 
in N. C, was married to James Downey. Died firm in faith, con- 
fident in hope of a joyful resurrection. Granville Co., N". C, Sept 

Jane Smith was born on Friday Oct 7-1768, N". C, was married 

to Alexander Murphy in Deceased in June 1813, 

Trusting in The Lord Jesus Christ. Caswell Co., N. C. 

James Webb Smith was born Friday May 18-1770 Granville 
Co., N". C, was married to Polly Downey, First, (to Polly Webb 
2nd), Departed this life between 1850 and ..,».. Jackson Co., 

John Granville Smith Thursday Mch 5-1772 Granville Co N. 
C. Departed this life Thursday Oct 2-1828, about 9 A. M., Gran- 
ville Co., N". C. (He was never married). 

William Smith was born Thursday June 2-1774, N". C, mar- 
ried Lethy Eaton, who married Maj Pugh and Dyed May .... 
1831 Granville Co K C. 

William Smith Jr., son of Wm Smith, was born Oct 1-1817, 
died June 10-1827. He (Wm Sr.) Deceased June 4-1818, Warren 
Co N. C. Hoping for salvation thro the merit obtained on the 
cross by Jesus Christ 

Maurice Smith was born Monday May 6-1776, Granville Co., 
N. C., was married to Frances Goodwin (1st. time) who was born 
Dec 1-1788. K C. Married 2nd to Amy Webb in April 10-1829, 
who was born Aug 31-1794. N". C. 

Frances Goodwin departed Sept 22-1828. 

He died May 21-1835. 

Thomas Smith was born Tuesday Feb 9-1779, Granville Co. t 
K C. Departed Saturday night Sept 27-1794. 

198 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


Alexander Smith was born Monday Feb. 11-1781. Granville 
Co., N. C. Was married to Anne Beasley Sept 12-1811, who was 
born June 16-1788. Granville Co., N. C. He deceased Tuesday 
morning bet 12 and 1 A. M. Dec 25-1827; he lived a useful and 
moral life, being a peace maker all his days. 

Their children 

Mary Webb Smith Born Aug 24-1812. . . . Died Sept 20-1814. 

Anne Alexander " June 12-1816 Died July 22-1828. 

Sarah Pomfret Smith Born April 17-1814. Died Aug 20-1831 
was married on June 17-1829 to Samuel Smith Downey, being his 
2nd wife. 

Sam Smith Downey was a son of James Downey and Eliza- 
beth Smith, daughter of Sam Smith and Mary Webb, and his 
first wife was Jane Harrison, half sister to Elizabeth Harrison, 
who married Sam Smith (3rd) son of Sam (2nd) and Mary Webb. 

James Webb, born in Essex Co. Va., 1705, married Mary Ed- 
monson, and were parents of Mary Webb, who married Sam 

Addenda oy Samuel N. Warren, of Spring Hill, Tennessee. 

Since writing you last I have received a letter from Mrs. W. H. 
Gregory of Stovall, N. C, giving some items of interest. 

"Abram's Plains" (the residence of Col. Samuel Smith after 
leaving Virginia) is in Granville Co., N. C, and the old home place is 
about four miles N. W. of Stovall, which is about twelve miles North 
of Oxford, the County seat of Granville Co. 

Mrs. Gregory is descended from Alexander Smith, youngest son 
of Sam Smith and Mary Webb, as Alexander married Anne Alexander 
Beasley, and they had only one child to live to be married, and her 
name was Sarah Pomfret Smith, who married Samuel Smith Downey 
(his second wife), and they had only one child Anne Alexander 
Downey, and she married Isaac Hilliard Davis, and were the parents 
of Mrs. W. H. Gregory above mentioned, whose home is on a part 
of the original "Abram's Plains" tract, which extends very close up 
to Stovall. 

Samuel Smith Downey was a son of James Downey and Elizabeth 
Smith, who was a daughter of Sam. Smith and Mary Webb. 

Record cf tjie Smith Family 199 

Sam Smith Downey's first wife was Jane Harrison, half sister to 
Elizabeth Harrison, who married Sam Smith, son of Sam Smith and 
Mary Webb. 

I had all this in my records, but Mrs. Gregory mentions that she 
has pictures of seven generations back from her great-nephew Wil- 
liam Davis, whose present home is "Abram's Plains"; also says "I 
have silhouettes of iSam Smith and Mary Webb, his wife; also of 
their daughter, Elizabeth, who married James Downey." 

Sam Smith, who married Mary Webb, was a Colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War; his sons — 

William Smith was a Captain in the Revolutionary War. 

James Webb Smith a Captain in the Revolutionary War. 

Alexander Smith a Captain in the 1812 War. 

James Webb Smith's name is on the original Constitution of 
Tenn, and his son Sam Granville Smith was Secy of Slate for Tenn., 

Thomas Smith, son of James Webb Smith, married Elizabeth 
Robertson, daughter of Dr Felix Robertson; he a son of Gen James 
Robertson, founder of the City of Nashville, Tenn. 

James Webb Smith, Jr. (J. W. S. Sr., Sam Smith, Mary Webb) 
served on the staff of Gen B. P. Cheatham in the Civil war, and later 
married his sister Alice Cheatham, and has issue living in Tenn. 

Joseph John Williams, born in Halifax Co., N. C, in 1786, was my 
mother's father; he married Mary Ann (I suppose), generally called 
Nancy Dawson, and, as I have it, daughter of Larkin Dawson & Wini- 
fred Sledge; she daughter of Sherrod Sledge. 

Francis Williams (don't know whether had but the one name) 
married Rebecca Green in N. C, moved to Tenn about 1800 with his 
family, and settled in Davidson Co. He was with Gen Washington 
at Valley Forge, as letters to his family show; also an old receipt 
shows that he was Captain Francis Williams; he had Joseph John, 
Robert Francis, Ben W., Lewis, Ann Green, Rachel, Rhoda Ann, 
Zarina, James Blanton. 

Maj. William Williams of the Forks had a son Joseph John, who 
married Martha James Alston, and of their children Margaret married 
Henry Whitfield, son of Wesley Whitfield, and Sallie Warren, she 
being a sister to my grand-father, Rev. Henry Warren, which is in 
accord with what has always been tradition in the family, but I have 
found no authentic record to this effect but a written slip saying so. 

Of their sons, William and Robert, have no further mention than 
their names, and I think one or the other was father of Francis, my 
great grand father. For Francis had a son Robert Francis, and there 
was a William in every family of his children, and in one case Wil- 
liam Francis. 

200 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Have you any records which would help me out here? 

Have you any records of the Warren family of N. C. or of the 
family of Major Thomas Harrison, who married first a Miss Pendle- 
ton, second Mary Kennon, daughter of William Kennon? He was a 
son of Maj. Wm. Kennon & Anne Eppes, son of Richard Kennon & 
Elizabeth Worsham. 

Henry Warren married Elizabeth Kimbrough, daughter of 
Nathaniel Kimbrough, born about 1720, who married Mary Alston 
(Dau. of Solomon Alston & Ann Hinton, Dau of John Hinton of 
Chowan Co., N. C.) 

This Henry Warren was father of Reverend Henry Warren, 
pastor of the Edenton St. Methodist Church, Raleigh, N. C. He was 
my Grand father and married, first, Elizabeth Smith, daughter of Sam 
Smith & Elizabeth Harrison (Maj Thos Harrison & Mary Kennon), 
married second time Martha Jones, his first cousin, who at time was 
widow Edwards"; sister to Kimbrough Jones of Raleigh N. C. 

Robert Pitts Brown (my wife's father) was with Gen Forrest 
in Civil war, and had three brothers in other commands. 

Henry Warren, my father in civil war, his father in Revolutionary 

My sons, volunteers in late war, and Joseph the third son (aged 
23) was a volunteer in the 79th Co., 6th Marines, and was in all the 
fighting done by them up to July 19 when he was killed in action, 
not so very far from VARENNES, France, from which town his name 
WARREN and family had its origin. And after fully 1000 years he 
goes back and is killed fighting for the preservation of the homes of 
his forefathers. 

We had nice letters from both Geo Clemenceau and Pt. Poincare, 
saying if we would allow him to rest permanently in French soil that 
the French Government would erect a suitable monument and for- 
ever care for his grave, and this will be done. 

We are very proud of the great record Joe made, going in as a 
private, saying there had to be some privates, and he and his brothers 
had as well be privates as any others. But they each had rapid pro- 
motion after getting in, tho' Joe was the only one to get to France. 
Corporal under fire. Sergeant under fire. Recommended for commis- 
sion as Lieut., and day he was to have gone for it, his outfit went into 
action and he went with them and was killed.* While a private, see- 
ing all his officers down, he took command and held the position.f 

♦This we did not know of till we saw it on page 345 U. S. Navy 
report for 1918. He receive two Croix de Guerre, D. S. Cross and 
several personal citations. 

fHis Regiment, the 6th Marines and the 2nd Division, many 
citations. He held highest record for rifle shooting in his Regiment. 

Williamsburg in 1805 


(Extracts from the Eichmond Enquirer.) 

Mr. Anderson School for Young Ladies 

Education & Polite accomplishments for young Ladies at Wil- 
liamsburg, Va. 

Whilst the enlightened period in which we live dawns with 
benign influence on female improvement, and parents every where 
become emulous to obtain for their daughters, the advantages 
which polite education confers, an establishment calculated to 
gratify this amiable and just solicitude, cannot fail to excite in- 
terest and meet approbation. 

Mr. Anderson's institution for the instruction of young ladies, 
formed in the bosom of a society distinguished for intelligence 
and refinement, and embracing both the useful and ornamental 
branches of their improvement, enjoys peculiar advantages of 

As the seat of a justly celebrated university, and the residence 
of many families of the first distinction in our country, Wil- 
liamsburg presents a scene, propitious in the highest degree to 
mental and personal accomplishments; and with a view, particu- 
larly, to the general improvement of young ladies, no place has 
superior claims to attention. 

The severity of the past winter occasioned a temporary sus- 
pension of the exercises of the school, but they are now resumed; 
and parents, who wish to benefit by the establishment, may claim 
further information, on application by letter, or otherwise, to Mr. 
L. Anderson, Postmaster, Williamsburg, Va. 

April 26. 

Williamsburg Races. 

On Wednesday the 30th October, will be run for over the Wil- 
liamsburg Course, The Jockey Club Purse of Four hundred dol- 
lars, four mile heats. 

The day following, The Proprietor's Purse of Two hundred 
dollars two mile heats. 

202 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Weights as follows: 

Aged horses 

133 lbs, 

6 years old 


5 do 


4 do 


3 do 


Mares and geldings allowed 3 lbs. 

August 29, 1805. 

Subscribers to the Williamsburg Jockey Club are desired to pay 
the amount of their subscription money to Kobert Anderson, the 
Treasurer, on or before the first day of October next. 

By order of the Club 

James Semple, Sen 1 ", Sec'ry 

September 6. 

Wigs 203 


Wigs were very fashionable in Virginia during the 18th century. 

The inventory of Stephen Besouth, a barber in York County, 

shows the kind of wigs in use in 11/26. 

No 1. To one tye wigg £2.10. No 2 To 1 bob wigg 1£ 15s. 

No 3 & 4 To two ditto £2 = £6.5 

No 5 To one bob wigg £1. 5s. No 6. To one South Sea wigg £1 

No. 7 To one horse wigg £1 = 2.15 

To 8 brown wiggs 12/6 = 5 

To one pig tail wigg £1. No 9 to one wigg £1.15 = £2.15 

other items were : 
To one clothes press £1.5 
To 1 doz cauls, 3 remnants of ribbon 12/6. To 2 barbers basons 

5/ = 18s. 
To 2 barbers blocks & 1 stand 15s. To some remnant horse hair 

and bleech(?) 5s = £1 
The inventory of Eobert Tennant, of the City of Williamsburg, 
made in 1725, names 1 Natural Wigg, £1, two bobb wiggs £4.10, 
three tye wiggs £6.10 

204 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


Some Wills and Other Records. 

John Goodwin., of the Parish and County of York. Will proved 
in York County May 21, 1759. He mentions his children John, 
James, Peter, Thomas, and daughters Elizabeth and Alice. To 
son John he gave his plantation in Hanover County, and to his son 
Thomas stock in King William County. 

His estate was valued at £2424.5.10. His inventory names the 
following negroes : "Mump, a negro fellow [valued at] £80 ; Will 
do. £75, Sam do. £50; Tom do. £80; Dick a boy £50; Winny and 
her child Patty £90 ; Grace a girl £50." He had 9 steers, one bull, 
and 28 cows and calves. 

Francis Fontaine, "minister of York Hampton Parish in York 
County, Virginia." Will proved in York County, March 19, 1749. 
He names his children, Francis, Jr., the eldest, whom he dis- 
inherits, Mary, John, Thomas, James Maury, youngest son, to 
whom he gives all his books and manuscripts, and Judith Barber 
Pontaine. Wife Susannah Fontaine. His books were contained in 
"one large book case, one small do, 1 double book case of black 

Susannah Fontaine. Will proved Sept 20, 1756; names her 
son-in-law John Fontaine, and daughter-in-law Mary Fontaine; 
son James Maury Fontaine to have all the books, book cases, and 
family pictures, and daughter Judith Barber Fontaine to have 
"all my Virginia cloth curtains and counterpanes." Her inven- 
tory was valued at £750.2. 0%. 

Samuel Dyer, of York County. Will was proved 21 March, 
1757. It names Francis Rhodes, Sarah & Rebecca Rhodes, chil- 
dren of Clifton Rhodes; Sarah and Leonard, children of Richard- 
son Henley; John Wright, James Harfield, son of Mathew Har- 
field; John Pegram; William Rhodes of Lunenburg; Uncle Robert 
Dyer; legacy to William and Elizabeth Mahone, son and daughter 
of Daniel Mahone. 

Thomas Crease, "of Williamsburg, gardener." Will proved 
January 17, 1757. It names brother Mr. Thomas Hornsby and 

York County Eecords 205 

Margaret, his wife; friend Hugh Orr and Catherine, his wife. 
His estate valued at £166.4.3. 

John Collett, "of the City of Williamsburg/' Will proved 
March 19, 1749. Names wife Susanna Collett, Solomon Davis, 
son of John Davis, of James City Co., Henry Bryan, son of Bridget 
Bryan; John Carter and Thomas Carter, sons of John Carter, 
deced; Benjamin Waller to have the residue of his estate. 

Thomas Powell, "of York, in Virginia." Will proved July 17, 
1749. Names his mother Mary Philipson, and brothers Seymour, 
Edward, Peter, Eobert, John, James and Hudson Powell. 

Samuel Hyde. Division of his estate between 1. John Hyde 2. 
William Timson by reason of his wife's part 3. Judith Hdye 4. 
Eobert Sheild, Jr., by his wife's part of the dower slaves. 

Clifton Rhodes, "of Bruton Parish." Will proved 1746. Names 
wife Sarah, son Francis; John Ehodes and Elizabeth Ehodes, 
children of Francis Ehodes; Clifton Ehodes and his brother, sons 
of John Ehodes, of Hanover Co. 

John Young and Charles Jones, school teachers 1746. 

William Prentiss, John Blair, and Wilson Cary, merchants and 
partners, 1746. 

James Geddy. Will proved Aug 20, 1744. Names sons and 
daughters David, James, William John, Elizabeth, Ann, & Mary 

McKenzie. Estate of John McKenzie in the hands of Ken- 
neth McKenzie, 1744. 

John Scott, gent., was this day sworn an attorney in this court, 
according to law. 

Leivis Hansford, apprenticed to Samuel Gordon, merchant, 

Schoolhouse on Wormely's line 1740. 

Robert Gooding paid £1.6.0 for putting pillars to Chiscake 

John Pasteur, "of the City of Williamsburg, perukemaker. Will 
proved Nov 16, 1741. Names wife Martha Pasteur and children, 
Mary Cosby, wife of Mark Cosby, Anne wife of Samuel Cobbs, 
Lucretia, wife of Matthew Sheilds, James, Blovet, William, Martha 
and Anne Pasteur; friend Thomas Johnson of Charles City Co. 

206 Tyleb's Quaeteely Magazine 

Thomas Powell. Will proved May 21, 1739. Names children, 
William, Thomas, Seymour, John, James, Hudson, Edward and 
Mary. Will dated July 25, 1739. Wife Mary. Personal estate 

Order for the building of a new prison June 20, 1737. 
Armiger Parsons, his inventory. 1736. Names among other 
things a silver seal. 

James Bachurst, school teacher, inventory £316.9.0. March 
19, 1732, 

Mr. Griffith Bowen, having produced a license signed by the 
governor, was admitted to practice law, 1732. 
James Vernon, attorney. March 15, 1730. 
William Gordon, "of the town and county of York." Will 
proved 1730. Names wife Margaret Gordon, to whom he gives 
his town lot and houses and storehouses on the river side, and 
lands in Warwick County with six negroes, during her natural 
life; daughters Mary Dowsing, Barbara Bowis, and son-in-law 
Dr. Robert Bowis, grandson Gordon Dowsing, grandson William 
Gordon Bowis; to son-in-law Eobert Dowsing "all my wearing 
apparel, together with a young horse in "York Old Fields"; Wil- 
liam Wright, grandson of his wife; Margaret Gordon executrix." 
Henry Bowcock, of Williamsburg. Will proved February 16, 
1729. Son Henry to be delivered him when he shall arrive at 
the age of 18 years my silver watch, my gun which was made 
by John Burch, a case of pistols with brass barrels made by 
Hawkins and my housing and holster caps. Makes his wife, 
Mary Bowcox executrix. 

Rev. James Falconer, of Charles Parish, York Co. Will proved 
May 20, 1728. To be buried in the church just before the pulpit. 
His estate to be equally divided between his wife and daughter, 
and in default to go to his brothers and sisters in the County 
of Murray, Scotland. His daughter's grandfather Col George 
Newton, of Norfolk County, and Capt. Edward Tabb of Charles 
Parish in York County to be his executors. His estate was 
appraised at 284£ 1.1. 

Florence McCarty's Inventory £126.6.3. (1726). In 1718 
£439.10.4 was reported. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 207 


Sir John Clay. Mr. A. C. Quisenberry, of Hyattsville, 
Md., writes as follows: "I noted the item concerning Sir 
John Clay, Hanover Co., Va. (in your last issue), which re- 
minds me of another case. I have been employed by the Ken- 
tucky Historical Society to make transcripts of the third IT. S. 
(Ky.) Census, 1810, several counties, for their magazine from 
the original lists of the enumerators, which are still preserved 
in the Census Office in Washington, the 1810 schedules being 
the earliest Kentucky lists still preserved. The other day in 
transcribing the lists of Madison County I found 'Sir Francis 
Drake,' as the name of one of the heads of families in Madison 
County, Kj. } in 1810. It is inexplicable to me." 

Sherwood. Philip Sherwood died in old Rappahannock 
County in 1684, or earlier. His daughter, Martha, was wife 
of Thomas Marshall. Mr. Henry Strother, of Fort Smith, 
Arkansas, writes that he can furnish record proof that this 
Thomas Marshall was grandfather of Col. Thomas Marshall, 
father of Chief Justice John Marshall. Two Sherwoods are 
well known in Virginia History: William Sherwood, of 
Jamestown, the well known lawyer, who left no children, how- 
ever, and Grace Sherwood, of Princess Anne County, who was 
accused of being a witch. She married James Sherwood and 
her will, dated 1733, proved 1740, names three sons, John, 
James and Richard. 


The Goodriches of Isle of Wight County, Virginia (p. 131). After 
the line beginning with "VII. Emily Munro Shedden," read, in place of 
"VI. Robert Sheddin, of Brookland, Hants., whose daughter," Henry 
George Gary (1800-1840) of Tor Abbey, whose daughter, 

Burton Memorandum (p. 113). In note 1 read, "this William Hunt 
was probably son of William Hunt of Bacon's Rebellion." In the 
records of Surry County is a deed dated April 1, 1714, from "William 
Hunt and Tabitha his wife, of Charles City Co." to William Hamlin 
for land on Nottoway river. Witnesses, Peter Wynne, Charles Hamlin, 
James Williams. 

208 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


John Archibald Campbell, Associate Justice of the United States Su- 
preme Court, 1853-1861. By Henry G. Connor, LL. D., Judge of 
the United States District Court for the Eastern District of 
North Carolina. Boston and New York. Houghton, Mifflin 
Company. The Riverside Press, Cambridge, 1920. 
In this small book Judge Connor gives a very interesting ac- 
count of this very eminent judge, John A. Campbell. Interest centres 
on probably the most important incident of his career — his negotia- 
tions with Wm. H. Seward, Secretary of State under Lincoln, in 
regard to Fort Sumter. The evidence against Seward himself of his 
desire and intention to surrender the Fort to the Confederates is so 
overwhelming that no denial of it has been attempted. But the ef- 
fort has been made by many Northern writers, and still is made, that 
Lincoln himself was altogether ignorant of Seward's conversations 
with Judge Campbell. Mr. Seward has been made the scapegoat, 
and it is pretended that not only did Lincoln not know of Seward's 
assurances, but that he never swerved from the language of his in- 
augural that he intended to hold the forts and other public property 
of the United States. 

When one views the situation in the light of the evidence now 
available, there is no good reason to impeach the sincerity of Mr. 
Seward to carry out his assurances, and if he finally sunmitted to 
be overruled by the President, that was in the nature of his position 
as a subordinate officer. A man of higher spirit, like John Quincy 
Adams or John C. Calhoun, for instance, would have resigned, and 
would certainly not have endorsed Lincoln's procedure as Seward 
appears to have done, when he wrote "Faith as to Fort Sumter fulls? - 

But how was it with Lincoln? He had the real responsibility 
of acting. Is it true that he acted consistently throughout? Is it 
true that he did not know of the assurances to Judge Campbell? Is 
it true that he was free from any just suspicion of deceit? To these 
questions the evidence seems, in each instance, to give an answer in 
the negative. 

It is notorious that throughout the closing weeks of Buchanan's 
administration the Republican party in Congress avoided all positive 
action on the subject of coercing South Carolina. Mr. Buchanan had 
asked Congress for powers to meet the unprecedented condition of 
things, and to all his appeals Congress had showed the most complete 
indifference. Lincoln was a Republican, and his speeches on his 
journey to the Capital bore a similar stamp. He made light of the 
troubles in the country, and we are told that his remarks had a most 

Lincoln and Fort Sumter. 209 

depressing effect upon Major Anderson and his men at Fort Sumter. 

That this attitude of mind harmonized with any serious resolve 
to meet the crisis by bold measures is not apparent, and that he was 
from the very first, in favor of abandoning the fort is proved by 
several witnesses, including John Hay, his private secretary, report- 
ing Lincoln's own language, save that he had not till after his in- 
auguration contemplated an evacuation without some condition. 

Governor C. S. Morehead, of Kentucky, says* that on Mr. Lin- 
coln's arrival in Washington he waited upon him in company with 
Mr. Rives, of Virginia, Mr. Doniphan, of Missouri, and Guthrie, of 
Kentucky, members of the Peace Conference, and tnat in answer to 
the earnest solicitations of these gentlemen he promised to with- 
draw the troops from Fort Sumter "if Virginia would stay in the 
Union." This is undoubtedly the interview to which Lincoln alluded, 
as reportedf by John Hay in his Diary under date or October 22, 
1861, as taking place between himself and certain "Southern pseudo 
Unionists" before the inauguration at which time, as he said, he 
promised to evacuate Sumter, "if they would break up their con- 
vention (the Virginia Convention) without any row or nonsense. 
They demurred." 

In these reports there is an agreement on the main point of 
evacuating the fort, but a discrepancy on the condition, as to which 
Morehead's statement is entitled to the greater credit, since he re- 
duced the "entire conversation to writing soon after it occurred," 
whereas Lincoln's statement was made about eight months after the 
interview. When in London a year or two later, Morehead reiterated 
his statement which was published in the London Times. Schleiden, 
the German minister resident at Washington, reportedf that Lincoln 
had said to the Peace Commissioners of Virginia, "If you will guar- 
antee me the State of Virginia I will remove the troops. A state for 
a fort is not a bad business." Schleiden doubtless referred to this 
interview, as there is no positive record of any other. 

After the inauguration Lincoln's mind tended more and more to 
evacuating the fort. There is strong evidence, indirect and direct, 
that during the greater part of March he had concluded to withdraw 
the troops without any condition whatever. There is the fact that 
the administration was notified on March 5th by Major Anderson 
that he had provisions only for a month and that if his relief was 
intended a large armed force was required. There is the opinion of 

*Coleman, Life of Crittenden, II, 338. 

■^Letters and Diary of John Hay, I, 47, quoted In White, Life of 
Lyman Trumbull, p. 158. 

fConnor, John A. Campbell, 146, 147. 

210 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

General Scott, head of the army, that relief of the fort was impracti- 
cable, and there was the rumor heard everywhere that the fort was 
to be surrendered. There was the information imparted by Seward to 
J. C. Welling, editor of the National Intelligencer, with the full knowl- 
edge and consent of Lincoln, as claimed by him, that the fort was 
to be evacuated, which information Welling communicated to Sum- 
mers in order to hearten the Unionists in the Virginia Convention. 
There is the "Diary of a Public Man," which says under date of March 
11, 1861, that Douglas informed the writer that Lincoln told him the 
troops would be withdrawn. There is the statement of Thomas L. 
Clingman that a member of the Cabinet (evidently Mr. Blair) told him 
in 1866 that Lincoln and every member of his Cabinet except himself 
was in favor of letting Anderson retire from Fort Sumter. Then there 
is the action of the Cabinet itself, all of whom but one expressed to 
Lincoln, on March 15, their opposition to reinforcing Fort Sumter.* 

Fitting in with all these bits of evidence the positive statement 
of Judge Campbell, as given in Judge Connor's book, leaves it hardly 
possible that Lincoln was averse to surrendering the fort. According 
to Judge Campbell, Seward was so confident of the withdrawal of the 
troops that on March 15 he gave five days as the extreme limit within 
which the withdrawal would take place. When six days passed and 
the withdrawal did not take place, Seward himself expressed much 
wonder, saying that "the resolution had been passed and its execu- 
tion committed to the President." In strong corroboration is a paper 
published by Governor Francis Pickens, of South Carolina, in August, 
1861, which contains the information that Lincoln at one time signed 
an order for the evacuation. Pickens says that he had the intelligence 
from "one very near the most intimate councils of the President" 
that this paper was submitted as a proof sheet to Mr. Lincoln and his 
Cabinet, and that a proclamation in conformity with its general views 
was to be issued. The paper is in the nature of a defense of Lin- 
coln's imputed action and puts the blame on the treasonable conduct 
of Mr. Buchanan, which rendered the surrender necessary. 

What is the meaning of all these indications? Mr. James Schouler 
is an example of an extreme partisan, having little sympathy with 
any Southern man, but even he is bothered with a conscience. And 
in his History of the United States he has the manhood to say that 
in his opinion Lincoln was privy to all the assurances of Seward. 
Were it otherwise, why should the President on April 1, he pertinently 

♦See on all these points, with the authorities given, the excellent 
article contributed by Wilmer L. Hall to the Southwestern Quarterly 
Review, July, 1914, entitled "Lincoln's Interview with John B. 

Lincoln and Fort Sumter. 211 

asks, have instructed Seward to inform Campbell that he would not 
provision Sumter without notice. That Lincoln allowed this to be 
communicated to Campbell is admitted by his private secretaries, 
Nicholay and Hay, who cite Lincoln's own language to that effect* 
And here comes in the question of deceit. How far is deceit 
to be attributed to Lincoln? Jefferson Davis and other Confederates 
professed in their letters during these days distrust of any assur- 
ances on the part of Seward or Lincoln, and continued their defen- 
sive preparations, but they did not attack Fort Sumter, as they proba- 
bly would otherwise have done. This possession of the fort was 
deemed a matter of much importance, and they showed the reserve 
which any man would feel in dealing with an enemy. But this did 
not lessen the moral obligations of Lincoln. The President had an 
undoubted right to change his attitude, if he cared to do so, but he 
was in honor bound to give notice of it. This he recognized himself, 
according to his private secretaries, who quote his own words, and 
the deceit practiced by him lies in the insufficiency of the notice. 
The notice should have been sent in a reasonable time before the 
order for the sailing of the relief squadron, but the two went simul- 
taneously and the notice reached Pickens on April 8, when the first 
part of the squadron was leaving New York for Charleston harbor. 
For all practical purposes the notice might as well have not been given. 
The real valuable notice Pickens received from other sources, which 
enabled the Confederate authorities to defeat the purposes of the 

The change from peace to war began about the 29th of March, 
when certain radical influences got to work and made themselves felt, 
first on the Cabinet and then on Lincoln himself. On March 15 only 
one man in the Cabinet was absolutely in favor of reinforcing Fort 
Sumter, and on March 29 the Cabinet was nearly evenly divided. 
The determining influence appears to have been the tariff question. 
On March 16, 1861, Stanton, who had been a member of Buchanan's 
Cabinet, and had not yet taken sides with the Republicans, wrote to 
the ex-President that "the Republicans are beginning to think that 
a monstrous blunder was made in the tariff bill (the Morrill tariff, 
passed after the Senators from the cotton States had left their seats, 
with rates from 50 to 80 per cent.), that it will cut off the trade of 
New York, build up New Orleans and the Southern ports and leave 
the government no revenue." There was a Confederate tariff from ten 
to twenty per cent., and Lincoln's fears of it were ultimately excited. 
So it was this that caused the President to take a more guarded 
stand, and caused him on April 1, 1861, to require Seward to place 

*Nicholay and Hay, IV., p. 33. 

212 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

a written memorandum in Judge Campbell's hands to the effect that 
the President might desire to supply Fort Sumter, but would not do 
so without giving notice. 

Still the President had not entirely abandoned his old policy 
of peace, but absolute surrender now gave place to one conditionally 
stated, as before his inauguration, only the condition was more 
drastic. It was that the Virginia Convention should break up. He 
set on foot new negotiations with the Virginia Convention, which 
are referred to by John Hay in the latter part of the paragraph re- 
porting Mr. Lincoln at Seward's house on October 22, 1861: 

"Subsequently (i e. subsequent to the interview with Morehead 
and others of the Peace Conference before the inauguration) he 
renewed the proposition to Summers, but without any result. The 
President was most anxious to prevent bloodshed." 

The true story seems to be that Lincoln intended to make the 
proposal and took steps accordingly. But when the moment came 
he changed his mind and never actually made it. The facts ap- 
pear to be as follows. He sent Allen B. Magruder, a Virginia law- 
yer residing in Washington, to have George W. Summers, a leading 
Unionist in the State Convention, to come to see him. Magruder 
reached Richmond April 2nd. Mr. Summers could not come and 
John B. Baldwin came in his stead. He arrived in Washington on 
April 4, and immediately went to see Lincoln. But Lincoln told 
him that "he had come too late," and when Baldwin earnestly pleaded 
with him in favor of letting the South alone, Lincoln vehemently 
asked "what would become of his revenue?" 

There was at that time in Washington the governors of many 
of the Northern States, which were especially under the control of 
the tariff interests, and these men brought all their pressure to bear 
upon Lincoln to coerce South Carolina, offering him men and money 
for the purpose.* Considering the enormous interests centering around 
the tariff, the pertinency of Lincoln's question to Baldwin on that 
subject, and the menace in 1833 when the tariff actually pushed the 
country to the verge of war, it is not surprising that the final deter- 
mination turned upon it. Between April 2 and April 4 Lincoln 
changed and decided on war. Two days after Baldwin's interview 
Lincoln ordered his armed squadron of relief to Fort Sumter, and be- 
gan the war as his Cabinet on March 15 had warned him would be 
the consequence of any such action. 

♦For the presence of these governors, see the New York World and 
New York Herald of April 5, the Richmond Examiner for April 10, 
containing a Washington news letter dated April 7, Baldwin's pamph- 
let in reply to Botts, 1866, Staunton, Va. 

Lincoln and Fort Sumter. 213 

In no way antagonistic to the main purpose of this paper, which 
is to show the fluctuating action of Lincoln contrary to what is so 
often asserted, it is interesting to note that while John B. Baldwin 
declared that no proposal was actually made, Lincoln, in the extract 
above from John Hay's Diary, is reported as saying that it was made 
"but without any result." As reported by John Minor Botts, detailing 
several years later an interview with Lincoln on April 7, 1861, Lin- 
coln made the same statement and said that Baldwin scouted the 
idea of adjourning the convention. But Botts, proverbially inaccurate 
because of his overconfidence, weakened his declaration by reciting 
minor details which could never have occurred, and Hay's entry in 
his Diary is not contemporary with the act and confuses Baldwin 
with Summers. Baldwin very rightly claims that, as specially charged 
with this matter by his friends in the convention, his testimony is 
of the higher character, and Summers and other friends in the con- 
vention declared that the statement made by Baldwin before 
the Reconstruction Committee in 1866 was substantially what he 
told them on his return from his mission to Washington. 

Be that as it may, the vacillation of Lincoln cannot be doubted. 
Lincoln in March, 1861, was far from exhibiting the character of 
a great leader. His admirers never tire of abusing Mr. Buchanan 
for not at once using force to put down the "rebellion," and yet 
never was a greater picture of inefficiency presented than that by 
James Schouler of Lincoln: "So reticent indeed of his plans had 
been the new President, while sifting opinions through the month, 
that it seemed as though he had no policy out was waiting for his 
Cabinet to frame one for him.'"' 

Lincoln has been compared with Washington, Shakespeare and 
Jesus Christ, and without any real justification. Washington, by the 
single influence of his majestic moral power, held the jarring States 
together in war and peace, and Lincoln held them together by brute 
force. He failed signally as a peacemaker. William Shakespeare 
explored all the realms of human imagination, a~nd Lincoln only 
soared fitfully to nobler plains. And it is downright sacrilege to 
compare a man who was habitually unclean in his private conversa- 
tions with the immaculate Jesus. What Lincoln really was has ap- 
parently escaped modern criticism. He was a dancer, who shows off 
to fine advantage when gyrating about in the beautiful garments of 
his Gettysburg speech and several of his messages, but who very often 
seems downright ridiculous when viewed on the serious plain of ac- 
tion. All our other Presidents, like most sensible pedestrians, have 
proceeded in direct lines to their destinations, but Lincoln danced to- 
wards them, and got there, only after various dashes this way and 
that and performing astonishing evolutions as he went. 

214 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Thus, to illustrate in the Fort Sumter matter, Lincoln may be 
considered as standing in the centre of a room, one side of which 
represents peace and the other side war. His first movement is to- 
wards the side representing peace, but as his terms were conditional 
he must be represented as dashing off obliquely like dancers do. After 
going a short distance he spins around, and goes straight to his ob- 
ject and almost gets there; then changing his mind he circles again 
and dashes off to the war side of the room, but at an oblique angle 
as at first. Then after proceeding a short distance, he gyrates again, 
and chasses this time directly to the war side, which he reaches. 

A similar description applies to his action on emancipation. First 
he was absolutely against it, then he was provisionally against it, then 
he was provisionally for it, and finally absolutely for it. At Gettys- 
burg he came to dedicate a part of the battlefield, and succeeded in 
dedicating himself and the noble dead of the Federal Army, through 
a solemn dance, which no one will deny was singularly appropriate 
and becoming. Here he had the proper room for his talents, but no 
one recognized the graces of his speech till many years later. The 
reason was that, while he was a shrewd platform debater and a writer 
of catchy sentences, he did not belong to the class of born leaders of 
men, like Chatham and Burke, Patrick Henry and Henry Clay, whose 
delivery and voice stormed the attention of their audiences. And, by 
the way, as the manager of a great war, how feeble Lincoln appears 
beside the great Commoner Chatham. The four years of the latter 
were marked by victories on the lands and seas of four continents, till 
the little Island Kingdom "seemed to balance all the rest of Europe." 
The four years of the tormer were often marked by defeat and despair 
till, though backed by the rich and populous North, and with all 
Europe to draw recruits from, he had to confess that, without the aid 
of a part of the South's own population, the negro troops enlisted in his 
service, he would have had to "abandon the war in three weeks." 



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Vol. II. No. 4. 

APRIL, 1921 

GTpler'* ©uarterlp i>tetoucal 


Genealogical JWaga^ne 

Editor: LYON G. TYLER, M. A., LL. D. 

Genealogical jflap^tne 

Vol. II. APRIL, 1921. No. 4. 


Owing to an error, the pages of the July issue were numbered as in con- 
tinuation of the last volume. The paging of the October issue proceeds as 
if the July issue was correctly numbered from 1 to 72. 

Owing to the high cost of printing, the editor finds it necessary to ad- 
vance the price of this magazine, beginning with the July number, 1920, from 
$3 to $4 per year. Single numbers will be sold at $1.25. 

As back numbers of the old William and Mary College Quarterly, which 
was the original name of the present magazine, have become very scarce, 
single copies, as far as had, may be obtained for $2 a-piece. 

Address all communications to LYON G. TYLER, 711 Travelers Bldg., 
Richmond, Va. 


The Judiciary Power 217 

Rhode Island and Independence 222 

The Litchfield Law School 224 

Memorial for an Established Church 230 

Site of the University of Virginia 233 

Petition of the College of William and Mary, 1776 234 

Library, Endowment Fund, and Lands of William and Mary . 

College in 1824 243 

The Great Freshet, 1771 244 

Scotch Broom 246 

Register of Marriage Bonds of Greenville County, Virginia, 

1781-1808 248 

Records of Holladay Family 257 

Some Descendants of Lieutenant William Blackburn 263 

William Powell 2'68 

York County Records 270 

Burton Memorandum . 273 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 279 

Book Notices 283 

f^ler'g (©uarterlp iJ&tortcal anb 
Genealogical jlaga^ne 

Vol. II. APRIL, 1921 No. 4 


The first assertion of the power of the courts to set aside an 
act of the Legislature contravening the constitution was made in 
Virginia by the County Court of Northampton County. After the 
passage by Parliament of the Stamp Act in 1765, the policy 
adopted by the colonists in general was to embarrass England 
by loud protests and non-importation associations. Everywhere else 
the courts of the different American colonies declined to transact 
any business requiring stamps or proceeded to business on the 
plea that no stamps were obtainable. In Northampton County, 
Virginia, alone, the court met the issue face to face and declared 
the act of parliament null and void as contrary to the Constitu- 
tion. Although Virginia had no written constitution at the time, 
it did have, as England has, an unwritten one, and there is no 
reason why the courts could not have asserted their protectorship 
of it. 

This proceeding of the Northampton County Court is so re- 
markable that a copy of the record as published in the Virginia 
Gazette should be given here: 

"Virginia — Sc. 

"At a court held for Northampton County Feb. 8, 1766. 

"On the motion of the clerk and other officers of this court, 
praying their opinion whether the act entitled 'An Act for grant- 
ing and applying certain Stamp Duties and other Duties in 
America/ etc., was binding on the inhabitants of this county, and 
whether they, the said officers, should incur any penalties by not 
using stamped paper agreeable to the directions of the said act, 
the Court unanimously declared it to be their opinion that the said 

218 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

act did not bind, affect, or concern the inhabitants of this Colony, 
inasmuch as they conceive the same to be unconstitutional, and 
that the said several officers may proceed to the execution of their 
respective offices, without incurring any penalties by means thereof, 
which opinion this Court doth order to be recorded. 

Griffin Stith, C. K C.» 

After the adoption by Virginia of the first State Constitution 
June 29, 1776, the unalterable character of the instrument was 
not distinctly recognized by succeeding legislatures. The conven- 
tion itself, meeting as a house of delegates in General Assembly 
with the Senate, in the fall of the same year, passed several acts 
in contradiction of their own work. A similar course was pur- 
sued by succeeding legislatures. 

The first check to this proceeding was given by George Wythe 
in 1782, in the case of Commonwealth vs. Caton, 4 Call's Reports, 
5-21. His opinion was a pure obiter dictum, but derived weight 
from his personal reputation, the singularity of the case, and his 
judicial position. 

In the summer of 1783 there was some talk of a new conven- 
tion, and Mr. Jefferson, who held the opinion that the old con- 
vention of 1776 in making a constitution, had gone beyond its 
powers, drew up a plan of government to be submitted to a new 
convention when it should meet. It never met, but in this paper 
it was expressly provided that the General Assembly "shall not 
have power to infringe this constitution." That Jefferson looked 
to the courts at this time as the protector of the constitution, 
appears from a letter to Meusnier dated January 24, 1786, in 
which, while referring again to the unlawful conduct of the Vir- 
ginia legislature, he added: "I have not found that the other 
States have ever infringed their constitution ... as the judges 
would consider any law as void which was contrary to the consti- 

Next followed the Case of the Judges in 1788, when the extra 
duties of riding circuits were imposed upon the judges of the 
Supreme Court of the State. The judges regarded this action 

The Judicial Power 219 

as one affecting their independence, contrary to the third article 
of the State Constitution, and entered a strong protest. The 
legislature, thereupon suspended their law, and subsequently, with 
the acquiescence of the judges, who resigned, made a reorganiza- 
tion of the Judiciary, which the public interests demanded. 

The case of Kamper vs. Hawkins (1 Va. Cases, p. 81), which 
came up in 1793, was directly in point. The constitution sep- 
arated the common law and chancery jurisdictions, and an act 
of the legislature passed in 1792 united them in certain particu- 
lars. All the judges of the General Court entered opinions up- 
holding the authority of the constitution. 

Though this decision settled the matter in Virginia, the gen- 
eral acceptance of the principle in the Union at large dates from 
Chief Justice Marshall's decision in Marbury vs. Madison. In 
rendering it, it is reasonable to suppose that he was influenced 
by the previous action of the Virginia Courts, which must have 
come under his observation. But it is doubtful that he ever heard 
of the early cases sometimes cited from New Jersey (1779), from 
Rhode Island (1786) and North Carolina (1787).* 

In Marbury vs. Madison, the purely judicial question was com- 
plicated by others purely political. Jefferson who, as seen, had 
taken an early stand on the superior character of the Constitution 
and the Courts, did not believe that this authority in the Federal 
judiciary extended to all things — the proper functions of the execu- 
tive or to the fundamental relations of the States to the Union. The 
question before the court was the issuance of a mandamus to Madi- 
son, the Secretary of State, but Marshall, while going at great 
length on the propriety of such action, denied his authority to 
grant relief, because the act of Congress giving the Supreme 
Court power to issue mandamuses was unconstitutional, which 
Jefferson never denied. As a matter of fact Marshall's comments 
upon the executive power was purely an obiter dictum, and the 
decision taken as a whole had as much the character of an offen- 

*See Beveridge, Life of John Marshall, Vol. III., Appendix C, for 
a citation of these cases. Note Jefferson's Ignorance of the New 
Jersey Case in letter to Meusnier, cited above. 

220 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

sive lecture from the bench to the President of United States as 
the assertion of a solemn principle. On the original question 
before the court, the right of the petitioners to their commissions 
as justices, in his letter to George Hay in 1807 Jefferson takes 
issue with Marshall and sets out the law most conclusively. No 
judge would pretend to-day to interfere with the Executive in an 

The Federalist judges, including Marshall, wanted to make the 
Supreme Court the "final arbiter," and on this account they 
claimed a universal common law jurisdiction, and even tried to 
make their construction of the international law binding on the 
Executive. But thanks to the stout opposition of the State courts, 
and the early Eepublican Presidents, this plan of action was de- 
feated and has no place in our governmental system to-day. 

Wherever the final arbiter existed, whether in the States, or in 
a convention of the States, or in the mass of the people, it neces- 
sarily never did and does not now rest in the Supreme Court of 
the United States, or any other Federal court. 

There are many questions of vital importance that can never 
get before the Federal courts for decision. Such is a protective 
tariff, which has seriously threatened the existence of the Union 
more than once. Before resorting to nullification in 1832, South 
Carolina tried to get a Federal district judge in 1831 to decide 
the validity of the tariff law of 1828, alleging the unconstitu- 
tionality of duties in the interest of protection. But the court 
refused to take cognizance, because the protective question was 
juridically concealed in the rates. (Summer, Life of Andrew 
Jackson, pp. 2'20, 285, 286.) 

In his Life of John Marshall, Mr. Beveridge says that "the 
nationalist ideas of Marshall and Lincoln were identical" (IV, 
293). There never was a greater confusion of thought. Mar- 
shall stood for the authority of the law, and Lincoln treated the 
courts with contempt. Lincoln refused to pay any attention to 
Chief Justice Taney, who denied his right to suspend the writ of 
Habeas Corpus, and the constitution of which Marshall was the 
champion was practically nullified by Lincoln. 

The Judiciary Power 221 

This very case of Marbury vs. Madison, which set aside an act 
of Congress, proves that, while in favor of construing the constitu- 
tion favorably to the national view, Marshall would have been one 
of the last to submit to the usurpations of either the President or 
Congress, which were as objectionable to him as any narrow in- 
terpretation by the State courts.* 

After all, did the decisions of Marshall have any real effect 
upon the ultimate question of State and national sovereignty? 
They certainly had no effect in the South where submission to his 
decisions did not interfere with an ever-increasing maintenance 
of the doctrine of States right. Then why should they have had 
any real effect in the North? There was, in fact, no real anta- 
gonism between the most powerful Federal government and the 
right of secession. There is no reason why sovereign States ma} T 
not form a constitution giving the most ample power to a Federal 
government and yet reserve the right to secede at their discre- 
tion. The real influence in 1861 must be sought not in the de- 
cisions of Marshall, but in the diverse interests of the two sections 
of the Union, which caused one, the weaker, to resort to States 
rights as a defensive measure and caused the other, the stronger, 
to resort to force and nationality to maintain its own consciousness 
of power. 

*In the same volume, p. 92, Mr. Beveridge finds many resem- 
blances between Marshall and Lincoln in personal characteristics. 
Doubtless, quite as many personal differences could be found. Mar- 
shall was a gentleman, and it is impossible to associate him with the 
fifthy stories told by Lincoln, or to suppose that he could write such 
an abominable letter as Lincoln wrote to Mrs. Browning, with its base 
insinuations against the virtue of a lady to whom he had proposed 
and by whom he had been rejected. (Lamon, Life of Lincoln, 1872, 
p. 181; Nicolay and Hay, Letters and Speeches of Abraham Lincoln, 
I, 17-19.) The constitutional limitations, which weighed so much with 
Marshall, had no similar importance to Lincoln, who, in discussing 
the emanicipation question, declared that he would look only to its 
effects as a war measure, independent of its legal or constitutional 
character, or of its moral nature in view of possible consequences 
of a massacre of the Southern people! (Complete Works of Abraham 
Lincoln, VIII, 30, 31). It is impossible to suppose that Marshall 
could have given utterance to such a sentiment. 

222 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


In his interesting Life of John Marshall, Mr. Beveridge states 
in a footnote (Vol. Ill, p. 118) that Rhode Island "formally 
declared" Independence two months before Congress adopted the 
pronunciamento penned by Jefferson. Is this a correct statement? 

A reference to the act passed by the Rhode Island Legislature 
May 4, 1776, fails to show that it was a "formal declaration" of 
Independence. The act contains a disavowal of the authority of 
King George and a requirement that all commissions should 
issue thenceforth in the name of the Colony, but there are no 
words of a formal separation from the British Empire. The 
act affected the local conditions, but it did no more than what 
other colonies had already avowed and expressed. Several, like 
New Hampshire and South Carolina, had gone so far as to adopt 
temporary constitutions, and everywhere for a year or more the 
King's authority was disregarded. The instructions adopted the 
same day, by the same body, to the Rhode Island delegates in 
Congress gave no direct authority on the subject of independence. 
Frothingham, in his Rise of the Republic, says that the instruc- 
tions were "secret, aroused no enthusiasm and made no mark." 

The substitution for the loyal words, "God save the king," the 
words, "God save the United Colonies," at the close of the records 
of this Assembly negatives the idea of a formal assumption of 
the status of independence. Had the words been "God save the 
State of Rhode Island" or "God save the United States," the case 
might have been somewhat different. 

After all, the act was a merely legislative act, and not one of 
the people assembled in a Constitutional Convention, empowered 
to deal with fundamental questions. 

Indeed, it has never been argued that the resolutions adopted 
by Congress on May 10, recommending to the Colonies, "when no 
government sufficient to the exigencies of their affairs has been 
hitherto established, to form such government as might conduce 
to their happiness in particular and that of America in general," 

Rhode Island and Independence 223 

was a formal Declaration of Independence, despite the words of 
the preamble adopted five days later (May 15) that "it is necessary 
that every hind of authority under the crown of Great Britain 
should be totally suppressed/'' 

On the other hand, the action of Virginia on the same day 
(May 15) was a formal Declaration, of Independence. On that 
day the Virginia Convention directed a committee to prepare a 
Declaration of Eights and a plan of government and this order 
followed resolutions, part of the same paper, directing the Vir- 
ginia representatives in Congress to move that body to declare 
the Colonies free and independent States. Following this, when 
the committee reported their plan, which was adopted June 29, 
1776, the designation was "Commonwealth of Virginia/' instead 
of "Colony of Virginia," as hitherto. None could doubt that an 
independent State had arisen, for not only was it declared that 
"the government of this country as formally exercised under the 
crown of Great Britain is totally dissolved," but by ordinances 
passed by the same body of representatives a seal was ordered and 
all officers were required to swear allegiance to the "Common- 
wealth of Virginia." 

Between June 29 and July 2, when Congress adopted Eichard 
Henry Lee's resolutions of Independence for all the Colonies, no 
other Colony acted, and thus Virginia presented the picture of 
being the only one to take the stand of independent Statehood, be- 
fore Congress, in the name of all, asserted it for all as sovereign 

224 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


By Archibald Henderson. 

In the last issue of this magazine, I read with interest the 
list of Virginians and North Carolinians who had attended the 
Litchfield Law School. Some years ago, a copy of the catalogue, 
reprint of 1900, came into my possession. This catalogue con- 
tains pictures of Judge Tapping Reeve and Judge James Gould, 
and their homes at Litchfield — as well as lists of students to as 
early a date as 1798. It was once believed that prior to 1798 four 
hundred students had attended the school, according to the "Ad- 
vertisement" of January 1, 1828. At the end of the catalogue of 
1849, as well as in the "Notice" preceding it, however, the claim 
is modified to read that the number up to 1798 exceeded 200 
(given at end as 210). 

The question as to priority between the Law School at the 
College of William and Mary and the Litchfield Law School, 
fully discussed in the New York Times, August and September, 
1920, is not of interest to the present purpose. It is worthy of 
note that the "Advertisement," January 1, 1828, states that the 
Litchfield Law School was "established in 1782," whereas the 
"Notice" of 1849 says: "This School, the first established, and 
for many years the only one in the United States, was com- 
menced in the year 1784 ..." The year 1779, in which George 
Wythe began his lectures in law at William and Mary, ante- 
dates either date given for the establishment of the Litchfield Law 
School. It is, however, probably not open to question that the 
Litchfield Law School was the first law school proper, as such — 
that is, wholly devoted to that one object as distinguished from 
being one of the departments of a college — established in the 
United States. 

Its record is a proud one; and John D. Champlin, Esq., in his 
article on "Litchfield Hill," says of the alumni of this famous 
law school : "Sixteen became United States Senators ; fifty, mem- 
bers of Congress; forty, Judges of higher State Courts; eight, 
Chief Justices of States; two, Justices of the United States Su- 
preme Court; ten, Governors of States; five, Cabinet Ministers; 

The Litchfield Law School 225 

and several Foreign Ministers, while very many were distinguished 
at the Bar." This record is of concern to the country generally, 
since the students at Litchfield were recruited from all sections. 
According to the unsigned article, "The Litchfield Law School" 
in Law Notes, February, 1901, the young lawyer, Tapping Reeve, 
then not long married to Sally Burr, daughter of President Burr 
of Princeton and sister of Aaron Burr, removed from Hartford to 
Litchfield prior to the Revolution. "Until the conclusion of the 
Revolutionary War," the article sets forth, "there was but very 
little civil business done in the county at Litchfield, and Mr. Reeve 
betook himself to giving instructions to young gentlemen who 
looked forward to the legal profession for support and advance- 
ment when quieter times should come. This employment tended 
greatly to enlarge and improve his stock of legal learning, and 
led the way for him to begin in 1784 a systematic course of in- 
struction in the law and to regular classes. The Law School 
dates from that year." During the existence of the school, which 
continued in successful operation and with annual graduating 
classes until 1833, its national character is shown by the fact that 
more than two-thirds of the students registered from States other 
than Connecticut. The South was represented as follows. Mary- 
land thirty-nine, Virginia twenty-one, North Carolina twenty- 
two, South Carolina forty-five, Georgia sixty-nine, Mississippi 
and Tennessee one each, Kentucky nine, Alabama three, and 
Louisiana seven, as well as four from the District of Columbia.* 

Aaron Burr studied law at Litchfield, but not at the Litch- 
field Law School. The most distinguished alumnus of that school 
was John C. Calhoun, who entered in 1805. "Only a few rods 
from the school building," says Moore, "was the house where 
Harriet Beecher Stowe was born in 1811, and Henry Ward Beecher 
in 1813, and a short hour's walk would have brought the young 

*The above-mentioned article in Law Notes was written by 
Charles C. Moore, a former member of the Litchfield bar, and after- 
wards one of the editors of the English and American Encyclopedia 
of Law. In the preparation of the article he was materially assisted 
by the late Chief Justice Charles B. Andrews. 

226 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Southerner to the spot where John Brown was born in 1800, in the 
adjoining town of Torrington." Whether these hypothetical ex- 
cursions of Calhoun into purlieus of Abolitionism were to be pleas- 
ure promenades, the deponent saith not. 

An interesting and intimate account of the Litchfield Law 
School, as it was in 1813 is contained in Kilburn's work, being em- 
bodied in the speech of the Hon. Charles G. Loring, of Massachu- 
setts, of the class of 1813, at the Annuel Dinner of the Story Asso- 
ciation, Cambridge (Mass.) Law School in 1851. Judge Kent gave 
the following sentiment: "The first-born of the law schools of this 
country — the Litchfield Law School. The Boston Bar exhibits its 
rich and ripened fruits. By them we may judge of the tree and 
call it good." In response, the Hon. Charles G. Loring, spoke 
in part as follows concerning his experiences as a law student 
at Litchfield: 

"The recollection is as fresh as the events of yesterday, of our 
passing along the broad shaded streets of one of the most beauti- 
ful streets of one of the most beautiful of the villages of New 
England, with our inkstands in our hands, and our portfolios 
under our arms, to the lecture room of Judge Gould — the last of 
the Romans, of Common Law Lawyers; the impersonation of its 
spirit and genius. It was, indeed, in his eyes, the perfection of 
human reason, by which he measured every principle and rule of 
action, and almost every sentiment. 

"Why, sir, his highest visions of poetry seemed to be in the 
refinement of special pleadings; and to him a non sequitur in 
logic was an offense deserving, at the least, fine and imprison- 
ment, and a repetition of it, transportation for life. He was an 
admirable English scholar; every word was pure English, unde- 
filed and every sentence fell from his lips perfectly finished, as 
clear, transparent and penetrating as light, and every rule and 
principle as exactly defined and limited as the outline of a build- 
ing against the sky. From him we obtained clear, well-defined 
and accurate knowledge of the Common Law, and learned that 
allegiance to it was the chief duty of man, and the power of en- 
forcing it upon others, his highest attainment. From his lecture 

The Litchfield Law School 227 

room we passed to that of the venerable Judge Beeve, shaded by 
an aged elm, fit emblem of himself. He was, indeed, a very 
venerable man, in character and appearance, his thick gray hair 
parted and falling in profusion upon his shoulders, his voice only 
a loud whisper, but distinctly heard by his earnestly attentive 

"He, too, was full of legal learning, but invested the law with 
all the genial enthusiasm and generous feelings and noble senti- 
ments of a large heart at the age of eighty, and descanted to us 
with a growing eloquence upon the sacredness and majesty of the 
law. He was distinguished, sirs, by that appreciation of the 
gentler sex which never fails to mark the true man, and his teach- 
ings of the law in reference to their rights and the domestic rela- 
tions, had great influence in elevating and refining the senti- 
ments of the young men who were privileged to hear him. As 
illustrative of his feelings and manner upon this subject, allow 
me to give a specimen. He was discussing the legal relations of 
married women; he never called them, however, by so inexpressi- 
ble a name, but always spoke of them as 'the better half of man- 
kind/ or in some equally just manner. When he came to the 
axiom that 'a married woman has no will of her own/ this, he 
said was a maxim of great theoretical importance for the preserva- 
tion of the sex against the undue influence or coercion of the hus- 
band; but although it was an inflexible maxim, in theory, experi- 
ence taught us that practically it was found that they sometimes 
had wills of their own — most happily for us. 

"We left his lecture room, sirs, the very knight errants of 
the law burning to be the defenders of the right and the avengers 
of the wrong; and he is no true son of the Litchfield school who 
has ever forgotten that lesson. 

"I propose, sirs, the memories of Judge Eeeve and Judge 
Gould — among the first, if not the first founders of a National 
Law School in the United States — who have laid one of the corner 
stones in the foundation of true American patriotism, loyalty 
to the law." * 

*The Bench and Bar of Litchfield County, Connecticut, 1709-1909. 
By Dwight C. Kilbourn. Published by the author. Litchfield, Conn., 
1909. Pp. 186 et seq. 

228 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

An even earlier description is to be found among the papers 
of Colonel William Polk, in the Library of Congress, long in the 
possession of Mr. William Henry Hoyt of New City. It seems 
that Col. William Polk of Kaleigh, N. C., applied to the Hon. 
Archibald Henderson* of Salisbury, N". C, for information regard- 
ing the Litchfield Law School, with reference to having one of 
his sons study law there. Mr. Henderson's closest friend while 
he was in Congress (1799-1803) was the Hon. Eoger Griswoldf 
of Conn. ; indeed he named one of his sons Eoger Griswold in af- 
fectionate tribute to his friend. The letter given in full below is 
in answer to one addressed to Mr. Griswold by Mr. Henderson, 
requesting information concerning the Litchfield Law School : 

LYME Feby 1st 1811. 
My Dear sir 

Your letter of the 13th of Jany & which was received yesterday, 
gave me very great pleasure, and I wish you cou'd find object suf- 
ficiently important to induce you to write me frequently. 

The law school at Litchfield about which you inquire, was estab- 
lished by Mr. Reeve, who has been several years a Judge of our 
Supreme Court — he is a man of the, most amiable character — a good 
general scholar, and a very learned lawyer. It is at this time kept 
up, by the Judge and Mr. Gould of that place, a Lawyer of very 
respectable talents, and law learning. The instruction consists prin- 
cipally in a course of lectures, delivered by the judge — when at 
home, and in his absence by Mr. Gould. They are well digested and 
explain the elements and general practice of law, in a clear and able 
manner. The school is generally attended by, from twenty to thirty 
young Gentlemen who are preparing for the Bar: many of them are 
from the neighboring and Southern States. The lectures are read 
two, three, and some times six times in each week, as circumstances 
require, and varied as new principles arise in the English or our 

* Archibald Henderson was the son of Judge Richard Henderson, 
a native of Hanover County, Virginia. For an account of his life 
and career, consult the writer's "A Federalist of the Old School," 
in North Carolina Booklet, July and October, 1917. 

f Compare "The Griswold Family of Connecticut with Pedigree": 
Magazine of American History, xi, 310#. 

The Litchfield Law School 229 

own Courts. The young gentlen obtain rooms — board, lodging &c— 
in Town as they find convenient. The school has probably a higher 
reputation, than any establishment of the kind in New England. 'In 
Massachusetts they admit a student from Judge Reeve's school to an 
examination for admission to the Bar, in the same manner as if he 
had pursued his studies in that State. And in New York (I under- 
stand) they have lately adopted a rule to give a student, who has been 
with the Judge a year, the benefit of that term in computing the 
three years, required by their rules, before a student can be examined. 
As these privileges are not allowed, in those States to students from 
any other office, I mention the circumstance as furnishing some evi- 
dence of the estimation, in which the school is held with them. The 
young gentlemen also form a Society for extempore speaking. On 
the whole I have no doubt that a young gentleman who has talents 
and is attentive to his books, will make a greater improvement with 
Judge Reeve than he can at any other law school in this part of the 
Country. But you know that more depends on the talents and industry 
of the pupil, than on the ability of the Instructor and I shou'd well 
consider these points before I advised a young gentleman to attend a 
school, having [so much?] the character of a publick one. But if 
the son of your friend possesses the proper qualification, and particu- 
larly if he has industry. I presume he cannot do better. 

Litchfield is not in any respect a place of dissipation — The ex- 
pense of a young gentleman living there, I cannot state with accuracy 
— Tuition (I think) $40 pr annum. — board about $2 — pr week — room 
rent and other contingent expenses moderate — My residence is about 
70 miles from Litchfield, but if I can render any services to your 
friend I shall be happy. 

The political state of the Country, my dear friend, I hold in 
utter contempt. The government has absolutely run down, and the 
machine is now only moved by the momentum which was first given 
to it. It is now only a contrivance to get & to spend money, and 
every spark of energy and dignity which we once flattered ourselves 
wou'd distinguish and support our government has expired. And 
what is still worse the publick spirit & character is so debased, that 
nothing short of a political earth quake, can arouse it. 

With great affection & perfect sin- 
(TheHonbie cerity I remain 

Archibald Henderson Esqr Your friend & Obed Sernt 

Salisbury R. GRISWOLD.* 

North Carolina. 

*For an exact transcript of this letter, I am indebted to Mr. Wil- 
liam Henry Hoyt, of New York City, who called my attention to it. 

230 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

The information contained in this letter evidently satisfied 
Col. Polk as to the quality of the school, and decided him to send 
his son there. For the name of his son, Thomas G. Polk "of North 
Carolina/' a graduate of the University of North Carolina in 1809, 
appears in the catalogue of the Litchfield Law School for 1811. 
Sketches of Colonel William Polk and General Thomas G. Polk are 
found in W. H. Polk's Polk Family and Kinsmen. 

Archibald Henderson". 
University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, 

March 5, 1921. 


To the Honorable the Speaker and Gentlemen of the House 
of Delegates 

The memorial of a considerable number of the clergy of the 
established Church in Virginia — 

Setteth forth that your memorialists, having understood that 
various Petitions have been presented to the Honorable the As- 
sembly, praying the abolition of the established Church in this 
State, wish to represent that when they took charge of the Par- 
ishes in Virginia, they depended on the public Faith, for the 
receiving of that Recompense for their Services during Life on 
good Behavior, which the Laws of the Land promised, a Tenure 
which to them appears of the same sacred nature as that by which 
every man in the State holds, and has secured to him, his private 
Property; and that such of them as are not yet Provided for, 
entered into Holy Orders, expecting to receive the several Emolu- 
ments which such Religious Establishment offered; that from the 
nature of their Education they are precluded from gaining a 
tolerable subsistence in any other way of Life; and that therefore 

Memorial for an Established Church 231 

they think it would be inconsistent with Justice, either to deprive 
the present Incumbents of Parishes of any Eights or Profits they 
hold or enjoy; or to cut off from such as are now in orders, & 
unbeneficial those Expectations which originated from the Laws 
of the Land, & which have been the means of disqualifying them 
from any other Professions or ways of Life. 

Also, that though your memorialists are far from favouring 
Encroachment on the religious rights of any Sect or Denomina- 
tion of Men, yet they conceive that a religious Establishment in 
a State is conducive to its Peace and Happiness. They think the 
opinions of mankind have a very considerable Influence over their 
Practice; and that it therefore cannot be improper for a Legisla- 
tive body of a State to consider how such opinions as are most 
consonant to Reason, & of the best Efficacy in human affairs, may 
be propagated and supported. They for their part are of opin- 
ion that the Doctrines of Christianity have a greater Tendency to 
produce Virtue amongst men than any human Laws or Institu- 
tions : & that these can be best taught & preserved in their Purity 
in an established Church, which gives Encouragement to men to 
study, & acquire a competent knowledge of the Scriptures. And 
they think that if these great Purposes can be answered by a re- 
ligious establishment, the Hardships which such a Regulation 
might impress on Individuals, or even Bodies of men, ought not 
to be considered. 

Also, that whilst your Memorialists are fully persuaded of the 
good Effects of religious Establishments in general, they are more 
particularly convinced of the Excellency of the religious Estab- 
lishment which has hitherto subsisted in this State. That they 
gained their Conviction on the Experience of 150 years, during 
which Period, order & internal Tranquility, true Piety & Virtue 
have more prevailed than in most other Parts of the world; & 
on the mild & tolerating spirit of the Church Establishment, 
which with all Christian charity & Benevolence has regarded Dis- 
senters of every Denomination, & has shown no Disposition to re- 
strain them in the Exercise of their Religion: That it appears to 
your Memorialists that the mildness of the Church Establish- 

232 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ment has heretofore been acknowledged by those very Dissenters. 
who now aim at its Euin, many of whom emigrated from other 
countries to settle in this from motives we may reasonably sup- 
pose of Interest & Happiness. 

Also That your Memorialists apprehend many bad consequences 
from abolishing the Church Establishment. They can not sup- 
pose, should all Denominations of Christians be placed upon a 
Level, that this Equality will continue, or that no attempt will 
be made by any sect for the Superiority ; & they foresee that much 
Confusion, probably civil commotions will attend the Contest. 
They also dread the ascendency of that Eeligion which permits 
its Professors to threaten Destruction to the Commonwealth, to 
serve their own private Ends. 

Lastly That though the Justice & Expediency of continuing 
the Church establishment is a matter of which your Memorialists 
themselves have no doubt, yet they wish That the final Determina- 
tion of your Honorable House be deferred, till the general Senti- 
ments of the good People of this Commonwealth can be collected, 
as your Memorialist have the best Reasons to believe that a Majority 
of them desire to see the Church Establishment continued, and, as 
the sentiments of the People have been attended to in other In- 
stances, they submit it to your Consideration whether some Re- 
gard should not be paid to their sentiments in a matter which so 
nearby concerns them, as their Eeligion. 

(Endorsed:) Memorial from clergy of the Established Church 
1776. Nov 8. Eefer d to Com: on Eeligion. 

Note. — The original of this copy is in the Archives Department 
of the State Library. 

Site of the University of Virginia 233 


Jefferson's Letter of Acceptance. 

(From the Department of Archives, State Library.) 

Poplar Forest, July 13, 18. 

I received in due time your Excellency's letter of Mar. 18 
covering the appointment with which you were pleased to honor me 
as one of the Comm rs under the act concerning the University.. 
meaning to accept the trust it did not occur in the moment that 
I ought to say so, and to prevent any suspense which my silence 
might occasion in your mind on the subject, the receipt of your 
second favor of Mar. 20, which after a long absence from home 
found me here, first brought to my attention the culpable failure 
in duty which occasioned you the trouble of a second notification, 
entirely sensible of this inadvertence, I sollicit your Excellency's 
pardon, with the assurance that it proceeded from absence of re- 
flection solely, my high respect for yourself personally, as well 
as the sense of a duty omitted, calls for this apology, with an addi- 
tion of the tardy assurance that I accept the appointment with 
which you have honored me, and will render under it every service 
in my power, with my regrets at this incident, be pleased to ac- 
cept the sincere expressions of my high consideration and esteem. 

Th : Jefferson 
H. E. 

Governor Preston 
(Directed on the back:) 
His Excellency 

Governor Preston 

(Endorsed:) Albemarle County 

Thomas Jefferson Esq 
Accepting the app* of Comm r to fix the site of the University. 
Rec d July 20, 1818 

234 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

MAEY 1776. 

From the State Archives. 

As the final result of this petition the College was given all 
the public lands in and around Williamsburg by act of the Legis- 
lature, 1784. (Hening, XI, p. 406.) 

Endorsed on the back: College Memorial, 1777, May 28. Eef d 

to Com : upon the State of the Commonwealth. 
To the honble the Speaker and Gentlemen of the House of Dele- 
The Rector, Visitors and Governors of the College of William and 
Mary humbly beg leave to lay before the house this 
Not to represent to those, who have the power of Relief, the 
ruinous State of the College Funds, would argue your Memo- 
rialists unworthy the Guardianship of Learning. Indeed, they 
are the more emboldened to make such Representation to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, as it affords an occasion, truly glorious to the 
deputies of a free People, of restoring Literature to its fullest 

When your Memorialists recur to the Code of Laws, and read 
the Patronage of the Legislature, so frequently and warmly pro- 
claimed, they trust that the Liberality of the Assembly will be 
still extended to the necessities of the College. For in the fourth 
year of Anne an act is found, "laying an Imposition upon Skins 
and Furs, for the better support of the College of William and 
Mary in Virginia." In 18 Geo. II, the Duty of threepence upon 
every exported raw, and sixpence upon every exported tanned 
Hide, imposed by that Act, is increased to two shillings and six- 
pence upon the former, and five shillings upon the latter. In 
8 Geo. II, Provision is made for the Improvement of the Revenues, 
arising from skins and furs, and the duty of one penny for every 
Gallon of Rum, Brandy and other distilled spirits, and of wine, 

Petition of the College of William and Mary 235 

is appropriated to the use of the College, for the remainder of the 
Term, to which its Existence had been limited. Subs'equent Acts 
have continued this last mentioned Duty ever since, nor will it 
expire, till the year 1780. In 32 Geo. II the Collection of the 
Duty upon Skins and Furs is guarded by various wise Eegulations. 
In 1. Geo. Ill the Payment of the fees upon Pedlar's licenses is 
secured. In 3 Geo. Ill the several acts of Assembly for licensing 
Peddlars, and preventing Frauds in the Duties upon Skins and 
Furs are amended. 

The Language of these Acts obviously declares that the College, 
hath been an object of legislative Favours from its earliest Days. 
In the increase of the Duty on Hides, and the appropriation of 
that on Liquors, your Memorialists have a precedent, countenanc- 
ing this address. For these Benevolences having been granted 
upon a Deficiency of the Funds, they are taught to believe, that in 
a like case a like Eemedy will not be withheld. The zeal too, 
Caution and Penalties, with which these Duties have been insured, 
naturally lead them to the General Assembly, as their Resource 
in this Hour of Difficulty. 

From the foundation of the College to this Time, Science hath 
been attainable at the easiest price. The expences of Education 
have never injured the most scanty fortune. Thus open to every 
class of men, would Letters still remain, had the calamities of War 
left the College Revenues unimpaired. By a review of its Income 
and Disbursements for ten years past, as Contained in the Account, 
hereto annexed, the former will appear to amount in Average to 
£3048.12.7 the latter to £2846.16.6 per annum, making the annual 
addition of £201.16.1 to the stock. But the late Decrease of 
£2335.18.7 occasioned by the suspension of the Duties upon 
skins, furs, Liquors and Tobacco reduces the Revenue to £712.14 — 
per annum. Instead of a proportional Decrease, taking place in 
the necessary expenses of the College, the exorbitant prices now 
prevalent have had a contrary Effect. So that the last mentioned 
sum of £712.14 — is the only fund for satisfying the former an- 
nual Disbursements of £2846.16.6 now perhaps doubled. 

If the Expenditure of the above Balance of £201.16.1 in 

236 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

favour of the College, as it may have accumulated from its com- 
mencement to the time of the Cessation of these Duties, be ex- 
amined, it will appear, that great part of it hath been lately con- 
sumed, and still continues to be consumed in contingent charges. 
Tho' it must be observed, that this accumulated Balance is some- 
v/hat imaginary, as it is calculated upon the supposition of a regu- 
lar Discharge of Interest accruing upon the Bonds, of which the 
Instances are few. 

To supply this Deficiency, your Memorialists have the alter- 
native of raising the Board of students and scholars, or betaking 
themselves to voluntary contributions — They would willingly 
avoid the former measure, as it would eventually preclude all such, 
as are not born to wealthy Inheritances from the Advantages of 
the College. It would also thwart the design of the founders, 
whose object it was, to open the Door of Knowledge to all Persons 
willing to enter. Your Memorialists intend however, to raise the 
Board so far, as to make it, when raised equal to the Value of the 
thirteen pounds formerly paid. Nor is voluntary contribution free 
from objection, being in this Instance, indecent and impracticable. 
Indecent, because it wears the appearance of renouncing the pro- 
tection of the legislature tho uniformity given hitherto and im- 
practicable by reason of the sum, which the present Exigence re- 

Had these necessities arisen from misapplication of the 
Revenue, your Memorialists would not have now intended upon the 
Assembly. But they know them to proceed from a different cause. 
The same Hand, which arrested the American Trade, has stabbed 
the College Funds. 

Perhaps as long as the blood-thirsty sword of Despotism is 
unsheathed against America it may be embarrassing to devise a 
mode of supplying the wants of the College. But your Memorial- 
ists are persuaded, that an Assembly, selected to promote the 
general Welfare need not be instructed, that the concealed and 
varying attacks of Tyranny are not easily detected by Men, un- 
accustomed to Reflection and unprepared by Study, that this 
Commonwealth hath, therefore the strongest Inducements to multi- 

Petition of the College of William and Mary 237 

ply the Avenues to science at almost any price. That the Premises 
may be taken into Consideration and such a fund established, or 
other relief granted for the support of the College, as to the Wis- 
dom and Munificence of the General Assembly may serve best, is 
the earnest prayer of your Memorialists. 

(Attached to Memorial ante) 

The Eevenues & Disbursements of the College of William 
and Mary stated for the years from 25 March 1766 to 25 March 


Duty on Tobacco 

(Page 1) 

25 th March, 1767 

£ 970.13.10i/ 2 


822. 8. 51/2 


639.11.10y 2 


515.15. 4 


1211. 8. 2V4 


1458.19. 6 


727.14. 7 


904.17. 1/2 


692. 5. 6 


343. 1. ll/ 2 

£8286.15. 5% 

Communibus annis is abt £828.13.6 

Office of Surveyor General 

25 th March 1767 

£ 133.13. 31/2 


178.14. 4 


25.10. 2 


244. 6. 6V4 


93. 4. 4V4 


141.14. 7V4 

238 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 


376 10% 


206.18. 43/4 


164. 8. 3 


98 . 5 

1662.10.101/2.. about.. 166. 5. 



Car d forward £994.18. 
(Page 2) 


Annual Eevenue bro 1 forward £994.18. 


Surry Eents 

25 th March 1767. .., 

£ 163. 2. 


88. 6. 2 


148.17. 7 


U i( (I 


373.15. 934 


130. 0. 


130. 0. 


72. 8. 3 


80. 6. 



£1290 14. 9%.- .about.. 129. 1. 6 


25 th March 1767 £ 96.13.1iy 2 

68 105... % 

69 " " " 

70 171.14. 6% 

71 295.18. iy 2 

72 218.15. 2% 

73 225. 1. 91/2 

74 252. 1.11% 

Petition of the College of William and Mary 239 

75 271. 9. 9 

76 279.18. i/ 2 

£1916.13. 5.. about.. 191.13. 4 

Car d forward £1315.13. 5 

(Page 3) 
Annual Eevenues bro 1 forward £1315.13.5 

King William Rents 

25 th March 1767 £ 62.10.6 

68 " " " 

69 453.14. 7% 

rvrv <( a a 

71 313. 7. % 

72 143. 6. 6 

73 237. 9. 

74 167.11. 9% 

75 109.13. 6 

76 70. " " 

£1557.13. %.. about. 

. 155.15. 3 

Dut}' on Liquors 

25 th March 1768 

£ 75. 7. 2 


1021. 1. 8 


1160.12. 9 


1018. 6. 9 


1573. 6. 9 


1854. 2.11 


1402. " ioy 2 


1714.18. 3 


1326. 7. 6 


822. 2. 2 

£12618.16. 114., abt. ... 

1261.17. 7 

Car d forward £2733. 6. 3 


Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

(Page 4) 
Annual Eevenue bro* forward £2733. 6. 3 

Duty on Skins & Furs 

25 th March 1767 

..£ 75. 7. 2 


28.12. 9 


609.11. 3 


658.18. 51/2 


272. 4. 13,4 


180. 5. 1 






192. 6. 6% 


39. 1. iy 2 

2453.15. 51/2.. about.. 245. 7. 6 

Pedlar Licenses 

25 th March 1767 

£ 10 


10 nc 

thing since 

£ 20 

..2. " " 

Nottoway Quarter 

25 th March 1767 

£ 242.13.11V4 


a a u 



« a u 


a a a 


(( u u 


ti a a 


62. 2. 4 


87.19. 6I/2 


166.17. 4i/ 2 


119.15. 1 

. about . . 

£679. 8. 314. 


Amount of the Annual Eevenue on an £3048. 12. 7 
average of ten years 

Petition of the College of William and Mary 241 
(Page 5) 



25 th March 1767 

£ 728. 9. 9% 


826. 6. 6V4 


1625.10. V4 


1054. 7. " 


1360.16. 5i/ 2 


1564.12. 5 


1661. 7 . . 


1775. 7. 3 


1694.10. 83,4 


1582.12. 6 

£13873.19. 8J4 

Commun 3 An 3 ab* £1387. 7.11 

25 kh March 

1767 £ 472. 9. 1% 

68 221. 9. 71/2 

69 691.12. 8 

70.. 455.14. 5 

71 798.19. 6% 

72 ."... 959.17. 614 

73 792.11. % 

74 860.14. $% 

75 2031.14. 8% 

76 339. 4. 6 

£7624. 7.10 ab*.. 762. 8.10 

Car d forward £2149.16. 9 

242 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

(Page 6) 

Annual Disbursements bro* forward £2149.16 9 
The Table 

25 th March 1767 £ 463. 5. 8% 

68 758.12. 6i/ 2 

69 574.16. 51/2 

70 556. 5. 31/2 

71 435.10. 21/2 

72 726.16. 8% 

73 614.13. 8I/2 

74 351. 8 1/2 

75 757. 4. 2 

76 218.18. 91/2 

£6457.12' %..ab* 645.15. 2 

By the Manor of Braft'erton the College, losing in 
some years & gaining in others, has upon the whole 
sustained in the above period of time a loss of 
£512.5.914. • • .abt 51. 4. 7 

Amount of the Annual Disbursements, on an £2846.16. 6 

average of 10 years 
So that the Eevenues have exceeded 201.16. 

the Disbursements by 

3048.12. 7 

Library, Endowment Funds, Etc. 243 


In 1824 the College of William and Mary petitioned the Gen- 
eral Assembly to be permitted to remove from Williamsburg to 
Richmond. The petition was referred to a committee, which pro- 
posed various questions to the College authorities. Among the 
papers filed in answer and preserved in the State Library is the 
following : 

The Books in the Colledge of Wm & Mary are divided into three 
Rooms. They are called the old, the new & the Law Libraries. The 
first, or old Library consists of works belonging to the Colledge. Ex- 
cept in Divinity it is by no means rich. The Institution having been 
originally intended principally for the Education of Clegymen of the 
Episcopal Church, particular provision was made for their Instruc- 

The scientific part of this Library is not very valuable in con- 
sequence of many of the volumes being lost. Even at first, with the 
exceptions of some few works, it was not, as is believed, of any very 
great worth. The principal part of the new Library & all the Law 
Library have been recently added, & consists of approved modern 
Authors carefully selected. The sum of three or four thousand Dol- 
lars has been expended on them, & they are gradually increased, as 
each student pays the sum of five dollars, which, after deducting 
the salary of the Librarian, is applied to their augmentation. 

The number of Books belonging to the Colledge may amount 
probably to about three or four thousand volumes. It is impossible to 
give a very accurate statement of the philosophical and chemical ap- 
paratus. The former was purchased in Europe many years ago. 
Part of it is very valuable, but it is not extensive. The chemical ap- 
paratus has been recently purchased & from time to time such addi- 
tions are made to it as the Professor reports necessary & the funds 
will afford. All are in a good state of preservation, & enable the 
Professor to exhibit such a series of experiments & demonstrations 
that no complaints have been heard of any deficiency. 

The productive money capital amounts to about $110,000 

There are yet unsold about 6607 acres of land valued at 18,980 

The Brafferton is valued at 1,500 


244 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

A part of the foregoing is not available at this time, being in- 
volved in litigation, & a part possibly may be lost. 

Besides the College Building, which is very large, & the Braffer- 
ton already mentioned, there is a dwelling house in which the Presi- 
dent resides, & sundry out Houses appertaining to the Institution. 

There are about 350 acres of land attached to the Colledge not 
estimated in the valuation given above, as they produce nothing but 
fuel, & it is not contemplated to sell them. The information required 
by the latter part of the Resolution must be sort in the Records of 
the State, those of the Colledge, it is believed, furnishing no clue to it. 
Some few of the Books of the Library are stamped "The Gift of the 
General Assembly of Virginia." 


John Howard's Letter. 

Botetourt, Thursday, 
June ye 6 th 1771 

I received last night by my Fellow Cato accounts of the dismal 
Destruction made in James River by the late Fresh; in which I 
share very deeply; as I understand all my Crop of Tobacco that 
was growing is ruined as well as all that was in the Tobacco Houses 
about 6 Hogsheads, together with all my Tobacco Houses except 
one; are swept away; and 13 Hogsheads that were sent to the 
Warehouse; or Westham, I suppose are gone; as I hear the water 
was over both places; my Corn House with the Corn swept away; 
& some of my stock : and it is owing to the great goodness of God 
that my People are all alive. This Misfortune I shall feel heavily 
unless it should please God to incline my few Creditors to have 
Patience with me till I can rub thro' it; I intend down next 
week by John Rains to your House; whom I have been with, 
some Time ago; & was encouraged to think he would be over at 
your House before now, at least pay up the interest of his Bond; 
as by his Letter that I send you herewith you will see; but I fear 

The Great Freshet, 1771 245 

he has not been over & Paid it, and when I come to your House, 
I know not with what face I shall appear, as I understand by 
your Letter to me, that you want what is due on my Bond, also 
both Principal & Interest. I sincerely commiserate my Fellow 
Sufferers on James Eiver ; and especially Col. Joseph Cabell, whose 
damage I have been more particularly informed of. The Flood 
in these Parts did great Damage; nearly proportionable to the 
size of the water course, tho I fortunately escaped any great dam- 
age here; about a fourth part of my Fences were missed; or 8 
Panels of my Garden were washed up & moved ; but my ground is 
not very much washed. My corn I have replanted, & it is coming 
up very well & tho it is late I hope will come; My Damage here 
will be chiefly repaired in three or four Days more; except my 
Crop of Corn &c, being put something back ward; I should be 
glad, I & other People too, could say the same with Eegard to out 
Plantations on James River, & several other Rivers. 
I am, Sir, Your obed 1 hum 1 Serv* 
John Howard. 
(Addressed to) "Dr. William Cabell in Amherst." 


For an account of the flood of 1771 see William and Mary Col- 
lege Quarterly, V., pp. 150, 151, 157. The obelisk mentioned as com- 
memorative at "Turkey Island" has been in recent years carefully 
repaired, and is now protected by an iron fence. In the version of 
the inscription given in the Southern Literary Messenger, IX., pp. 
693, 694, words on a tombstone in a neighboring grave yard are 
curiously represented as on the- east side of the obelisk. In the ac- 
count in the William and Mary Quarterly certain beautiful verses 
beginning with "Sleep sweetly in this quiet room, &c," are ascribed 
to it. Both are errors. There is no inscription whatever on the east 

246 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Letter of Dr. J. M. Gait. 

Dear Sir, 

When I was at your house yon mentioned your Intention of 
Cultivating the pride of China for feeding sheep. This will an- 
swer for the winter months very well. It did not occur to me then 
to recommend to your notice the cultivation of Scotch Broom, 
which affords an ample food for between two or three summe* 
months for sheep and Hogs, it affords an abundance of flowers 
which those animals devour greedily — it fattens them fast & comes 
early, & will last til the wild fruits are ripe, such as mulberrys — ■ 
Blackberries & Hurtle berries — after that the Chinkapin suc- 
ceeds — this added to the others will give them a Succession of food 
for Ten months in the year. 

I have sent you seed sufficient to plant all your hill sides that 
you do not mean to cultivate in grain. Its roots are Fibrous; of 
course they will prevent the Lands from washing — they shou'd 
be put in directly — planted at five feet distance — four or five 
seed in each hill & about one inch deep — to prevent their being 
affected by the rays of the sun — they will lay in the ground for 
two winters, and sometimes three or four before they Vegetate — 
when I left England I brought some of the seed that had been 
gathered for Twenty-odd years — I planted them as an ornamental 
flowering shrub in the Garden — they remained in the ground four 
winters — then Vegetated finely & grew very Luxuriant — the seed 
now sent I saved from the summer before last — from Mr. Lucas' 
land in Warwick — it was originally planted as a hedge by an old 
Englishman — from which it has spread over some hundred of acres 
of land by the Birds — in England they have a method of Expedit- 
ing the Vegetation of Broom — Hawthorn and Holly — by mixing 
the seeds with the feed of their horn'd Cattle & keeping the Cattle 
up till they have passed the seed — they then sprinkle this over their 

Scotch Broom 247 

Land & plough it in, in the fall Season — in the Spring the seed 
will vegetate — as this process would be too late for this winter, 
I wou'd Kecommend the mode I first proposed, they require no 
care after being sown. My best respects await the whole Family. 
I am Dr Sir 

Yours very respectfully 

J. M. Gait Dec 9, 1803 

(Addressed to) 

John H. Cocke Esqr 
Mount Pleasant 

[Endorsed] Dr. Gait's Letter on the cultivation of Scotch Broom. 


This letter is from the State Archives. The writer, Dr. J. M. Gait, 
was son of Samuel Gait, a covenanter of Londonderry, Ireland, who 
came to Virginia about 1735, and married Lucy Servant. He was born 
in 1744, was educated at William and Mary College, and studied medi- 
cine at Edinburgh and Paris, 1765-67. In 1774 he was one of the 
committee of safety for Williamsburg. During the American war 
he had charge of the sick soldiers in the hospitals in and around 
Williamsburg. After the war he practiced medicine in Williams- 
burg and the neighboring counties. He married Judith Craig, daugh- 
ter of Alexander Craig and Mary Maupin, his wife. He died in 1808 
For Gait Family, see Wm. and Mary Quarterly, IX., p. 122. 

248 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

COUNTY, VIRGINIA, 1781-1808. 

Compiled by Mrs. Dorothy Hedges Goodwyn, Emporia, Va. 

Abernathy, Buckner & Huldah Rivers, , 178 — . 

William Rivers, Security. 

Abernathy, Jesse & Lydia Bass, 8 Jan., 1801. George Cain, 

Adams, Collin & Frances Nicholson, 16 Dec, 1790. Mary 
Nicholson, mother, consents. Edwin Adams, Sec. 

Adams, Collin & Martha E. Goodrum, 21 Nov., 1803. John 
Goodrum, Sec. 

Adams, Edwin & Olive McLemore, 5 Feb., 1789. John Eogers, 

Adams, Edward & Elizabeth Cooksey, 17 Dec, 1788. John 
Baptist Cooksay, father, consents. Isaac Adams, Sec 

Adams, Green & Martha Newsom, 23 Feb., 1808. John Good- 
rum, Sec 

Adams, James & Elizabeth Whittington, 14 Dec, 1807. In- 
gram Blanks, Sec. 

Adams, Jeremiah & Elizabeth E. Grigg, 7 Feb., 1798. Bur- 
well Grigg, father, consents. Bichard Mabry, Sec. 

Adams, John & Elizabeth Williamson, 28 Dec, 1788. Eobert 
Williamson, father, consents and is Sec. 

Adams, Thomas & Annas Griffin, 7 May, 1799. Lucy Griffin, 
mother, consents. Tarpley Young, Sec 

Adams, William & Elizabeth Clements, 12 April, 1799. Wm. 
Whitmore, Sec. 

Allen, Hamlin & Sylvia Lanier, 22 Dec, 1801. Tabitha Lanier, 
mother, consents. Littleberry Mangum, Sec. 

Allen, John & Fanny Pearson, 11 Jan., 1802, dau. of James 
Pearson. Samuel L. Bottom, Sec 

Allen, Eichard & Mary Wall, 27 Dec, 1792. Achilles Jef- 
fries, Sec 

Kegister of Marriage Bonds 249 

Allen, Timothy & Lucy Lane Batte, 9 Sept., 1805. Frederick 
Batte, Sec. 

Andleton, Isaac & Nancy Clark, 3 Jan., 1803. Sarah Clark, 
mother, consents. Edwin Clark, Sec. 

Applewhite, Arthur & Patsy Turner, 28 Aug., 1788. Batte 
Peterson, guardian, consents. James Foster, Sec. 

Applewhite, William & Betty Williamson, 24 Oct., 1799. Wm. 
Lundy, Sec. 

Andleton, Thomas & Dolly Coker, 21 Aug., 1802. Kobert 
Eoe, Sec. 

Andrews, William & Sally Grizzard, 25 Nov., 1785. Peter 
Pelham, Sec. 

Andrews, William, Jr., & Susanna Bass, 20 Dec, 1793. George 
Cain, Sec. 

Artis, Abram & Elizabeth Tabour, 11 Oct., 1788. Judy 
Tabour, mother, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Atkinson, William Jr., & Martha Cain, 26 March, 1789. 
George Cain, father, consents. Lockett Mitchell, Sec. 

Avent, Henry & Winny Eobinson, 13 Dec, 1801. Isaac E. 
Walton, Jr., Sec. 

Avent, Samuel & Janey Woodruff, 18 Nov., 1799. Susanna 
Woodruff, mother, consents. John Justice, Sec. 

Avent, Thomas & Lucy Eobinson, 14 Jan., 1805. Henry 
Avent, Sec. 

Atkins, Jesse & Sally Harrison, 7 Oct., 1805. Jesse Butts, Sec. 

Avery, William & Clara Hunt, 14 May, 1808. John Hunt, 
father, consents. Wythe Sims, Sec. 

Avery, Eichard H. & Martha D. G. Hicks, 12 Dec, 1808. 

Edmunds Mason, Sec. 

Barlow, John & Dolly Wrenn, 25 Dec, 1788. Charles Wil- 
liams, Sec. 

Barlow, William & Dolly Walpole, 5 Feb., 1798. Thomas 
Whitehorn, Sec. 

Barnes, John & Elizabeth Bass, 24 Aug., 1803. Jacob Payne, 

250 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Bass, Allen & Elizabeth Davis, 30 Sept., 1790. Burgess Bass, 

Bass, Burgess & Charlotte Sykes, 28 May, 1791. Benjamin 
Sykes, father, consents. Eichard Crum, Sec. 

Bass, Henry & Elizabeth Harrison, 23 Aug., 1787. Sarah 
Harrison, mother, consents. Henry Wrenn, Sec. 

Bass, Simon & Angelina Dupree, 7 Nov., 1803. Eobert Fox, 

Bass, Sterling & Elizabeth Dupree, 23 May, 1793. Allen Bass, 

Bass, Zachariah & Mary Cooksey, widow, 26 Dec, 1808. John 
Eives, Sec. 

Batte, Alexander W. & Mary Pettway, 1 Aug., 1803. Wash- 
ington Goodrich, guardian of the groom, consents. Peyton 
Harwell, guardian of the bride, consents. Green Mitchell, Sec. 

Batte, Frederick & Polly Batte, 24 Sept., 1795. Sarah Batte, 
mother, consents. Peyton Harwell, Sec. 

Batte, Henry & Eebecca Smith, 17 Dec, 1801. John Smith, 
father, consents. Edmund Loftin, Sec 

Batte, Lewis & Polly H. Hobbs, 17 April, 1808. Sarah Hobbs, 
mother, consents. James Maclin, Sec 

Batte, William, Jr., & Mary Ann Berryman, 5 May, 1785. 
John Berryman, father, consents. Balaam Berryman, Sec. 

Bennett, Lewis & Betsy Vaughan, 8 Dec, 1806. Patty Yaughan, 
mother, consents. Joshua Clark, Sec 

Berryman, Jesse & Boyce Jackson, 27 July, 1790. Aaron 
Brown, Sec 

Bilbro, Berryman & Diana Charles, 16 Aug., 1782. Julius 
.Perry, Sec. 

Birclsong, John & Elizabeth M. S. Chambliss, 7 Jan., 1805. 

William M. Birdsong, Sec 

Blanks, David & Elizabeth Spiceley, 21 Dec. 1785. Carrol 
Griggs, Sec. 

Blanks, David & Euhamah Sammons, 6 Dec, 1792. Edmund 
Lawrence, Sec 

Kegister of Marriage Bonds 251 

Bonner, John & Elizabeth Mabry, 20 Dec., 1799. Richard 
Mabry, Sec. 

Bonner, Williamson & Mary Eivers, 28 May, 1793. Thomas 
Bivers, Sec. 

Binford, James & Nancy Jane Walker, 11 March, 1797. James 
Walker, father, consents & is Sec. 

Boisseau, William & Keziah Goodwyn, 11 Jan., 1808. Esau 
Goodwyn, Sec. 

Bottom, Harwood L. Sally Hynes, 12 Aug., 1805. James 
McKendree, Sec. 

Boykin, Frederick & Elizabeth Bynum, 13 Aug., 1798. Eliza- 
beth Bynum, mother, consents. William Bynum, Sec. 

Branscomb, Isaac, son of Thomas, & Elizabeth Harrison, 25 
Oct., 1789. 

Henry Wrenn, Sec. 

Branscomb, Edward & Annie Ingram, 6 Oct., 1791. William 
Allen, Sec. 

Branscomb, Bobert & Elizabeth Ingram, 16 Nov., 1795. Jo- 
seph Ingram, father, consents. Edward Branscomb, Sec. 

Branscomb, Zachariah & Mazey Towns, 6 Nov., 1798. Bobert 
Branscomb, Sec. 

Britt, Jesse & Nancy Lucas Parham, 23 Dec. 1784. Law- 
rence House, Sec. 

Britt, Jesse & Ann Davis, widow, 24 Feb., 1786. John Britt, 

Britt, Presly & Mary Womack, 26 May, 1796. William Wo- 
mack, father, consents. Benjamin Rivers, Sec. 

Brown, Beverly & Hannah Parham, 13 Nov., 1785. William 
Batte, Sec. 

Brown, Burwell & Patience Turner, 10 Feb., 1784. Simon 
Turner, Sr., father, consents. Edmund Gibbons, Sec. 

Brown, John, Jr., & Rebecca Dupree, 12 July, 1790. Lewis 
Dupree, Sec. 

Brown, Richardson & Mary Brown, 8 Oct., 1807. John Brown, 
Jr., Sec. 

Bruce, George & Nancy Weaver, 2 Feb., 1805. B. Weaver, 
father, consents. John Wilkins, Sec. 

252 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Butts, James & Sarah Simmons, 21 Feb., 1797. Benjamin 
Simmons, Sec. 

Buckley, John & Boyce Bass, 3 Feb., 1797. Miles Cooksey, Sec. 

Brewer, Buckner & Susanna Robinson, 24 Feb., 1803. Landon 
Wallis, Sec. 

Burnett, Douglas & Patsy Branscomb, 6 Jan., 1801. Richard 
Branscomb, father, consents. Zachariah Branscomb, Sec. 

Butts, William & Betsy Hobbs, 20 Sept., 1806. Sarah Hobbs, 
mother, consents. John Raines, Sec. 

Butler, Thomas & Lucretia Mabry, 28 Jan., 1805. Jacob 
Jordan, Sec. 

Butler, William & Nancy Rawlings, 2 Feb., 1793. Isaac 
Rawlings, father, consents & is Sec. 

Bynum, Britton & Jenny Dupree, 8 Aug., 1803. Thomas 
Dupree, Sec. 

Bynum, Sugars & Sally Parham, 27 March, 1789. Turner 
Bynum, Sec. 

Bynum, William & Francis Jefferson Person, 15 Dec, 1794. 
Mary Person, mother, consents. Thomas Person, Sec. 

Cain, John & Selah Mabry, 24 Nov., 1794. Evans Mabry, 
father, consents. William Atkinson, Jr., Sec. 

Cain, John & Jane Hobbs, widow, 30 Oct., 1798. Byrd 
Lanier, Sec. 

Camp, John & Elizabeth Sims, 11 Feb., 1782. Benjamin 
Wall, Sec. 

Camp, John & Elizabeth Gilliam, widow, 13 Jan., 1803. 

Philip Claiborne, Sec. 

Cato, John, Jr., & Temperance Webb, 6 May, 1790. John 
Webb, father, consents. Michael Vincent, Sec. 

Cato, John & Harriett Perry, 25 May, 1797. William Tomlin- 
son, Sec. 

Cato, John & Sally Walker, 29 March, 1804. Roland Cato, 

Cato, Harris & Nancy Howard, 24 March, 1808. Thomas 
Powell, Sec. 

Begister of Marriage Bonds 253 

Cato, Moss & Nancy Goodrich, 8 Oct., 1806. Mary Goodrich, 
mother, consents. John Avent, Jr., Sec. 

Cato, Robert & Polly Clark, 9 Nov., 1803. Roland Cato, Sec. 

Cato, Roland, Jr., & Nancy Vincent, 13 Feb., 1807. Wm. 
Goodrich, Sec. 

Cato, Sterling & Elizabeth Harris, 8 Dec, 1800. Jordon 
Richardson, Sec. 

Chambliss, Mark & Judith Johnson, 27 Feb., 1800. David 
Johnson, Sec. 

Christianberry, Thomas & Rhoda Hayley, widow, 20 Oct., 1802. 

Randall Rawls, Sec. 

Claiborne, Deveraux J. & Sally Jones, 11 July, 1808. Benj. 
Jones, Sec. 

Claiborne, Philip & Sally Sims, 22 Nov., 1795. John Camp, 

Clan ton, Jeremiah & Sally Murrell, 12 July, 1798. James 
Rawlings, Sec. 

Clark, Isham & Polly Mitchell, 18 July, 1799. Drewry 
Mitchell, father, consents. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Clark, Charles & Nancy Clark, 23 Jan., 1800. Elizabeth Clark, 
mother, & Richard Sills, guardian, consent. Henry Pritchett, Sec. 

Clark, George & Mary Reese, 7 Aug., 1786. Joshua Reams, Sec. 

Clark, Henry & Polly Clark, 28 Nov., 1799. Sarah Clark, 
mother, consents. Isaac R. Walton, Sec. 

Clark, James & Ann Massey, 13 June, 1793, orphan of John 
Massey. Benjamin Peebles, Sec. 

Clark, John & Nancy Fielding, 12 Sept., 1797. Thomas 
Fielding, father, consents & is Sec. 

Clifton, Cordell & Jennett Turner, 2'2 May, 1788. Jesse 
Peterson, guardian, consents. Henry Smith, Sec. 

Clifton, Samuel & Elizabeth Harris, 1 Sept., 1790. Wm. 
Andrews, Sec. 

Collier, Charles & Elizabeth Hudson, 12 Nov., 1804. Ingram 
Blanks, Sec. 

Collier, Henry & Mary Shehorn, 17 Dec, 1787. William 
Moss, Sec 

254 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Collier, John & Lucretia Mitchell, 19 Feb., 1793. Jos. 
Mitchell, Sec. 

Collier, William & Sally Rives, 10 Jan., 1789. Jabez Morris, 

Collier, William & Judith Garner, 24 Oct., 1793. Samuel 
Garner & Milly Garner, parents, consent. Thomas Garner, Sec. 

Collier, Frederick & Prisciila Spence, 4 Jan., 1804. John & 
Batte Spence, See's. 

Cocke, John W. & Tabitha Ann Wilkins, 28 Aug., 1807. Wm. 
W. Wilkins, Sec. 

Connally, Thomas & Polly Person, 12 March, 1807. Thomas 
Dupree, Sec. 

Cook, Edwin & Winifred Tomlinson, 9 Jan., 1804. James 
Jordan, Sec. 

Cook, Fostor, Jr., & Patty M. Sills, 12 Dec, 1808. John 
Christian, guardian, consents. Henry Wyche, Sec. 

Cooke, John Temperance Philips, 12 Jan., 1792. John Philips, 
father, consents. Wiliam Eaves, Sec. 

Cooksey, John B. & Polly Slate, 14 Dec, 1805. Peter Pelham, 

Cooksey, Miles & Susanna Lanier, 25 Dec, 1793. Thomas 
Lanier, Sec 

Cooksey, Thomas & Nancy Mason Goodrum, 13 Dec, 1803. 
Bennett Goodrum, Sec 

Cooksey, Walter & Lucy Bass, 3 Feb., 1797. Miles Cooksey, 

Corn, Robert Brooks & Ginnie Jeffers, 26 March, 1795. 
Drewry Gowing, Sec 

Cowen, John & Claramond Sammons, 27 Dec, 1798. Ed- 
mund Lawrence, Sec. 

Crump, Richard & Julia Sykes, 9 April, 1789. William Sykes, 

Dancy, Francis & Hannah Peters, 13 Jan., 1806. Henry 
Peters, Sec 

Dancy, James & Sarah Rosser, 14 June, 1786. David Rosser, 

Register of Marriage Bonds 255 

Dancy, William & Priscilla Turner, 13 Dec, 1802. Simon 
Turner, Sr., father, consents. Green Turner, Sec. 

Davis, Baxter & Elizabeth Eead, 27 Dec, 1790. L. Holt, Sec. 

Davis, John & Nancy Smith Whittington, 27 Sept., 1792. 
Howell Whittington, father, consents. William Davis, Sec 

Davis, Thomas & Nancy Pritchett, 28 Nov., 1799. Hardy 
Pritchett, Sec. 

Davis, Thomas & Amy Rosser, 9 Feb., 1807. John Rosser, Sec 

Davidson, John & Elizabeth Pettway, 7 May, 1798. John 
Gibbons, Sec. 

Dawson, John E. & Annabella Burwell, 16 Sept., 1801. Bel- 
field Starke, Sec 

Day, John & Agnes Sexton, 3 Jan., 1787. Lockett Mitchell, 

Dennison, William & Dionysius Woodlief, 11 Dec, 1807. John 
Prichard, Sec 

Demerry, John & Eebecca Stewart, 10 Feb., 1806. Frederick 
Shelton, Sec. 

Dominal, John William & Winifred Pritchett}, widow, 30 
May, 1807. 

William Harrison, Sec 

Dunn, James & Elizabeth Woodford, 14 Jan., 1799. Mary 
Woodford, mother, consents. Henry Wrenn, Sec 

Dupree, Hayley & Elizabeth Garris, widow, 12 Jan., 1782. 
Daniel Fisher, Sec. 

Dupree, Robert & Polly Hines, 4 Aug., 1797. Ann Hines, 
mother, consents. Drewry Grant, Sec. 

Dupree, Thomas & Martha Jeter, 22 April, 1805. Frances 
Hill, Sec 

Dupree, William & Jannett Cato, 25 June, 1788. John Cato, 
father consents & is Sec 

Edmunds, Thomas & Martha Dancy, 23 Nov., 1804. Arm- 
istead Goodwyn, Sec. 

Edwards, William & Sally Ferguson, 6 Oct., 1795. William 
Ferguson, father, consents. Peter Freeman, Sec 

Edwards, William & Julia Stith, 17 Feb., 1808. John Fisher, 

256 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Elliott, John & Mildred Maclin, 22 Oct., 1788. Thomas 
Maclin consents. Willis Maclin, Sec. 

Ellis, Ira & Mary Mason, 3 Nov., 1795. Peter Pelham, Sec. 

Eppes, James & Susanna Grigg, 21 Jan., 1788. Carrol Grigg, 

Eppes, William & Hethy Chapman, 5 Dec, 1804. George 
Eppes, Sec. 

Evans, Henry & Sally Hayes, 21 Sept., 1790. John Goodwyn, 

Evans, Howell & Polly Powell, 30 Aug., 1804. Isham Powell, 

Evans, John & Patsy Powell, 13 July, 1807. Isaac Powell, 

Evans, William & Charlotte Cato, 25 Dec, 1786. Daniel 
Cato, father, consents. Henry Evans, Sec. 

Ezell, Michael & Priscilla Rives, 12 Dec, 1787. Benjamin 
Rives, Sec father, consents. Edmund Jeter, Sec 

Ezell, William & Betsy Bailey, 14 Sept., 1796. Herbert Hill, 

Faison, William & Martha Hutchings, 12 Jan., 1787. Joel 
Wilkinson, Sec. 

Fennell, William & Sally Fox, 1 Sept., 1800. James M. 
Walker, Jr., Sec. 

Ferguson, William & Ann Clark, 27 Nov., 1788. Henry Wil- 
liamson, Sec. 

Ferguson, William, Jr., & Judith Lanier, 21 Dec, 1802. 
Zachariah Branscomb, Sec. 

Fisher, Boiling & Mary Lucas, 27 Dec, 1798. Thomas Pel- 
ham, Sec 

Fisher, John & Lucy Wall, 22 Feb., 1799. Alexander Medill, 

Foster, Christopher & Miranda Jordan, 24 Nov., 1785. Jere- 
miah Dupree, Sec. 

Fox, Thomas A. & Lavinia Smith, 10 Oct., 1803. Isaac Rowell, 

Fox, William & Sarah Walton, 7 Nov., 1798. James Robin- 
son, Sec. 

(To be continued.) 

Records of Holladay Family 257 


Copied and communicated by Mrs. Alice Hume Cook (Mrs. 
Thomas W. Cook), 111 East Water St., Greensville, Ohio. 

The following items have been copied exactly from the Family 
Bible of Benjamin Holladay who died in Spotsylvania County, 
Virginia, March 21, 1785, by his great, great, great granddaugh- 
ter Alice Hume Cooke, wife of Rev. Thomas Worthington Cooke, 
and a daughter of the late Hon. Frank Hume, of Washington, 
D. C, and Alexandria County, Virginia. 

Benjamin Holladay was a son of John Holladay, Captain of 
the Spotsylvania County Rangers, who died in 1742. He was 
appointed an inspector of tobacco at Fredericksburg, and his 
brother Joseph re-appointed by Gov. Henry, June 19, 1777. This 
office was held by a Holladay for over fifty years. 

The old Bible, and old indentures and letters, are in the pos- 
session of Mr. Hume's family. At the death of Benjamin in 
1785, the Bible passed to his daughter Nancy Holladay, wife 
of John Rawlins (Rawlings, Rollins, etc.). They moved to Ken- 
tucky, where their son Owen was born in 1796, and where Nancy 
(Holladay) Rawlins died in 1800. Later John Rawlins moved 
to Old Franklin, Howard County, Missouri, where he died in 
1820. He married his second wife, Miss Emory, in Kentucky. 
Levi Rawlins seems to have been the only one of John and Nancy 
Rawlin's children who remained in Virginia, and the Bible was 
left with him, a child less than ten years of age, who lived with 
his aunt, Mary (Holladay) Sandidge. His daughter, Sarah 
Ellen Rawlins, was the next member of the family who came in 
possession of the previous volume. Her sister, Frances Virginia 
Rawlins, married Charles Hume, of Culpeper County, Virginia, 
and moved later with their children to Washington, D. C. Sev- 
eral years before her death Miss Rawlins gave the Bible and the 
old papers and letters to her nephew, Frank Hume, who was well 
informed about the ancestry of both his parents. Much informa- 

258 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

tion and old letters of the Hume family have been published in 
Historical Magazines from records obtained through Mr. Hume. 

John Eawlins, Sr., who moved to Kentucky and later Mis- 
souri, having married Nancy Holladay for his first wife, was 
the grandfather of General John Aaron Eawlins, Gen. Grants' 
Adjutant General during the Civil War, and later Secretary of 
War, through his second wife, Miss Jane Bush Emory. 

Records from the Family Bible of Benjamin Holladay. 

Benjamin Holladay Eawlings a Sun of John Eawlings and 
20th Day of Ianuary in the year 1744. 

Elizabeth Holladay was Born 3rd Iany 1745/6. 

Ioseph Holladay was Born 18th Sept r 1747. 

Susannah Holladay was Born 17th March 1748/9. 

Agness Holladay was Born 17th December 1750. 

Sarah Holladay was Born 29th November 1752. 

Mary Holladay was Born 27th April 1755. 

Maratha Holladay was Born 31st March 1757. 

Beniamin Holladay was Born 22nd March 1759. 

Mary Holladay a Daughter of Ben n and Mary his second wife 
was Born 11th November 1760. 

Nansey Holladay was Born 22nd October 1762. 

Joseph Holladay & Mrs. Fannie Johnson (torn off) married 
the 12 of May 1780 By the Eev. (torn off) James (torn off) 

Benjamin Holladay a son of Jos. & Fanny (torn off) Holla- 
day was Borne the 7 of May 1781. 

Fanny Holladay was Borne the 1 of March 1783. 

Thomas Eawlings a Son of Iolin and Nancy Eawlings was 
Borne the first day of April 1784. 

Mary Eawlings was Borne the 13 day of April 1785. 

Benjamin Holladay Eawlings a Sun of Iohn Eawlings and 
Nancy his wife was Borne the 29th of August 1786. 

Levi Eawlings was Born the 29th Day of February one thou- 
sand Seven hundred and Eighty Eight. 

Records of Holladay Family 259 

Iohn Eawlings, a Sun of Iohn Eawlings and Nancy his wife 
was Borne the 22 Day of December in the year of our Lord one 
thousand Seven hundred and Eighty nine. 

Susannah Eawlings was Born the 20th Day of May one thou- 
sand Seven hundred and ninety one. 

Eobert Eawlings was Born the 2nd Day of Iune one thousand 
Seven hundred and ninty four. 

Owen Eawlings was Born in Kentucky 3 of October 1796. 

William Holladay Dece d this Life the 16 May 1769. 

lames " (torn) dinton Dece d this Life 24 August 


Iohn Holladay Sen r Dece d this Life the ll d of April 1781 and 
was Berred on Easter Sunday the 15 d . 

Ioseph Holladay In r Departed this Life 21st Nov r 1783. 

Beniamin Holladay Sen r Departed this Life 21st March 1785 

Agness Holladay Departed this Life 10th Nov r 1792. 

Susannah Eawlings, departed this Life October 12, 1795 

Elizabeth Penn Departed this Life 6 Day of March at night 
1797 Aged 94 or 95 years 

Nansey Eawlings Departed this Life Jan. 13, 1800. 

Sary Oliver who was a Daughter of Ben n Holladay Departed 
this Life the 2 Day of October 1800. 

Mary Holladay the second Wife of Ben 11 Holladay Departed 
this Life the 2nd day of Novem r 1807 in the 78 th year of her 

Levi Eawlings Departed this Life on the 29th day of October 
1824 in the 37th year of his age 

Austin Sandidge departed this life on Tuesday the 23rd of 
November 1824 in the 71st year of his age. 

Mary Sandidge departed this life on Tuesday the 9th of 
March 1830 in the 71st year of her age. 

Learkin Sandidge Departed this Life the 2'5th Day of August 
1791 in the 33rd year of his age. 

260 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

didge Iun r Departed this Life the 
aged 41 years 
Torn off j & e ^nr Departed this Life the 10th 

aged about 76 years 

ge Departed this Life the Day of 
29 in the 75 year 

Levi Eawlings and Eliza Hansbrough were married the 29th 
of May 1817 

Mary Ann Daughter of Levi Eawlings and Eliza his wife 
was born the 9th of March 1818. Died Sunday, October 30th 

Frances Virginia Eawlings was born the 14th of November 
1819. Died March 23rd 1883. 

Nancy Holladay Eawlings was born the 18th of May 1822 

Sarah Ellen Eawlings was born the 7th of June 1823 

Iohn I. Eickard and Eliza Eawlings were married on Thurs- 
day May 14th 1833 By Eev d Mr. Lamon 

Helen Catherine, Daughter of I. I. & Eliza Ehickard was born 
on Wednesday night Aug. 17, 1837 

Eliza Hansbrough (Eawlins) Eickard died at Stevensburg, 
Va., 26th of December 1872 aged 74 years, wife of John J. 

Helen Catherine Eickard daughter of the late John J. & Eliza 
Eichard died Sunday January 1st 1905 at Stevensburg, Va. in the 
69 year of her age. 

Sarah Ellen Eawlins daughter of the late 

Levi Eawlins and Eliza his wife, died Tuesday, February 
1905 in the 82nd year of her age. 

Charles Hume & Frances Virginia Eawlings were married 
on Tuesday 21st Iune 1836 

Win Parker & Mary Ann Eawlings were married on 24 Jan- 
uary 1838. 

George Lee Waugh & Nancy H. Eawlings were married on 
19 September 1839. 

George Lee Waugh Died October 1881. 

Mrs. Sally Norman Departed this Life on Wednesday morn- 
ing Feby 18th 1836 in the 91st year of her age. 

Eecoeds of Holladay Family 261 

Copies of two old Indentures. Made by members of the Rawlins 
family, also in possession of Mr. Frank Hume's family. 

Know all men by these presence that we Thomas Rawlings 
John Rawlings & Owen Rawlings heirs and legal representatives of 
Nancy Rawlings, and each one of us of the County of Clark and 
State of Kentucky — do bargain and sell and relinquish unto Levi 
Rawlings now of the county and state afore sd all the right title 
and interest that we, and each of us have in and to one certain 
Negro Woman Call d and known by the name of Cate, and her 
children that is now in the possession of Iohn Scott* of Spotsyl- 
vania County in the state of Virginia sd. Negro woman being 
Willed to s d Scott for and during his natural lifetime by the last 
will and testament of Mary Holladay and at his said Scott's 
Death to Descend to the children of the s d Nancy Rawlings for the 
consideration of sixty dollars paid to us each one of us by the s d 
Levi Rawlings making in the whole one hundred and Eighty 
Dollars and be it further remembered and made known that we 
the above named Thomas Rawlings Iohn Rawlings & Owen Rawl- 
ings do by these presents authorize the sd. Levi Rawlings to 
sue recover and receive the legal Interest that each one of us have 
in and to the afore s d Negroes the same as if we were personally 
present ourselves we might or lawfully could do in and concern- 
ing the same in witness where of we and each one of us have 
hereunto set our hands and seals this 16 th Day of September in 
the year 1814 

Iohn Rawlings Senr 
Jame Thomas 
Lucy Embree 
William stone 
Ambrose Embree 

Thomas Rawlin(gs) 
John W. Rawli(ngs) 
Owen Rawlin(gs) 

*John Scott was a son of Mary Holladay by her first husbanfi 
Isaac Scott, who died in Spotsylvania Co., Virginia, in 1757. 

262 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

For a valuable consideration paid me by Levi Eawlins I do 
truly transfer and make over unto the said Levy Eawlins all my 
right title and interest in a legacy left by Mary Holladay deceased 
late of Spotsylvania County in the State of Virginia which legacy 
was devised by the said Mary Holladay to John Scott of said 
county during his natural life and the said Levy Eawlins to run 
all risque in said claim as it is understood that I only sell to said 
Levy Eawlins my interest in said legacy without any recores to 
me and in case the said Levy Eawlins is unable to obtain said 
legacy or any part there of I am to be in nowise accountable fore 
such falure. Given under our hands and seal this the 12 day of 
December 1814 
Test, (torn off) 

John Eawlins 

In a letter written June 25, 1822 by Owen Eawlings to Austin 
Sandidge and his wife Mary (Holladay) Sandidge the sister of 
his mother Nancy (Holladay) Eawlings, he says among other 
things : 

"I want to see my Dear aunt (Mrs. Sandidge) in this world 
. . . as I cant have any recollection of my mother who now lays 
in Kentucky and my father (John Eawlings Senr) on the bluffs 
of Missouri ... I ha^e a wife and one son. I call his name 
John after father. My oldest son Died last summer." 

Some Descendants of Lieut. Wm. Blackburn 263 


Compiled by Annie Noble Sims, Savannah, Ga. 

In the Land Office at Bichmond, Virginia, in Book H, page 
594, it is recorded that A. D. 1755 Lord Fairfax made a Grant 
of land to "Arthur, George and William Blackburn of Fairfax 
county, Virginia". The land granted them was in Frederick 
county, Virginia, "on Mulberry Bun." 

These three brothers at a much later date removed to what is 
now Washington county, Virginia, see pages 619, 809 and 813 
of "History of Southwest Virginia," by Lewis Preston Summers. 
Scores of references in "Southwest Virginia" show that these men 
were prominent in the political, religious and social life of Wash- 
ington county. 

That "Arthur, George and William Blackburn" were brothers 
is stated in the Will of George Blackburn, recorded August 18th, 
1778 at Abingdon, Washington county, Virginia, in Will Book 
1, page 13. 

Their relationship is also stated in the Will of Arthur Black- 
burn, recorded August 20th, 1782 at Abingdon, Washington 
county, Virginia, in Will Book 1, page 82. 

In both Wills two sisters are also mentioned; Margaret 
(Blackburn) Casey, wife of William Casey and Mary (Blackburn) 

Lieutenant William Blackburn of Washington county, Vir- 
ginia, was killed in the Battle of King's Mountain, October 7th, 
1780, see page 304 in "King's Mountain and Its Heroes," by 
Lyman C. Draper. 

The widow of Lieutenant William Blackburn, Elizabeth 
(Black) Blackburn, her brother, Capt. Joseph Black, and John 
Blackburn were granted letters of administration on the estate of 
Lieutenant William Blackburn, November 24th, 1780, they to- 

264 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

gether with Samuel Newell and John Davis gave bond in the sum 
of eight thousand pounds,, see Court Minutes of Washington 
county, Book I, page 97, at Abingdon. 

The final settlement of the estate of Lieutenant William Black- 
burn did not take place until December 20th, 1796, see Will Book 
2, page 105, Abingdon, Virginia. This settlement is very im- 
portant, because not only were Lieutenant William Blackburn's 
daughters mentioned, but the names of their husbands were given 

The heirs mentioned in this final settlement were as follows: 

"A daughter, Mary Blackburn, who had married Samuel Vance. 

A daughter, Jean Blackburn, who had married Joseph Cusick. 

A daughter, Elizabeth Blackburn, who had married John Lusk. 

A daughter, Margaret Blackburn, who had married David 

Two daughters, Patsey and Sally Blackburn (evidently un- 
married at this time) and the widow Mrs. Elizabeth Blackburn". 

The authority for the statement that Elizabeth Blackburn wife 
of Lieutenant William Blackburn was the sister of Captain Joseph 
Black is to be found on pages 221 and 223 of Eev, Samuel Ruther- 
ford Houston's "Genealogy of the Houston Family", published by 
the Elm Street Printing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1882. 

Abingdon, Virginia was originally called "Black's Fort", in 
honor of Captain Joseph Black, see pages 136, 268 and 269 of 
"History of Southwest Virginia," by Lewis Preston Summers. 

Joseph Cusick and his wife (Jean (Blackburn) Cusick were 
buried in the "Old Presbyterian Cemetery" (now called the "New 
Providence Cemetery") near Sanford, in Edgar county, Illinois. 
From the handsome monuments which marks their graves, and 
from a very old Cusick Bible (now in the possession of Mr. 
Macklin Bandy of Columbia, Missouri) the following informa- 
tion was obtained. 

Joseph Cusick was born February 19th, 1772, died October 
15th, 1854. 

Jean Blackburn, wife of Joseph Cusick was born September 
28th, 1771, she died September 1st, 1838. 

Some Descendants of Lieut. Wm. Blackburn 265 

Some time after the Revolution Joseph Cusick and his wife 
Jean (Blackburn) Cusick moved to Blount county, Tennessee 
where they resided for many years before their removal to Edgar 
county, Illinois. That the Cusick family was prominent here is 
shown by the fact that the principal street of Maryville, (the 
county seat of Blount county) is still called Cusick Street. It was 
in Blount county, Tennessee, that their daughter Marietta Cusick 
was born September 26th, 1800. The other children of Joseph 
Cusick and his wife Jean (Blackburn) Cusick, were Joseph Black- 
burn Cusick, Martha Cusick, David Cusick, Jane Cusick, John 
Black Cusick and Samuel Newell Cusick. 

On September 21st, 1819, in Blount county, Tennessee, Mari- 
etta Cusick, daughter of Joseph Cusick and his wife Jean (Black- 
burn) Cusick, was married to William Gray Simms. 

William Gray Simms, born February 10th, 1795, was the son 
of James Simms of Virginia, a Revolutionary soldier. For record 
of James Simms' Revolutionary services see Department of the 
Interior, Bureau of Pensions, Washington, D. C, M. B. H. Revolu- 
tionary War S. F. 4840. The first enlistment of James Simms was 
in Frederick county, Virginia, his second enlistment was at Abing- 
don, Washington county, Virginia. He was in the infantry, and 
his Captains were Captain Sutton, later Captain Joseph Black 
and Captain Samuel Newell. His Colonels were Evan Shelby, 
Arthur Campbell and William Campbell. James Simms fought 
in the battle of King's Mountain. His pension papers furnish 
most of the information we have about him. 

From various court and ' family records it seems certain that 
the parents of the Revolutionary soldier James Simms were James 
and Sarah Simms, and that they removed to Pittsylvania County, 
Virginia. The Will of James Simms mentioning "wife Sarah 
and sons", was recorded in Pittsylvania County, Virginia in 1773. 
The land willed his sons lay in that part of Pittsylvania which by 
subdivision in 1776 became Henry County, Virginia. In Henry 
County, Virginia on February 15th, 1783 we find a record of the 
marriage of James Simms and Elizabeth Simms (probably cou- 
sins?). As mentioned later in this article, James Simms (wife 

266 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Elizabeth) in 1800 bought land in Lee County, Virginia. Lee, 
like Henry, was one of the border counties of Virginia, and the 
two counties were not far separated. 

James Simms was born in Frederick county, Virginia in 1750, 
and died in Blount county, Tennessee, in 1836. The latter part 
of his life was spent in Blount county, Tennessee, and it was 
there that he received his pension. For more than twenty years 
he was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church at Eusebia, in Blount 
county, Tennessee. The Eusebia Church Eecords are still in ex- 
istence and contain many references to James Simms. 

The Court Records at Maryville, Blount county, Tennessee, 
give us some data concerning him, for in the first deed made to 
him in Blount county (in 1812) he is called " James Simms of 
Lee county, Virginia". Lee county was a part of Washington 
county, Virginia, until long after the Revolution. The records 
at Jonesville, Lee county, Virginia, show that in 1812 James 
Simms sold his lands in that county and that his wife, Elizabeth, 
joined in the transfer, see Deed Book 2, page 461, Jonesville. This 
deed shows that his land in Lee county was on "Wallin's Creek, 
the waters of Powells River", and that he had purchased this 
property in 1800. James Simms was the father of five children, 
John Simms, Margaret Simms, Catharine Simms, William Simms 
{born February 10th, 1795) and Vance Simms. William Gray 
Simms, notwithstanding his youth, was a soldier in the War of 

A mention of the services of William Gray Simms in the War 
of 1812 is made on his tombstone in the New Providence Ceme- 
tery (Old Presbyterian Cemetery) near Sanford, Edgar county, 
Illinois. He was in the Cavalry. See records in the Pen- 
sion Office, at Washington, D. C, Department of the Interior 
M. B. H. 34605, which show that the widow of William Gray 
Simms (his second wife) received a pension for his services in 
the War of 1812. See also Department of the Interior, Gen- 
eral Land Office, Washington, D. C, No. 3626, which shows that 
William Gray Simms received a "Bounty Warrant for land" in 
recognition of his services in the War of 1812. 

Some Descendants of Lieut. Wm. Blackburn 267 

Wiliam Gray Simms and his wife Marietta (Cusick) Simms 
were the parents of twelve children. Of these ten were born in 
Blount county, Tennessee, namely; James W. Simms, Joseph C. 
Simms, Martha J. Simms, Catharine Simms, Elizabeth Black 
Simms, Margaret E. Simms, Sarah A. Simms, William Black- 
burn Simms, John B. Simms, and David M. Simms. Two more 
children were born to William Gray Simms and his wife Mari- 
etta (Cusick) Simms after their removal to Edgar county, Illinois 
in 1840, these were Mary Ellen Simms, and Samuel Newell Simms. 
Marietta (Cusick) Simms, wife of William Gray Simms, died 
August 23rd, 1845. William Gray Simms had no children by his 
second marriage in 1850. 

William Gray Simms, born February 10th, 1795, died Decem- 
ber 8th, 1867, aged 72. 

William Gray Simms, and his father, James Simms, used two 
m's in spelling their surname, and William Gray Simms is said 
to have objected most strenuously when his son, Dr. William 
Blackburn Sims, dropped the second m in spelling his name and 
wrote it S-i-m-s, but this abbreviated spelling has been followed 
by all his descendants. 

Dr. William Blackburn Sims, son of William Gray Simms and 
his wife Marietta (Cusick) Simms, was born April 14th, 1835 in 
Blount county, Tennessee. "He received his medical education at 
the Louisville Medical College, Louisville, Kentucky, and at Eush 
Medical College, Chicago, Illinois. At the beginning of the Civil 
War he volunteered and was at first member of the 14th Illinois 
Cavalry, later he received a commission. In 1864 he was trans- 
ferred to the hospital service, and had charge of three hospitals in 
Natchez, Mississippi, from this time until the close of the War." 
See "History of Champaigne county, Illinois", which contains a 
Biography of Dr. William Blackburn Sims, which states that he 
"practiced his profession in Champaigne county and that he was 
widely and favorably known here as one of the leading men in the 
medical profession". 

Dr. Sims moved to Champaigne county in 1870. 

268 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

On March 8th, 1855, Dr. William Blackburn Sims married 
Sarah Jane Medley, in Vigo county, Indiana. 

Sarah Jane (Medley) Sims, (born January 4th, 1832' in Knox 
county, Indiana, died March 20th, 1895) was the daughter of 
Joseph Medley and his wife Eachel (Stewart) Medley, of Knox 
county, Indiana. 

Dr. William Blackburn Sims died December 24th, 1912, in 
Champaigne county, Illinois. 

Dr. William Blackburn Sims and his wife Sarah Jane (Med- 
ley) Sims were the parents of a large family, one of their chil- 
dren was Charles Blackburn Sims. 

Charles Blackburn Sims married Annabel Noble Sims (daugh- 
ter of William Irvin Sims and Annie (Noble) Sims) in St. Louis, 
Missouri, May 28th, 1913. 


Capt. William Powell came to Virginia with Gates in 1610, 
was commander of the fort at Jamestown, and was one of the first 
two representatives for James City Corporation in the General 
Assembly, 1619. He repelled the Indians when they attacked 
Jamestown in 1622. He afterward led an expedition against the 
Chickahominies, and was probably killed by them between January 
20 and January 24, 1623. His widow married Edward Blaney. 
The family seems to have come from Southwark in the County of 
Surry, England. 

The following notes are from the records of Surry County, 
Virginia. Southwark Parish in that County, and the County itself, 
appears to have obtained their names from Capt. Powell. 

Notes from the Records of Surry County, Virginia, contributed 
by Mrs. Augusta B. F other gill, Richmond, Va. 

Surry Co. Vol. 1— P- 46. 7 Mar., 1654. 

Richd Marydale for Wm Powell, of the Parish of St. Marye Oneryes 
alias St. Saviors, neere the Borough of Southwarke, in the County 

William Powell 269 

of Surry, Baker, Brother & heir to Capt. Wm. Powell, Geo. Powell 
of this Collonye & his nephew Ricnd Powell, Marye Powell, dt of the 
sd Richd, of same, maketh claime to the plantation, now in oc- 
cupation of Jno Bishopp, neere Crouches Creeke in Surry Co, & all 
lands or other property which were (of) the sd. Capt. Wm. Powell, Geo. 
Richd & Marye Powell, at the time of their, or any of their decease. 

V. 1— P. 82. 1 July, 1656. 

Wm. Powell, of Southwarke Par., Surry Co., in England, baker, 
admr, of est. of Capt. Wm. Powell, late of Chippoakes in Col. of Va. 
his natural bro. deed. & heire unto Geo. Powell, natural son of late 
Capt. Wm. Powell, Wm. Parker & W. Anne of Leadenhall St., London, 
Cheesemonger. Sold to Wm. Batte, of Chippoakes, Gent. 800 a. in 
Surry, Va., Ann W. of Wm. Parker gr. dt. of sd Capt. Wm. Powell, 
land on Lower Chippoakes Cr. on Jas. R., bet. Chippoakes Cr. & Sunken 
Marsh, near Crouches Cr., Pat. by Wm. Powell. 

V. I. P. 87. 6 Jan., 1656. Wm. Martin, of Lower Chippoakes, 
Surry Co., Va., Gent., Atty. of Coll. Henry Bishopp, now dwelling in 
Eng. to John Gore, of Bristoll in Eng. — 700 acres called Lower Chip- 
poakes, part of pat. of Coll. W T m. Powell & afterward granted to Sir 
Wm. Berkley 27 Nov. 1643 & then pur by sd. Coll. Bishopp of said 
Berkeley & confirmed to sd. Bishopp by patent 28,8 ber, 1646. Bounded 
Northerly upon James River, Easterly upon Chippoakes Cr., Westerly 
upon Sunken Marsh, Southerly upon the Maine land. Delivered by 
turf & twigge, & also possession of the house the said Wm Martin 
lived in unto Jno. Jennings, atty of Jno Gore, mercht, for use of 
said Gore. Witn: Kirby Kiggan, Will Cockerham. David (X) 
Williams, Daniel Bridgman, Wm. Calloway. 

Surry Co. 2 May, 1654. 

Mary Powell died at age of 15 years, Dt of Richd Powell 

V. 1 — P. 185. 18 Feb. 1642. Geo. Powell, of Lower Chipoakes in 
Co. of James Citty, of Va., Gent, to Stephen Webb, of said Lower 
Chippoakes, Planter for £40 — 300 acres lying in Lower Chippoakes, 
called by the natives Peftitake Creeke, & James R. adaj. Mr. Geo. 
Powells land. Unto said Stephen Webb for the time & term of 3 
lives (that is to say) for the term of the life of the sd. Stephen 
& Dame Clare his wife & Robert Webb eldest sonne of sd Stephen 
Webb & Dame Clare & the survivors of them, paying yearly to sd Geo. 
Powell one Capon upon the feast day of St. Thomas the Apostle, if the 
same be lawfully demanded. Sd. Stephen Webb to erect at his own 
proper charges one house 45 ft in length & 20 ft in breadth with 2 
chimneys & glass windows & cellar adaj. 15 ft. sq — to be ground 
settled & underpinned with brick, to plant 1 a with fruit trees (apples, 
pears, cherries, apricots, figs & peach trees) with garden adj. 

270 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

It is to be noted that Captain William Powell had a brother of 
the same name and that his son and heir was George Powell, who 
died without issue. The word "natural" had in these days no sinister 
meaning, and it often occurs in connection with lawful, e. g., his "law- 
ful and natural brother," as opposed to brother-in-law. 


Some Will and Other Records. 

(Continued from page 206.) 

James Shields. Will proved July 17, 1727. Names wife Han- 
nah, sons James, Matthew and William, and daughters Elizabeth 
Cobbs and Mary Vaughan. 

Sarah Peg ram. Will proved June 19, 1727. Names five chil- 
dren Mary, Sarah, Daniel, George and Edward, husband formerly 
Daniel Pegram. 

William Marlcham paid by the executors of John Bates for 
schooling his son Isaac Bates £3.10. Anno 1723. 

John Daniel. Will proved May 18, 1724. Leaves legacies to 
sons John, William and James; daughters Sarah Barksdale and 
Hannah Daniel; sister Elizabeth Crutchfield. Has land in Han- 
over Co. 

Henry Gill. Inventory, 1721. Mentions 3 pictures, 2 cases 
of knives and forks six in each; a mill to grind bark with & 
furniture thereto attached. 

Rev. Samuel Barnard (of York Hampton Parish). Will dated 
14 Nov. 1720. Gives all his estate to his wife Martha. 

William Hansford, of the County of Spotsylvania, parish of 
St George sells to Charles Hansford of York a tract of land at 
the head of Felgate's Creek, given to said William by his father, 
Mr. Charles Hansford, deceased, by his will. July 25, 1727. 

James Parsons, of the Parish of Charles, and Dorothy Par- 
sons, his wife, doth grant to their son James Parsons, Jun. that 

York County Records 271 

plantation of 41 acres descended to us from our father Armiger 
Wade. 16 Sept., 1719. 

Joseph Ring sells to Joseph Walker the French Ordinary 40 
acres on the road that leads into Merchant's (Martin's) Hundred 
4. May, 1717. 

Joseph Walker, of York Hampton Parish in Ye County of 
York, merchant, from Samuel Hyde of Bruton Parish, son of 
Eobert Hyde and Jane his wife, daughter and heir of Capt Tno. 
Underhill. Nov 4, 1717. 

Release from William Jones to Richard Easter (1714.) ard 
Ralph Graves to William Jones (1714.) conveying land adjoining 
Major John Custis' line in Bruton Parish. These deeds mention 
the church and the school house in Marston parish (near Ma- 
grader), where the Indians had a field. 

Edward Dyer. Will proved June 15, 1719. Names sons Wil- 
liam, Robert and Henry Dyer, and daus Molly Dyer and Sarah 

Action of debt by John Scarsbrick, of Liverpool, mariner, vs. 
Edward Powers for £22.3.7. 

Proclamation of A. Spotsiwood, disannulling the act of 1663 
prohibiting the unlawful assembling of Quakers, and another act 
entitled an act concerning foreign debts. Dated 14 May, 1718. 

Capt Thomas Nutting. Inventory, (1718) sworn before Mr. 
Thomas Roberts & Division thereof. Item, to Madam Nutting 
as followeth £102.19.6 Item to Mr. Wm Sheldon £102.19.6 
Item to Mrs. Jane Nutting £102.19.6, Mr. Richard Slater's chil- 
dren £102.19.6 

Power of Attorney from Sarah Handford, of ye parish of St. 
Margaret's Westminster in the County of Middlesex (England) 
wido, exec rx of Jno Hanford, late of London, mercri* deced, to 
Jno. Robinson, of Virg a gent, regarding 200 acres in St. Mary's 
parish in Rappahannock river in Virg a , sold by one Robert Payne 
of said Paish to said Jn° Handford. Dated March 1, 1714, proved 
16 May, 1715. 

Francis Sharpe remanded to the public gaol for the murder 
of John Marot, Nov. 18, 1717. Witnesses against Sharpe, Robert 

272 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Innis, George Hughes, Dr John Harris, Benjamin Waller, 
Pr John Brown, John Hughes. 

John Marot, of Williamsburgh, in the County of York. Will 
proved Dec 16, 1717, made August 31, 1717 He leaves legacies 
to his wife and three daughters Edith, Ann and Eachel (Edith 
married Samuel Cobbs, Anne married James Inglis and, secondly, 
James Shields, and Eachel married Eichard Booker.) 

Inventory/ of Major William Buckner, a large personal estate 
valued at £1000 

Will of Robert Harris, of York Hampton Parish, dated June 
27, 1712, proved Nov. 19, 1716. Leaves legacies to his sons 
Robert, John and Matthew Harris, and his wife Anne Harris 
and her two sons George and Stephen Fuller. 

Robert Curtis, of Charles Parish and York County. Will 
dated Augt 11, 1713; proved May 21, 1716. Names children 
Edmund, Thomas, Sarah, Jane Trevilian, Katherine Coriey, 
and Elizabeth Evans, grandsons Eobert Curtis and John Coriey. 
Has property both in Virginia and England. Makes Capt. Law- 
rence Smith, Thos. Nelson, Thos. Chisman, jun., Jno. Chisman 
overseers of the will. 

William Buckner, of Yorktown, will proved May 21, 1716. 
Witnesses: Eich'd Buckner, Lawr. Smith, Arthur Tillyard, John 
Marshall. To be buried by his wife "if I dye in or near York- 
town." To son William he gives all his land and houses in York- 
town and his land in the other side of the creek where my plan- 
tation now is, and my land in Essex Co. given to me by my father 
adjoining my brother Eichard; to son John all his land in Stafford 
County. Mentions daughters but does not name them. Makes 
his brothers John Buckner, Eichard Buckner and Thomas Buckner 
and his friends Colo. Miles Cary and Mr. Eobert Eeade executors. 

Henry Tyler sworn sheriff, and gives bond May 21, 1716, and 
Francis Tyler and John Gibbons, having taken the usual oaths 
to his Majesty and subscribed the test were sworn undersheriffs 
for this county (same date), Eichard Slater, county surveyor. 

Robert Armistead, of the County of Elizabeth City. Bond as 
agent of the storehouse at Charles Eiver, with Thomas Booth of 

Burton Meiviorandum 273 

the County of York and Samuel Pond of the County of James 
City securities. 20 February, 1715. 

Scipio, an Indian hoy, was brought to the bar and judged to 
be 11 years of age. 21 May, 1716. 

Justices of York County Feb. 15, 1713: William Buckner, 
William Barbar, Henry Tyler, Joseph Walker, William Timson, 
Lawrence Smith & Thomas Nelson, gentlemen. 

The Governors Proclamation about the public storehouses, 
Januy 18, 1713. 


In Quarterly for October, 1921, there was published an old 
Memorandum, which threw light upon the beginnings of the Bur- 
ton family in Virginia. In the brief additional statement made 
by the editor a mistake was committed in stating the ancestry of 
Col. Robert Burton of the American Revolution. In that article 
it was said that Col. Burton was a son of Robert Burton and 
Priscilla, his wife, of Goochland County, which is a mistake. He 
was son of Hutchins Burton, of Mecklenburg County and Tabitha 
Minge, his wife. 

As appears from the memorandum William Hunt married 
Tabitha. This is confirmed by a deed recorded in Surry County 
and dated April 1, 1714, wherein William Hunt and Tabitha his 
wife, of Charles City County, conveyed land on the Nottoway 
river to William Hamlin. Then the same memorandum shows that 
they had two daughters, Mary, who was born May 15, 1695, and 
married Robert Minge, and another daughter, who married John 

Robert Minge and Mary Hunt, his wife, had two daughters, 
Tabitha and Martha, of whom the first, Tabitha, married Hutch- 
ins Burton and the second, Martha, married George Baskerville. 

Hutchins Burton, as appears also from the memorandum, 
was son of Noel Burton and Judith Allen, his wife, and accord- 

274 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

ingly we find Noel Burton's will proved in Mecklenburg County 
Oct. 13, 1766, and dated July 31, 1766. It names sons (1) Hutch- 
ins, to whom he gives 800 acres on Banister Eiver in Halifax 
County, "then in possession of John Burton of Cumberland 
County." (2) John, (3) Josiah, (4) Robert (5) Benjamin and 
(6) Allen Burton. 

Of these Hutchins Burton, who married Tabitha Minge, died 
between July 31, 1766, the date of his father Noel's will, wherein 
he is mentioned, and Feb. 9, 1767, when in Order Book, No. 1, at 
Boydton Mecklenburg County, it is stated that "Hutchin(g)s Bur- 
ton having obtained attachment against the estate of Sherwood 
Bugg, suit abated by plaintiff's death." He left issue according 
to the memorandum, John, Hutchin(g)s, Noel, Robert and James 
Minge and two daughters, Martha and Mary. 

This list is confirmed by another old paper, written by Alfred 
Moore Burton, son of Col. Robert Burton, which reads as fol- 

"Noel Hunt Burton, 
his son, Hutchins Burton, Mecklenburg County, Va. 
married to Tabitha Minge; their children. 
John Burton married to Mary Gordon 
Martha " " " John Baskerville 

Robert (Col.) " " " Agatha Williams 
Mary " " " Benjamin Forrel 

Hutchins I _ 

> Killed at oattle of Princeton 
Noel I 

James Minge married to Elizabeth Ridley.'* 

Of these children Hutchins and Noel (or Nowel Hunt) were 
killed at the Battle of Princeton. The will of the former 
(Hutchins), dated January 26, 1776, proved January 12, 1778, 
leaves his estate to his brothers Nowel Hunt Burton and James 
Minge Burton, to be equally divided between them. John Bur- 
ton and Robert Burton were named as executors, and the will was 
witnessed by George Baskerville, Martha Baskerville, John Bas- 
kerville, and Allen Burton. 

Burton Mpmo^ndum 275 

A third son, said Col. Robert Burton (who married Agatha 
Williams), born in Virginia October 20th, 1747; died in Gran- 
ville Co., N. C, May 31st, 182'5, was 2nd Lieutenant First Con- 
tinental Artillery in Eevolutionary War; afterwards Quarter- 
Master General of North Carolina with rank of Colonel. (See 
Heitman's Register of Officers of the Continental Army — 1893 
edition — p. 110; and State Records of North Carolina, Vol. XVI, 
pp. 262, 263.) 

"He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1787 and 
1788. In 1801 he was appointed one of the Commissioners to 
run the line between North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 
He married the only child of Judge John Williams in 1775." 
(See Wheeler's Historical Sketches of North Carolina, Vol. II, 
p. 163.) 

The following was copied from the family Bible of said Col. 
Robert Burton by his great-granddaughter, Mrs. A. L. Smith, 
of Charlotte, North Carolina: 

From the Bible of Col. Robert Burton. 


Robert Burton son of Hutchins Burton, born Oct 20 th 1747 
Agatha Williams daughter of John Williams " Oct 6 th 1757 

(Their children) 
John W ms Burton born July 23 rd 1776, Sunday 53 minutes before 

1 o'clock A. M. 
Hutchings Burton born Dec 9 th 1777 Monday 
Frank N. W. Burton born May 2 nd 1779 

Robert H. Burton 



22 nd 1781 

Agnes Burton 



11 th 1783 

Alfred M Burton 



9 th 1785 

James M. Burton 



31 st 1786 

Augustus Burton 



31 st 1789 

Horace A Burton 



25 th 1791 

Fanny H Burton 



1 st 1793 

Eliza W. Burton 



1 st 1795 

John W ms Burton 



31 st 1798 

276 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Eobert H. Burton son of James Burton & Prudence his wife 
born Mar 3 rd 1811 

Eobert Augustus Burton son of Alfred M. Burton & Elizabeth his 
wife born May 15 th 1812 

Elizabeth Williams Burton daughter of Alfred M. Burton & Eliza- 
beth his wife Nov 1 st 1813 

John Fullenwider son of Robert H & Polly his wife, April 1814 

Mary Murfree Burton daughter of Frank N. W. Burton & Lavinia 
his wife, born Jan. 17 th at 12 o'clock 1815 

Francis Eliza Burton daughter of F. N. W. Burton & Lavinia 
his wife Sept 8 th 1816 3 o'clock in the afternoon 

John W ms Burton son of Eobt & Agatha Burton departed this 

life Sept 16 th 1793 
Agnes Burton daughter of Eobt & Agatha Burton departed this 

life Oct 16 th 1796 
Hutchings Burton son of Eobt & Agatha Burton departed this 

life Mar 20 th 1811 
Eobt Burton departed this life May 31 st 1825 
Augustus Burton son of Eobt & Agatha Burton departed this life 

April 15 th 1828. 
Agatha Burton died January 31 st A. D. 1831 


Eobert Burton & Agatha Williams married Oct 12 th 1775 

Their son James M. Burton married to Prudence Eobards daugh- 
ter of James Eobards Esq & Mary his wife July 12 th 1809 

Alfred M. Burton married Elizabeth Fullenwider, daughter of 
John Fullenwider & Elizabeth his wife June 4 th 1811 

James Burton married second time to Martha Johnson daughter 
of James Johnson & Jane his wife July 18 th 1812 

Eobert H. Burton married to Polly Fullenwider sister of Alfred 
M. Burton's wife May 11 th 1813 

Frank N. W. Burton & Lavinia B. Murfree daughter of Coes 
Hardy Murfree & Sally his wife married Feb 23 rd 1814 

Burton Memorandum 277 

James M. Burton married 3 rd time to Catherine Love daughter 

of Edward & Lucy Love August 1817 
James M Burton married 4 th time to Martha Gilbert June 22 nd 

John W. Burton married to Susan P. Lyne daughter of Henry & 

Lucy Lyne Sept 22 nd 1819. 
Horace A. Burton married to Margaret Williams daughter of 

William & Elizabeth Williams June 2 nd 1825 
For convenience, the Memorandum referred to is reprinted 
here, with some changes in the notes. 

The memorandum was found among the papers of James 
Anderson, of Beattie's Ford, North Carolina, a son-in-law of 
Bobert Burton. It was sent by his son, Bev. Robert Burton An- 
derson to George Lee Burton, atty-at-law, Louisville, Kentucky 
(a great grandson of said Col. Robert Burton), who sent a copy 
to the Editor, (and who has kindly assisted in the preparation 
of this paper). 

Burton Memorandum. 

"William Hunt, 1 a Frenchman, a Dr. of physick, removed to 
America, the time unknown, and settled at Kesmons warehouse 2 
on James river, Charles City County, intermarried with Tabitha 

and had issue George, John, William, and daughter Mary 

who was born 15 May, 1695, and who married Robert Minge 3 an 
American, and another daughter, name unknown, who married 
John Macon. 4 Mary had two daughters, Tabitha and Martha. 
Tabitha intermarried with Hutchings Burton and Martha with 
George Baskerville. R. Minge died and Mary intermarried with 
William Allen; issue, Ann, Wm. Hunt, John, Valentine, Susanah, 
G. Hunt, and Mary. Noel Burton 5 intermarried with Judith 
Allen whose family was from Wales. Hutchings Burton had issue 
by Tabitha, — John, Hutchings, Noel, Robert and James Minge, 
and two daughters, Martha and Mary." 


iThis William Hunt was probably a kinsman of the William 
Hunt who was one of Nathaniel Bacon's friends and "died before 

278 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

the rebels were reduced to submission," (Nov. 11, 1676, aged 77 
years), and who was interred at "Bachelor's Point," Charles City 
Co. (See William and Mary College Quarterly, IV, p. 124.) John 
Edloe married Martha Hunt, daughter of William Hunt, of Charles 
City Co., who died in 1714 (Recital in a deed recorded in Surry). 
William Hunt Edloe was living in Charles City Co. in 1750. William 
and Mary Quarterly, XV, p. 283. Tabitha, the wife of William Hunt 
of the memorandum above, may have been a daughter of Lt. Col. 
Matthew Edloe and Tabitha, his wife. In 1675 James Minge was ap- 
pointed guardian of John Edloe, son of Col. Matthew Edloe. Wm. and 
Mary College Quarterly, VI, p. 29. 

2"Kesmon's Warehouse" was probably Kennon's Warehouse, near 
Swann Neck Creek in Charles City Co. Here Col. Richard Kennon 
lived before the Revolution, and the wharf there was known in recent 
times as Wilson's Landing. Col. Richard Kennon was son of Col. 
William Kennon, of "Conjuror's Neck," near Bermuda Hundred. He 
was born April 15, 1712, and married Ann Hunt, daughter of Wil- 
liam Hunt, of Charles City Co., and died in 1761. 

sRobert Minge was, it is believed, son of James Minge and 
Amadea Harrison, daughter of Robert Harrison, of York County. 
The latter, James Minge, wrote the laws of Bacon's Assembly in 1676. 

4John Macon, son of Gideon Macon and Martha, his wife, was 
born Dec. 17, 1695. 

sNoel Burton, father of Hutchins Burton, who married Tabitha 
Minge, married Judith Allen and was great-great-great-grandfather of 
George Lee Burton, who sent the memorandum above to the Editor. 
He was doubtless a relative of the Burtons of Goochland, Cumberland, 
and Henrico Counties. Said George Lee Burton, of Louisville, Ky., 
would be glad to hear from any one who knows the exact relationship 
between said Hutchins, and said Noel, and the Burtons of Henrico 
and Accomac Counties. 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 279 


Dr. John Toton. — The archives of Massachusetts contain an 
interesting memorial from this French Huguenot, by which it ap- 
pears that he was one of those who were expelled from Eochelle 
in 1661, because he had not been a resident previous to the land- 
ing of the English forces under Buckingham in July 1627. Dr. 
Toton, in behalf of himself and others, petitions to be permitted 
to reside in the Colony; that he came to America shortly after is 
shown by another petition presented to the General Court in 1687, 
in which he states that he haxl been an inhabitant in "the Territory 
of his Majesty" ever since 1662. Prior to 1681, and for some 
years later, he was a resident of York County, Virginia, and by 
the favor of Lord Effingham became "a free denizen" of that 
Colony. In 1687 he went to Massachusetts, intending to go to 
Arcadia on business for William Fisher, of Virginia, and the 
petition that he presented to the General Court at that time was to 
secure letters representing him as an Englishman, since he had 
learned that "all severity is used against French Protestants in 
that Island." (Baird, The Huguenot Emigration to America, I., 

A Singular Death. (From the Richmond Enquirer, August 
2, 1805.) At the seat of Col. Bailey Washington, in Stafford 
County, on Sunday the 14th instant, Died, in the bloom of life, 
Miss Catherine Storke, daughter of William Storke, esq. of Belle- 
isle, in King George. The death of this young lady was occasioned 
by an accident, singular and uncommon. On the 4th of July 
the year past, in the course of an afternoon walk, with some ladies 
of her acquaintance, over a field where were growing some stalks 
of timothy grass, she plucked and put into her mouth a head 
thereof; a few moments after they were met and accosted by an 
harvest laborer, who had made a little too free with the bottle, 
and whose deportment was so extremely awkward and ludicrous 
as to exact in Miss S. a violent fit of laughter, which by the appli- 
cation of her handkerchief to her mouth she endeavored to sup- 
press. In this most unfortunate effort, the head of grass, whole 

280 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

and unbroken, was inhaled into the lungs. She survived the mo- 
ment of the melancholy accident, but to encounter a train of 
agonizing and excruciating symptoms, which finally terminated in 
depriving the world of one of its fairest and most useful orna- 
ments, her surviving parents of a most affectionate and dutiful 
daughter and her friends and associates of an amiable, agreeable 
and sensible companion. 

Ogilvte's School in Albemarle.. The Richmond Enquirer, 
in its issue for April 9, 1805, contains an interesting account of 
this school, and it courses. 

Sherwood James. — William Sherwood, of Jamestown, 
in 1676 married Eachel, widow of Eichard James. Her son 
by 1st husband, Eichard James, Jr., was born Dec. 14, 1660, 
and died before 1690. There was a Sherwood James, who lived and 
died in South Carolina, and who was born apparently about 1680- 
90. Was he a son of Eichard James, Jr., named for his step- 
father? — Joseph S. Ames, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 

Harwood-Baptist. — In her will recorded at Yorktown and 
dated March, 1781, Margaret Baptist, describes herself as daughter 
of Col. William Harwood, of Warwick County. She married (1) 
William Whitaker, (2) Edward Baptist. By the 2d marriage she 
had three children, Eachel, wife of Francis Lee, William Har- 
wood Baptist and Edward Baptist. For Harwood Family, see 
Wm & Mary Quarterly, XIV, p. 281. 

Joseph Shelton Watson, attorney at law, died at his father's 
in Louisa, on the 23d September 1805, in the 26th year of his age. 
He is described as a young man of uncommon abilities who com- 
pleted his education a few years since at William and Mary Col- 
lege where he was the contemporary and rival of a (Chapman) 
Johnson, a (Benjamin Watkins) Leigh and others. {Richmond 
Enquirer, Oct. 8, 1805.) 

Louis H. Girardin. — In a notice of a magazine entitled, 
Amoeniiates Graphicae, projected by Louis H. Girardin, a young 
Frenchman, who at the time held the chair of "Modern Languages, 
History and Geography" in William and Mary College," a young 
student of the College is quoted as saying of him: "Immured 

Historical and Genealogical Notes 281 

in the walls of a convent, the early part of his life, he was de- 
voted to study. He afterwards became Librarian to Louis, the 
Sixteenth, and here it was that he amassed that immense stock 
of knowledge, which he now possesses" (Richmond Enquir&r, 
April 2, 1805). It was Girardin, who wrote the 4th volume of 
Burke's History of Virginia. 

University of Virginia. — At the beginning of the session 
of the Legislature 1805-06, there appeared in the editorial column 
of the Richmond Enquirer an essay on the necessity of a Uni- 
versity from a man who is described as "a Eepublican, who had him- 
self mingled in the thickest contest of parties and borne off the 
most honorable trophies of victory." He argued that about 500 
children left the State every year to be educated elsewhere. He 
estimated this as a loss in money of 400 dollars each. This an- 
nual drain of cash was equal to a capital of four million. Yet 
half a million would save it. 

By investing half a million in a university an accumulating 
capital of half a million dollars annually would be saved. 

The writer's plan of raising the money required was to have a 
subscription by law, annual lotteries and a tax on pleasure horses, 
carriages or other subjects owned by the richer class. 

Accordingly, on January 14, 1806, James Semple, representing 
the County of New Kent (afterwards Professor of Law in Wil- 
liam and Mary College) asked leave, in behalf of himself and 
others, to bring in a bill to establish "The University of Vir- 
ginia." In his speech at this time he explained the details of his 
project, which were essentially the same as outlined in the early 
communication. (See Richmond Enquirer, 16th January, 1806.) 
It was desirable, he thought, that the university should "he es- 
tablished in some county that was below the Southwest mountains, 
in a central situation, recommended by the salubrity of the cli- 
mate and the cheapness of the provisions." Three-fifths of the 
capital was to be employed in conducting the institution and two- 
fifths in purchasing a proper site and in erecting the necessary 

Leave was, accordingly, given by the House to bring in the 

282 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

bill, and Messrs. Semple, Tazewell, Smythe, of Wythe, Harvie, 
Miller (of Northumberland) Jones (of Nottoway) Wooding, 
Eeeder, Moore, Minor, Garland Harrison (of Amelia) and Car- 
ter Harrison, were appointed a committee for the purpose. 

And then Mr. Semple asked leave to bring in a bill to "open 
up a subscription for the benefit of the University of Virginia," 
which was referred to the same select committee. 

Nothing more seems to have been done at this session on the 
subject. Mr. Semple was a son-in-law of Judge John Tyler, who 
as a member of the Legislature in 1779, had supported all of Mr. 
Jefferson's reform bills and was an ardent advocate of his educa- 
tional plans. It was a result of Tyler's message as governor in 
1808 that the Legislature established the Literary Fund, which 
subsequently furnished much of the means employed to build the 

It is probable that in proposing the bill at this time Mr. Semple 
acted in co-operation with his father-in-law. 

Marot. — Clement Marot, in the 16th century, voiced the spirit 
in verse of the Huguenots, and his hymns were very popular. One 
of the family named, Jean Marot, came to Virginia in 1700 and 
in 1704 was in the employment of William Byrd, of Westover, 
probably as secretary. He was then 27 years old. The next year 
he settled in Williamsburg, where he obtained a license to keep 
ordinary. He made his will August 31, 1717, which was proved 
in York County December 16, 1717. His death appears to have 
been brought about by the violence of one Francis Sharpe, who 
was arrested and remanded to the public jail at Williamsburg 
November 18, 1717, for the murder of John Marot. He left a 
considerable personal estate valued at £904.11.1. By his wife 
Anne, who married, 2dly, Timothy Sullivan, and moved to Amelia 
County, he had three daughters, Edith who married Samuel Cobbs, 
Ann, who married (1) James Inglis (2) James Shields, and 
Rachel who married Richard Booker, of Amelia County. Anne, 
the daughter of James Shields, of York County, married Robert 
Armistead of King's Creek and had Mary Marot, who married 
Judge John Tyler, father of President John Tyler. 

Book Notices 283 


History of the United States Circuit and District Courts for the Dis- 
trict of North Carolina. By Henry G. Connor, Judge of the 
United States District Court for the Eastern District of North 

Memorial Address on the Presentation of the Statue to the City of 
Wilmington of George Davis, Senator and Attorney General of 
the Confederate States of America, April 20, 1911. By Henry 
G. Connor, Judge of the United States District Court for the 
Eastern District of North Carolina. 
These are two very interesting addresses made by the distin- 
guished author of the Life of Judge John A. Campbell. Each of 
them is a valuable contribution to history. The sketch of George 
Davis includes a strong presentation of the opinions of prominent 
North Carolinians on the relations of the States to the Union. Mr. 
Davis especially was a man of high character and profound learning 
in the law. His wife, Miss Mary A. Polk, was a niece of the cele- 
brated Bishop and General, Leonidas Polk. 

Francis Morgan, an Early Virginia Justice, and Some of His Descen- 
dants. Compiled by Annie Noble Sims from the notes of Mr. 
William Owen Nixon Scott, and from original sources. Braid 
& Hutton, Inc., Printers, Savannah, Georgia, March, 1920. 
Francis Morgan was one of the first settlers in York County. 
Though nothing positive is known of his ancestry in England, he was 
evidently of excellent lineage, as is evidenced by the fact of his 
being one of the justices and a member of the House of Burgesses 
from York County. He had an only son, Francis, who left two 
daughters, Sarah, who married Thomas Buckner, and Ann, who 
married Dr. David Alexander, of Gloucester Co. From these the 
original emigrant is largely represented in "Virginia, the South and 
West, through the Baytops, Scotts, McGehees, Stubbses, DeJarnettes 
Simses, and many other well known families. In the effort to trace 
and classify these descendants Mrs. Sims has done a notable work. 
The book may be found in most of the leading libraries, and it is 
the hope of Mrs. Sims that her labors will be of use to many en- 
quiring persons. 

284 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

Address of Col. H. A. Du Pont, September 16, 1920, at the unveiling 
of the monument erected to the memory of Major General 
Stephen D. Ramseur, on the Cedar Creek battlefield, near 
Middletown, Virginia. 
The Story of the Huguenots, as contained in two addresses made be- 
fore the Huguenot Societies of South Carolina and Pennsylvania. 
By Henry A. Dupont. Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 
The first of these addresses contains a generous tribute from 
Col Du Pont to the gallant General Ramseur, of North Carolina, 
who fell at the battle of Cedar Creek. Their relations at West Point 
had been very close. It is a touching fact, stated by Col. DuPont, 
that, as Ramseur lay dying, he grasped his hand with the ancient 
cordiality, and the present seemed lost in the warmth of the old 

The two addresses before the Huguenot Societies are bound 
together in a tasteful little book, and tells the story of the rise of 
Protestantism in France, its early successes, and final overthrow, 
with the accompanying persecutions and the flight to all parts of 
the world of its unfortunate devotees. Col. Du Pont makes his ad- 
dresses very readable, and at times the narrative is really thrilling. 
These Protestants became known as Huguenots, and Col. Du Pont calls 
attention to the fact that in the last half of the seventeenth century 
at least six independent settlements of Huguenots were made in 
this country, from Massachusetts to South Carolina. There is, there- 
fore, a much greater diffusion of Huguenot blood in the United States 
than is generally supposed. Col. Du Pont quotes Henry Cabot Lodge 
as saying that the people of French blood in the United States ex- 
ceed absolutely, in the ability produced, all the other races repre-; 
sented except the English and Scotch-Irish. Among the posterity of 
the Huguenot emigrants, he includes three Presidents, Tyler, Grant 
and Roosevelt, and many members of the Cabinet, ambassadors, gov- 
ernors, generals and naval officers, including Decatur, Du Pont, Dewey 
and Schley. 

The Devon Carys, in Two Volumes. Privately printed. The De- 
vinne Press, New York, 1920. 
The preface to this work seems to show that it was compiled by 
F. H., who writes from "Belvoir House, Fauquier County, Virginia." 
It is an open secret that the owner of this fine residence is Fairfax 
Harrison, who is well known for his literary ability and tastes. We 
must conclude that Fairfax Harrison is the genial author of these vol- 
umes, as he was of another charming work issued not long ago under 

Book Notices 285 

the same letters, and entitled "The Virginia Carys." To criticize prop- 
erly the present work is to deal in heroics. The mass of information is 
astonishing. It is not alone the Carys of England and Virginia 
which are presented here, but the work, as a history of society and 
the times, is most interesting. Mr. Harrison shows an erudition in 
dealing with social and historic conditions, both in England and Vir- 
ginia, that is remarkable. 

When we look to faults in the fine structure of this impressive 
work, the few that occur to us seem to rise from Mr. Harrison's dis- 
position to fear the warping of family pride or State prejudice. In 
his resolve to write impartially he leans not forward but backward. 
He starts out in his preface with questioning the obviousness of the 
observation of the writer in the Herald and Genealogist who said a 
generation ago: "The History of the Cary Family remains yet to be 
written, but there can be little doubt that in able hands it would 
prove a valuable as well as an interesting contribution to the litera- 
ture of our country." Mr Harrison states that the Carys have not 
been one of the great governing families of England and they have al- 
ways been champions of lost causes, both in England and Virginia. 
Well, suppose they have been. This is not an answer to the Herald 
and Genealogist. Stress was laid by it upon a history of the Carys 
in able hands, and the work itself shows that the condition has been 
fulfilled. Then all the interest in history does not lie with the gov- 
erning people and the triumphant causes. But is it a fact that the 
Carys were not among the governing families? Mr. Harrison, out of 
his modesty, may say no, but the history itself which he presents 
says yes. Even to please Mr. Harrison, we are not going to say that 
Lucius Cary, Lord Falkland and Henry Cary, Lord Hunsdon, were not 
masterful men. We are not going to say that Col. Archibald Cary 
was not a leading spirit in Virginia at the time of the Revolution. 
Nor are we going to say that, because the Carys were attached to 
lost causes, they were any the .less interesting for that reason. The 
hero of the Trojan War was not the triumphant Achilles, but the 
beaten Hector, and the greatest, purest, finest name of the War Be- 
tween the States was Robert E. Lee. 

Probably it is the same sort of spirit — a dislike of being con- 
sidered too partial to his State that has sometimes given a pessi- 
mistic coloring to his otherwise excellent notes on Virginia in the 
second volume. While Virginia writers have talked too much of 
cavalier ancestry, we are sure a much stronger case might be made 
out for this influence in Virginia than Mr. Harrison has done. To de- 
scribe Virginia brick as of "poor quality" has still more of the ap- 
pearance of an error. The statement is certainly not supported by 

286 Tyler's Quarterly Magazine 

the reference given to Neill, Virginia Carolorum, 263, 294, nor was 
the ruinous condition of the five forts in the rivers when Jeffreys 
arrived in 1677, any indictment of their quality. The reason is that 
these forts were at first not made of brick, but of planks and earth, 
and bricks were not used in their construction till ordered by the 
General Assembly in 1672. Then it was not the fault of the bricks 
that rendered the forts insecure, but the inefficiency of the engineers 
and contractors. Plenty of specimens of 17th century bricks have 
come down to us, as shown in "Bacon's Castle" in Surry County, 
and the church tower at Jamestown, which proves the durability and 
superior quality of early Virginia brick. 

Nothing but praise can be said of the purely mechanical part of 
the work. The type and paper are fine. We only regret that the 
index is not more full and complete, so as to put more readily in the 
hands of the student the treasures of this splendid production. 

History of the University of Virginia, 1819-1919. The lengthened 
shadow of one man. By Philip Alexander Bruce. The Mac- 
millan Company, New York. 

This work is to be complete in five volumes, and two of the five 
are in hand. They constitute a monument as much to the honor of the 
author, who is facile princeps among Virginia historical writers, as 
to that of the Founder of the University, Thomas Jefferson, un- 
doubtedly the greatest statesman in the history of the United States. 
When Hugh Blair Grigsby wrote his sketch of Littleton Waller 
Tazewell, ex-President John Tyler, who had served with Tazewell 
in the United States Senate and had the most exalted ideas of his 
ancient colleague, exclaimed, "Fortunate the man who has such a 
biographer and fortunate the biographer who has such a subject." 
In this noble work the great Jefferson has a fit historian. Trained to 
his work by long experience, industrious and indefatigable, and 
blessed with intellectual power of a noble order, Dr. Bruce presents, 
in a thoroughly readable form, the history of the institution, which 
Jefferson founded. The work contains the most complete account ever 
written of Thomas Jefferson's activities as an educational reformer 
and promoter of public instruction. 

As the champion of free institutions, Jefferson looked to education 
as the cornerstone of the State. He believed that, while the only 
safe depository of the ultimate powers of society was the people, it 
was essential that it should be an educated people. 

It is to Jefferson's unapproachable honor that he had his view 
in mind from the dawn of independence. No other person had so 
complete a grasp of the situation, and his great bill covering a com- 

Book Notices 287 

plete educational system for the State, offered in 1779, is the most 
luminous conception ever presented to a legislative body. 

He never departed from this great ideal, and while he never 
saw it wholly realized in his lifetime, he did live to see perfected 
the capstone of the system in the establishment of the University 
of Virginia. 

It has been Dr. Bruce's business to tell the story of how all these 
things struggled and shaped themselves. His has been a work of 
selection, both as to his material and to his thoughts. He is no 
servile eulogist of the great Virginian, but with the cool, judicial 
temperament of the historian accustomed to weighing things im- 
partially, Dr. Bruce shows Jefferson's errors as well as his successes. 
He does not consider his treatment, for instance, of William and 
Mary College at all times generous and sincere. There is no doubt 
that it was largely due to his stay at that institution, under the 
tutelage of the famous Dr. William Small that his ideas of the dig- 
nity of man rose and developed. "He fixed the destinies of my life," 
he said, and undoubtedly by this he meant that those free concep- 
tions which animated his career were largely influenced by his asso- 
ciations with Dr. Small, who, as the professor of the Natural Sciences, 
was the enemy of all the narrow dogmatisms of the old philosophy. 
As the friend and adviser of Watt, Dr. Small ministered at the birth 
of invention, and as the tutor of Jefferson he was sponsor to the 
birth of freedom. 

These two volumes, now given to the public, take the institution, 
from its germination as an academy and a college, through its for- 
mative and experimental stages as a university. At each successive 
stage the university had the nursing care of its father and founder, 
who not only devised the plan of its construction, but superintended 
the building from step to step. Not only, indeed, did Jeffer- 
son show that he had a comprehensive knowledge of the educational 
needs of his fellow man, but he proved that he was in all things 
essentially an architect, who made taste his best expression. Dr. 
Bruce calls attention to the fact that when he died, so supreme was 
Jefferson's influence that the after life of the university continued 
to respond to those forces which he had set in motion. The university 
during his lifetime was the concrete expression of the man and its 
after life has been his "lengthened shadow." We await with much 
interest the publication of the other three volumes, embracing the more 
modern life of the university, and which we are informed will not be 
long withheld from the public. 











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Anecdotes: John Adams and George 
Washington, 81; Polk and Benton, 
81; Webster and the Adamses, 82; 
Webster and Lord Brougham, 80; 
Webster and W. W. Corcoran, 82; 
Col. Byrd and Duke of Cumber- 
land, 82, 83; Christopher Hughes 
and the King of Holland, 83; 
Hughes and the Duke of Welling- 
ton, 80, 84; Hughes and General 
iScott, 84; Mr. Madison, 85; Johh 
Tyler and John Randolph, 139, 

Aristocracy: In Pennsylvania, 86; in 
Maryland, 86, 87; in Virginia, 88, 
89, 90, 93-97; in New England, 

Arnold, Benedict: A plan to capture, 

Baptists: Petition for a Meeting 
House, 329. 

Barbers and Perukemakers, 203, 205. 

Bassett Family, 140. 

Bellini, Charles, First Professor of 
Modern Languages, 178. 

Belles of Saratoga in 1816, 302-305— 
Misses Livingston, Wilkins and 

Blackburn, William, and His De- 
scendants, 263-268. 

Book Notices: "The Conquest of the 
Old Southwest," by Dr. Archibald 
Henderson, 142; "John Archibald 
Campbell," by Judge Henry G. 
Connor, 208-215; "History of the 
United States Circuit and Dis« 
trict Courts of North Carolina," 
by Judge Henry G. Connor, 283; 
"Memorial Address on the Pre- 
sentation of the Statue to the 
City of Wilmington of George 
Davis," by Judge Henry G. Con- 
nor, 283; "Francis Morgan and 
Some of His Descendants," by 
Annie Noble Sims, 283; Addresses 
of Col. H. A. Dupont, 284; "The 

Devon Carys, in Two Volumes," 
by F. H., 284-286; "History of the 
University of Virginia," by Dr. 
Philip Alexander Bruce, 286, 287. 

British: Humanity of the, 310-314; 
paroles exacted by, 73-75. 

Brunswick County: Justices in 1736, 

Burton Memorandum, 113, 114, 207, 

Burwells of New Jersey and Canada, 

Cary Family, 284. 

Champe, John, 331-335. 

Sir John Clay, 139. 

Charles City County Petitions: 
Against the Paper Money, 160- 
165; Thomas Goodwyn's heir, 165; 
Quakers, for special privileges, 
166; Quakers against slavery, 167- 
170; B. Harrison against Gill 
Seines, 170, 171; Benjamin Har- 
rison regarding Robert Morris, 

Colonial Brick, 286. 

Curie Family, 140. 

Cusick Family, 264, 265. 

Dunmore, Lord, Proclamation freeing 
servants and slaves, 323. 

Established Church, Memorial for an, 

Fauquier County, Finding of, 314-320; 
Indians of, 316-318; Baptists in, 

F. F. V.'s, 80-85. 

( Flowerdew Hundred, 115; Why 
named, 126-130. 

Flowerdew Family, 125-130. 

Floyd, John B., A Defence, 154-156. 

Formicula-Stuart-Bankhead, 194. 

Fort Sumter, 208-213. 

French Huguenots: Dr. John Toton, 
279; Jean Marot, 271, 272, 282, 
History of, by Col. Dupont, 284. 

Gait, J. M.— A sketch, 247. 

*Notice: The pagination of the first number in this volume by mistake 
began with page 289 and ran to page 360. The next number commenced 
with page 73, as if the first number had been correctly numbered, and after 
this the third and fourth numbers continued in regular sequence. The in- 
dices follow the order of the numbers. 


Gilliam, JamesL Skelton, A Trip to the 
North, '345*310. 

Girardin, Louis H, 280. 

Goodriches of Isle of Wight County, 
130, 131, 207. 

The Great Freshet, 244, 245. 

Greensville County, Marriage Bonds, 

Hansford, Thomas, 358; Elizabeth, 

Hardings of London and Virginia, 

Harwood-Baptist, 280. 

Holladay Family, 257-262. 

Hospital for Lunatics, 177, 185. 

Impost Act of 1781, 357. 

Indians: The Shawnees 320, 321; 
Manahoacs, 316-319; Monacans, 
317-318; Tribes of Fauquier Co., 
315-319; Florida, 111, 112. 

James City County Petitions: Direc- 
tors of the Hospital for Lunatics 
for pay to the Keeper and Matron, 
177; Charles Bellini for pay as 
clerk of Foreign Correspondence, 
178; John Blair for Salary, 178, 
179; Justices ror use of the Pub- 
lic Jail, T78, 179; John Watkins 
as Steward of the Continental 
Hospital, 180; viabriel Maupin 
for Bounty Land, 180; Lessees of 
the Governor's Land for Quiet 
Possession of Their Leases, 181; 
Authorities of Williamsburg fot 
the Use of the Late Capitol as a 
School, 182; Same for a Lottery, 
and Power to the Hustings Court 
to admit deeds and wills to record, 
183, 184; Dr. John de Sequeyra 
for pay as physician to the Hos- 
pital for lunatics, 185; Dr. Wil- 
liam Carter for bounty land, 185; 
Walter Hopkins for compensa- 
tion, 186; Major John Lee for 
compensation, 187-190; Dr. Joseph 
Hay for Compensation as sur- 
geon's mate of Virginia State 
Hospital, 196; John Lambert for 
confiscated lands, 190, 191; Wil- 
son Miles Cary for emancipating 
a slave, 191, 192; Rector of Bru- 
ton Parish for sale of the Glebe, 
the Factory and Whaley's Free 
School land, 192, 193. 

Jefferson and his Detractors, 151-153. 

Johnson, Marmaduke, 358. 

The Judiciary Power, 217-221. 

Lancaster County: Destructive wolves 
in, 358. 

Letters: John Tyler, Sr., 151; Rob- 
ert M. Hughes, 154-156; R. Gris- 
wold, 228-229; Thomas Jefferson, 
233; John Howard, 224; Dr. J. M. 
Gait, 246, 247. 

Life in the Old South, 101-104. 

Lincoln: Criticised by initimate 
friends, 149; in what sense his 
death was a "dark day," 150; how 
unlike John Marshall, 221; Vacil- 
lation as to Fort Sumter, 208-215; 
a political dancer, 214-215. 

Litchfield Law School, 157, 158, 224- 

Marot, Jean, 282. 

Marriage Bonds: Northampton Coun 
ty, 338-357; Greensville County, 

Negroes: As suppliant and contra- 
band, 77-80; Slave trade in, 79; 
Slavery and Freedom, 98-101; in 
Mississippi, 101-104; freed by 
Lord Dunmore, 323; Quaker's Pe- 
tition in 1831, 167-169. 

New England Colonies: Despotic 
Government in, 146. 

Non-Slaveholders, 99. 

The North in 1816: Poor table fare, 
294; farms well cultivated, 294; 
indifferent pulpit orators, 298; 
belles of Saratoga, 302-305. 

Noland - Harrison - Powell - Gilmer Re- 
cords, 132-134. 

Northampton County: Resolutions on 
the Stamp Act, 217; Marriage 
Bonds, 338-357. 

Ogilvie's School, 280. 

Paroles and Oaths of Allegiance, 73- 

Pilgrim Fathers, 145-147. 

Point Pleasant, Battle of, 320. 

Powell, Capt. William, 268-270. 

Princeton College, 295. 

Queries relating to Watson and Lee, 

Ramseur, Stephen D., 284. 

Rawlings (Rawlins, Rollins) Family, 

Rhode Island and Independence, 222, 

Richmond: Land Boom, 1813-1818, 

Saratoga: Described in 1816, 294-306; 
belles of Saratoga, 302-305. 

Scotch Broom, 246. 



Semple, James, 282. 

Sherwood, 207, 280. 

Sims (Simms) Family, 265, 268, 283. 

Slavery and Freedom, 98-101. 

Stanley Hundred, 121; Why so named, 

Storke, Catherine, 279. 
Tayloe, Benjamin Ogle, "Memorials 

of," 80-97. 
Taylor, Col. Francis, Revolutionary 

services, 335-338. 
Tombstones: Mrs. Elizabeth Hill 

Skipwith, 322; Obelisk at Curls 

Neck, 245. 
Tyler, John, Story of meeting John 

Randolph, 139; his Bible carried 

off, 358. 
University of Virginia: Site of the, 

223; bill to establish, 281; history 

of, 286, 287. 
Venable, Richard N, Diary of, 135-138. 
Virginia: The arrested charter of 

1676, 289-294; its people a mili- 
tary people, 320-321; behind the 

Northern States in farming, 294; 

better in everything else, 295; 

State Notes at a discount, 295; 

described by John Lederer, 319; 
influence in the Revolution, 76, 
77; Witchcraft in, 105; Early Col- 
onial brick, 286; first State to de- 
clare independence, 223; first to 
impose penalties on any citizen 
engaged in the slave trade, 79. 

Watson, Joseph Shelton: A sketch, 

Wigs, 203. 

Williamsburg: Hospital for the In- 
sane in, 177, 185; Public Jail, 179; 
Continental hospital, 180, 185, 
190; Magazine, 180; Capitol Build- 
ing, 182, 183; Mr. AndHflon's 
iSchool, 201; Races and Jockey 
Club, 201. 

William and Mary College: Compared 
with Princeton in 1816, 295; peti- 
tion for support, 234-242; reve- 
nues of, 237-242; Library and en- 
dowment funds and lands, 243, 

Yardley, Sir George, 115-124. 

York County Records, 204-206, 270- 


Abdeel, 345, 356. 

Abernathy, 248, 249. 

Abingdon, 263, 264, 265. 

Abrams Plains, 198, 199. 

Adams, 333, 80, 82, 149, 153, 208, 248 

Addison, 345, 348, 351. 

Aesopus, 310. 

Airlie, 314. 

Alabama, 103. 

Albany, 296, 297, 307, 150. 

Albemarle, 178, 233, 280. 

Algonquin Indians, 314, 318. 

Alexander, 283. 

Alleghany Mts, 317, 173. 

Allen, 90, 113, 114, 164, 248, 251, 273 

277, 278. 
Allison, 188. 
Alston, 86, 199, 200. 
Almack's, 83. 
Ambler, 182. 

Amelia Co. 137, 272, 282. 
Ames, 196, 280. 
Amoenitates Graphicae, 280. 
Anderson, 347, 113, 156, 201, 202, 277. 
Andre, 332. 
Andrews, 339, 348, 350, 353, 354, 146, 

225, 249, 253. 
Annapolis, 80, 87, 88. 
Antigua, 322. 
Apalatean Mts, 317, 142. 
Applewhite, 249. 
Archer, 119. 
Arkansas River, 112. 
Armistead, 164, 272, 82. 
Arnold, 322, 333, 348, 151. 
Arthur, 135. 
Artis, 249. 
Asbury, 329. 
Ash, 345. 

Ashfield Thorpe, 127. 
Ashton, 109. 
Atkins, 249. 

Atkinson, 164, 249, 253. 
Atwood, 359. 
Austin, 164. 
Avent, 249, 253. 
Avery, 312, 313, 249. 

Bachelors' Point, 113, 278. 

Bachurst, 206. 

Bacon's Castle, 286. 

Bacor's Rebellion, 289, 358, 113, 159. 

Bacon, 299, 113, 140, 141. 

Bagwell, 344. 

Baird's Tavern, 307. 

Baird, The Huguenots, etc., 279. 

Bailey, 87, 279. 

Baker, 339, 347, 165, 269. 

Baldwin, 210, 212, 213. 

Ball, 108, 109. 

Ballard, 164. 

Ballstown, 297, 303, 305, 306. 

Bancroft, 358. 

Bandy, 264. 

Banister River, 138. 

Banister, 140, 151. 

Bankhead, 194, 195. 

Baptist, 280. 

Barbar, 273. 

Barclay, 158. 

Barksdale, 270. 

Barlow, 339, 351, 249. 

Barnard, 270. 

Barnes, 309, 132, 158, 249. 

Barraud, 359. 

Barret, 339. 

Barod's Tavern, 296. 

Bartholomew, 296. 

Baskerville, 113, 273, 274, 277. 

Bass, 248, 249, 250, 254. 

Bassett, 140, 141. 

Bates, 170, 270. 

Batson, 351, 356. 

Batte, 249, 250, 251, 269. 

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 

Bayard, 86, 96. 
Bayaton, 353. 
Beadles, 165. 
Bearcroft, 109. 
Beavans, 351, 353. 
Beasley, 198. 

Beattie's Ford, N. C, 277. 
Becket, 338, 341. 
Bedford,_ Eng., 327. 
Bell, 338, 341, 342, 347, 352. 
Belote, 346, 349, 356. 
Bellevue House, 301, 303. 
BelliDi, 178. 
Belleisle, 279. 
Belvoir House, 284. 
Bennett, 329, 250. 
Benthall, 338, 352, 356. 
Benton, 81. 


Berger, 306. 

Berkeley, 290, 159, 170, 269. 

Bermuda Hundred, 278, 131. 

Bernard, 306, 78, 85. 

Berry, 108. 

Berryman, 250. 

Besouth, 203. 

Betts, 109. 

Beveridge, 219, 221, 222. 

Beverley, 95, 97. 

Bilbro, 250. 

Binge, 164. 

Binns, 165. 

Birmingham, Ala., 357. 

Birdsong, 250. 

Bishop, 269. 

Black, 154, 155, 263, 264. 

Black's Fort, 264, 265. 

Blackburn, 263-268. 

Blackheart, 164. 

Blagrove, 164. 

Blair, 149, 178, 179, 205, 210. 

Blandfield, 95. 

Blaney, 268. 

Blanks, 164, 208, 250, 253. 

Blanton, 199. 

Bledsoe, 118. 

Blissland Parish, 141. 

Blount Co., Tenn., 265, 266. 

Bloxom, 353. 

Blue Licks, 321. 

Blue Ridge, 318. 

Bogert, 301. 

Boisseau, 251. 

Boiling, 97. 

Bonaparte, 294. 

Bonner, 251. 

Booker, 272, 282. 

Boole, 339, 352. 

Boone, 142. 

Booth, 150, 272. 

Borden, 299. 

Boston, 80, 208. 

Bosweli, 82, Bothwell Castle, 87. 

Bottom, 248, 251. 

Botts, 213. 

Bowcock, 206. 

Bowdoin, 341, 343, 345, 356. 

Bowen, 206. 

Bowis, 206. 

Bowles, 164. 

Bowlwell, 351. 

Boyd, 353. 

Boykin, 251. 

Boyle, 357. 

Bracken, 193. 

Braddock, 321, 86. 

Bradford, 343. 

Bradley, 107, 164. 

Brafferion, 242, 244. 

Braiser, 344. 

Brandon, 289, 89, 95. 

Branscomb, 251, 256. 

Brandywine, 320. 

Brent, 188. 

Brewer, 164. 

Bridger, 130. 

Bridgman, 269. 

Bristol, 294, 298, 197, 269. 

Bristol Parish, 294. 

Britt, 251. 

Brock, 294. 

Brook, 132, 188. 

Brookland, 131, 207. 

Brougham, 82. 

Brown, 307, 164, 200, 226, 250, 251, 

Browne, 193, 271. 
Browning, 120, 221. 
Bruce, 138, 251, 286, 287. 
Bruton Parish, 322, 271. 
Bryan, 205. 
Bryant, 137. 
Buchanan, 149, 154, 156, 205, 210, 211, 

Buchan, 86. 
B'uck, 164. 
Buckingham, 279. 
Buckley, 252. 
Buckner, 272, 273, 283. 
Buford, 189. 
Bullifant, 164. 
Bullock, 343. 
Burnley, 337. 
Bunyan, 146. 
Burch, 358. 
Burgess, 329. 
Burke, 290, 357, 98, 214. 
Burke, History of Virginia, 281. 
Burr, 308, 225. 
Burrell, 139. 
Burrows, 95. 
Burton, 337, 342, 344, 346, 350, 113, 

114, 125, 207, 273-277. 
Burwell, 327, 328, 90, 97, 255. 
Butler, 78, 165, 252. 
Butts, 249, 252. 
Bynum, 251, 252. 

Byrd, 322, 357, 82, 83, 88, 95, 97, 282. 
Byrne, 138. 

Cabell, 298, 322, 357, 245. 
Cable, 342, 343. 
Cadwallader, 86. 
Cain, 301, 248, 249, 252. 
Calhoun, 99, 208, 225, 226. 


Callahan, 116 

Calland, 135. 

Callender, 149. 

Calloway, 269. 

Call's Reports, 218. 

Cambreling, 157. 

Cambridge, 89. 

Camp, 252, 253. 

Campbell, 345, 352, 193, 208-215, 265, 

Camden, 74. 

Canada, Translation* of the Royal So- 
ciety, 325. 

Capitol Landing, 193. 

Caple, 348. 

Carleton, 117. 

Car of Neptune, 307. 

Caroline Co., 95. 

Carpenter, 341, 344, 351, 355. 

Carter, 301, 322, 89, 94, 97, 164, 165, 
185, 205. 

Cary, 78, 131, 191 192, 193, 205, 207, 
272, 284-286. 

Case of the Judges, 218. 

Casey, 263. 

Caswell Co., N. C, 197. 

Catlett, 316. 

Cato, 252, 253, 255, 256. 

Catskills, 307. 

Cavendish, 87. 

Cedar Creek, 284. 

Cerro Gordo, 81. 

Chamberlain, 117. 

Chambliss, 253. 

Champe, 331-334. 

Champaign Co., 267, 268. 

Champlin, 224. 

Chancy, 165. 

Chandler, 356, 158. 

Chantilly, 93, 96. 

Chapman, 256. 

Charles, 250. 

Charles I, 119, 123, 138. 

Charles II, 289, 290. 

Charles City Co., 113, 160-176, 205, 
207, 273, 278. 

Charleston, 86, 125, 148, 211. 

Charleston College, 148. 

Charlestown, 186. 

Charles Parish, 270. 

Charles River, 272. 

Charlotte Co., 136, 138. 

Charlotte, N. C, 275. 

Chase, 149. 

Chatham, 214. 

Cheatham, 199. 

Cneriton, 312. 

Cherry Point, 104. 

Chesapeake Bay, 315, 317, 76, 77. 

Chesterfield Co., 207. 

Chicacoan, 104, 138. 

Chickahominy, 315, 181. 

Chippoakes Cr., 269. 

Chiscake Church, 205. 

Chisholm, 300, 303. 

Chisman, 272. 

Christ Church, 94. 

Christian, 339, 347, 348, 164, 174, 193, 

Christianberry, 253 
Chronicles of America, 146. 
Churn, 347. 
City Point, 90. 
Claiborne, 253. 
Clanton, 253. 
Claremont, 90. 

Clarke, 164, 165, 249, 250, 253, 256. 
Claughton, 105, 108. 
Clayton, 125. 
Claxton, 125. 

Clay, 82, 83, 99, 139, 207, 214. 
Clegg, 340, 345, 346, 351. 
Clemenceau, 200. 
Clements, 248. 
Clifton, 253. 
Clingman, 210. 
Clinton, 73, 77- 
Cobbs, 205, 270, 272, 282. 
Cochran, 132. 
Cocke, 247, 254, 274. 
Cockerham, 269. 
Cockrell, 110. 
Coke, 357, 193. 
Coker, 249. 
Cole, 306. 
Coleman, 198. 

Coleman, Life of Crittenden, 209. 
Coles, 137, 138. 
Colgin, 164. 
Collett, 205. 

Collier, 311, 312, 76, 77, 164, 253, 254. 
Collins, 356. 

Commonwealth vs. Caton, 218. 
Congress Hall, 298, 303-306. 
Congress Spring, 297. 
Conjurors Neck, 278. 
Connally, 254. 
Connecticut, 300, 310. 
Connecticut River, 300, 227, 228. 
Connor, 208-215, 283. 
Connover, 150. 
Constantinople, 314. 
Cooke, 257, 352. 
Cooksey, 248, 250. 
Cooper, 91, 120. 



Coontz, 194. 

Copenhagen, 83. 

Copland, 358. 

Corbell, 164. 

Corbin, 322, 89, 95, 97, 108. 

Corcoran, 82. 

Core, 340, 342. 

Corley, 272. 

Corn, 254. 

Cornstalk, 321. 

Cornwallis, 327, 74, 75, 151. 

Cosby, 205. 

Costin, 342, 345, 351, 354, 355. 

Cottrell, 110. 

Courser, 344. 

Courts, 196. 

Coventry, 293. 

Coward, 340. 

Cowdrey, 354. 

Cowen, 254. 

Cowper, 94. 

Coxe (Cox), 349, 137, 196. 

Coxon, 131. 

Craig, 247. 

Cralle, 109. 

Crawford, 'Story of Fort Sumter,, 155. 

Crease, 204. 

Crighton, 164. 

Crippen, 339. 

Croghan, 307. 

Crouches Creek, 269. 

Cruikshank. 111. 

Crump, 254. 

Crutchfield, 270. 

Cullin, 341. 

Culpeper, 289, 316, 318, 257. 

Cumberland, 82, 88, 90, 274. 

Curie, 140. 

Currie, 344. 

Curtis, 156, 271, 272. 

Cusick, 264, 265, 267. 

Custis, 343, 351, 354, 355, 271. 

Dabney 189. 

Dalby (Dolby), 339, 343, 344, 345, 347, 

348, 350. 
Dancy, 164, 165, 254, 255. 
Darby, 339, 342, 356. 
Davis, 347, 150, 157, 198, 199, 205, 211, 

250, 251, 264, 283. 
Dawson, 199, 255. 
Davye, 124. 
Day, 255. 
Deare, 356. 
Decatur, 284. 
Delaware, 96, 115. 
Delaware River, 294. 

Delawares, 321, 

De Lis, 96. 

De Lancey, 91, 

Demerry, 255. 

Dennison, 255. 

Devereux, 157. 

"The Devon Carys," 284. 

Dewey, 343, 349, 284. 

Diamond Island, 301. 

Diason, 140. 

Dick, 189. 

Dinwiddie Co., 296. 

Ditchley, 357. 

Dixon, 339, 340, 341, 348, 352, 355. 

Dogi, 318. 

Donunal, 255. 

Douglas, 304, 210. 

Downey, 197. 

Downing, 340, 350. 

Dowsing, 206. 

Downs, 341. 

Dowty, 340, 343, 344. 

Drake, 164, 207. 

Draper, 263. 

Drighouse, 338. 

Dunbar, 322. 

Duke, 358, 164. 

Dunmore, 323, 324, 88, 89, 130, 194, 

Dunn, 255. 
Dunton, 339, 345, 347, 351, 352, 353, 

Dupont, 284. 

Dupree, 250, 251, 254-256. 
Duquesne, Fort, 321. 
Duquesnoy, 195. 
Dustin, 342, 343. 
Dwight, 301. 
Dyer, 271. 
Dyson, 125. 

Eagle Tavern, 195. 

Earley, 117, 118. 

Easter, 271. 

Eaton, 197. 

Eavens, 165. 

Eaves, 254. 

Edenton, 200. 

Edgar Co., 111., 264, 266, 267, 

Edinburgh Review, 145. 

Edinburgh, 247. 

Edloe, 165, 278. 

Eclmondson, 164, 198. 

Edmunds, 339, 255. 

Edwards, 164, 200, 255. 

Effingham, 358, 279. 

Elgin Co., 327. 



Elizabeth City, 295, 272. 

Ellet, 355. 

Elligood, 326, 352, 353, 355. 

Elliott, 329, 349, 256. 

Eliot's Debates, 358. 

Ellis, 256. 

Eltham, 194. 

Embrey, 358. 

Embree, 261. 

Emmett, 308. 

Emory, 257, 258. 

Endicott, 148. 

Erskine, 86. 

Eppes, 256. 

Eshom, 338, 353. 

Eskridge, 110. 

Essex Co., 324, 95, 196, 272. 

Eton, 89. 

Eusebia, 266. 

Evans, 341, 342, 347, 351, 256, 264, 

Evelyn, 194. 
Ewing, 331. 
Exeter, N. H., 80. 
Eyre, 339, 342. 
Ezell, 256. 

Fairfax, 95, 97, 263. 

Fairfield, 310. 

Faison, 256. 

Falkand, 285. 

Farley, 322. 

Farnefold, 106. 

Farthery, 356. 

Fauquier, 314-319, 329, 284. 

Feild, 294. 

Felgates Creek, 270. 

Fennell, 256. 

Fergusson, 255. 

Fielder, 105. 

Fielding, 253. 

Fields' Ford, 316. 

Fisher, 338, 349, 356, 255, 256, 279. 

Fisherman, 343. 

Fiske, 314 

Fitchett, 342, 353, 354. 

Flanders, 90, 131. 

Flat Rock Springs, 305. 

Flinn, 305. 

Flowerdew, 115, 125-129. 

Flowerdew Hundred, 115, 116. 

Floyd, 338, 343, 353, 354, 154-156. 

Flynt, 109. 

Formicula, 194. 

Forrell, 274. 

Fort Donelson, 156. 

Fort Gibson, 112. 

Fort Micanopy, 111. i < 

Fort Smith, 207. 

Fort Sumter, 208-215. 

Foster, 129, 140, 249, 256. 

Fothergill, 268. 

Fox, 250, 256. ; 

Franklin, 135. 

Franklin Co., O., 331. 

Fredericksburg, 315, 90, 95, 257. 

Frederick Co., 265, 266. 

Freeman, 357, 255. 

French Ordinary, 271. 

Freneau, 149. 

Freshwater, 339, 341, 354, 355. 

Frothingham, Rise of the Republic, 

Fullenwider, 276. 
Fuller, 272. 
Fullwell, 313, 338. 
Fuqua, 164. 

Gaines, 307, 308, 309. 

Galloway, 77, 90. 

Gale, 344. 

Gait, 177, 246, 247. 

Gambier, 76. 

Garland, 282. 

Garner, 254. 

Garnett, 194. 

Garrett, 350-353, 116, 125-127, 129. 

Garriss, 255. 

Gascoyne, 350, 351. 

Gates, 116, 189. 

Geddy, 204. 

George IV, 92. 

Georgia, 103, 275. 

Gettysburgh, 320, 213, 214. 

Ghent, 83. 

Gibbons, 272, 251, 255. 

Giddens, 349. 

Gideon, 336. 

Gilbert, 277. 

Gilden, 343. 

Gill, 164, 270. 

Gilliam, 294-313, 164, 252. 

Gillies, 301. 

Gilmer, 303, 304, 133. 

Gilmer's Georgians, 133. 

Ginnings Ordinary, 137, 138. 

Girardin, 178, 280. 

Gladden, 298, 300. 

Glanville, 355. 

Glen Falls, 301. 

Gloucester Co., 327, 78, 111, 112. 

Godwin, 330, 344, 346, 350. 

Goff, 165-204. 

Goffigon, 339, 341, 347, 355. 



Goochland, 114. 

Goodwin, 197, 248, 254. 

Gooding, 205. 

Goodrich, 130, 131, 207, 250, 253. 

Goodwin, 197, 204. 

Goodwyh, 139, 165, 248, 251, 255, 256. 

Gordon, 206, 274. 

Gore, 117, 269. 

Gosport, 175. The Governor's Land, 

Gould, 157, 224, 226, 227. 
Gouverneur, 306. 
Gowing, 254. 
Graham, 81. 

Grant, 311, 321, 164, 255, 284. 
Granville Co., N. C, 113, 196, 197, 198, 

Grattan, 133. 
Graves, 271. 
Gray's Inn, 125. 
Great Britain, 73, 101, 223. 
Green, 344, 345, 187, 199. 
Greater Weyanoke, 115. 
Greene, 74. 
Greenfield, 310. 
Greensville Co, 248. 
Gregory, 164, 198, 199. 
Greenwich, 291. 
Grey, 313. 
Grice, 338. 
Grider, 335. 
Grigsby, 286. 
Griffin, 248. 
Griffett, 347, 355. 
Grigg, 248, 356. 
Griggs, 250. 
Griswold, 228, 229. 
Grizzard, 249. 
Groome, 314. 
Grove House, 130. 
Groves, 340, 355. 
Guilford C. H., 320. 
Gustin, 158. 
Grymes, 89, 95. 
Guy, 343, 356. 

Hagley, 95. 

Haggoman, 338, 339, 355. 

Hague, 83. 

Halifax, 299, 300, 137, 138, 199. 

Halklett, 321. 

Hall, 300, 317, 104, 119, 137, 210. 

Halleck, 112. 

Hamblet, 164. 

Hamilton, 308, 341. 

Hamlin, 207, 273. 

Hammon, 329. 

Hampden-Sydney, 86, 135, 137. 
Hampton, 358, 359, 86. Hampton 

Roads, 78. 
Hanley, 349. 
Handford, 271. 

Hannay's Queen's Rangers, 325. 
Hanover, 90, 139, 142, 204, 205, 207, 

Hansbrough, 260. 
Hansford, 358, 159, 205, 270. 
Hants, 207. 
Hapsburg, 358. 
Harden, 104. 
Hardiman, 116. 
Harding, 104-110. 
Hardwood, 106. 
Harfield, 204. 
Hardye, 125, 126. 
Hardyman, 164. 
Harlston, 126. 
Harmar, 321. 
Harmanson, 338, 343, 344, 346, 349, 

350, 353, 356. 
Harmer, 190, 191. 
Harper's Weekly, 154. 
Harris, 119, 120, 182, 253, 271, 272. 
Harrison, 289, 320, 321, 329, 330, 339, 
341, 344, 352, 89, 97, 114, 130, 132, 
140, 158, 170, 174, 197, 198, 199, 
200, 249-251, 255, 278, 282, 284-286. 

Harte, 118. 

Hartford, 300, 301, 306. 

Hartford Convention, 300, 301, 306. 

Hartley, 325. 

Harvard College, 80. 

Harvey, 115. 

Harwell, 250. Harwood, 305-308, 164, 

Hassinunga, 315, 316, 318. 

Hawkes, 158. Hawkins, 206, 219. 

Hawkins Co., 357. 

Hay, 302, 306, 190, 209, 212, 213, 220, 

Hayden, Va. Genealogies, 335. Haynie, 
107, 108. 

Hays, 349. 

Hayes, 256. 

Hayley, 253. 

Haynie, 107, 108. 

Haywood, 304, 325. 

Hazel River, 316. 

Hazelwood, 95. 

Heath, 349, 351. 

Heathsville, 104. 

Heitman's Register, 275. 

HendersonT306, 142, 193, 224, 228, 230, 


Hening, States at Large, 290, 234. 

Henley, 204. 

Henrico Co., 205, 266. 

Henry, 349, 78, 80, 81, 88, 99, 135, 138, 

139, 214, 257. 
Herndon, 149. 
Hervey, 164. 
Hesse, 78. 

Hethersett, 125, 126, 128, 129. 
Hexham Abbey, 87. 
Heyward, 86. 
Hichman, 352. 
Hicks, 249. 
The Highlands, 307. 
Hill, 115, 124, 158, 164, 255, 256. 
Hilliard, 164. 
Hilson, 309. 
Hind, 120. 
Hines, 255. 
Hinton, 115, 200. 
Hitt, 329. 
Hoal, 313. 
Hobbs, 250, 252. 
Holbrook, 339. 
Holdsworth, 164. 
Hodgson, Cradle of the Confederacy, 

98, 101. 
Holdsworth, 164. 
Holladay, 257-262. 
Holland, 342, 347, 83, 126, 127. 
Hollen, 329. 

Holt, 342, 345, 154, 188, 255. 
Holton, 329. 
Hopkins, 186. 
Hoppin, 329. 
The Home, 117, 120. 
Hornsby, 204. 
Hosack, 304. 
Hotten, List of Emigrants to America, 

117, 122, 123. 
House, 251. 
Houston, 264. 
Howard, 244, 245. 
Howe, 76. 
Hoyt, 228, 229. 
Hudson River, 306, 307, 309. 
Hudson, 253. 
Huger, 86. 
Hughes, 307, 309, 348, 83, 84, 90, 154- 

156, 272. 
Hume, 249, 257, 260, 261. 
Humphreys, 109. 
Hurmicutt 166. 
Hunt, 339, 345, 347, 352, 355, 113, 164, 

207, 249, 273, 277, 278. 
Hurt, 164. 
Hutcheson, 205. 

Hutchings, 256. 
Hyattsville, 207. 
Hyde, 205, 271. 
Hynes, 251. 

Inglis, 272, 282. 

Ingram, 251. 

Inner Temple, 127. 

Innis, 272. 

Irby, 117, 120, 121, 164. 

Ireland, 358. 

Ireswell, 119. 

Iroquois, 319. 

Irwin, 120, 159. 

Isle of Wight, 140. 

Isle of Wight Co., 130, 131, 207. 

Izard, 86, 220, 322. 

Jackson, 296, 320, 328, 340, 351, 355, 

80, 99, 250. 
Jackson Co., Tenn., 294, 197. 
Jacob, 341, 346, 348, 351, 353, 354. 
Jalland, 104, 105. 
James, 346, 347, 349. 
James City, 121. 
James City Co., 177-193. 
James River, 314-358, 88, 90, 94, 97, 

113, 115, 170, 181, 187, 205. 
Jamestown, 327, 328, 142, 146, 187, 

Jarratt, 115. 
Jarvis, 349, 125. 
Jeffers, 254. 

Jefferson, 336, 357, 86, 93, 95, 115, 
149, 151, 152, 178, 218, 219, 220, 222, 

233, 286, 287. 
Jeffries, 357, 248. 
Jennings, 269. 
Jesup, 81. 
Jeter, 255, 256. 

Johns Hopkins University, 280. 
Johnson, 299, 329, 341-348, 351, S53, 

354, 358, 91, 105, 106. 150, 158, 

164, 205, 253, 258, 276. 
Johnston 320. 
Jones, 289, 292, 293, 296, 343, 112, 165, 

200, 205, 253. 
Jonesville, 266. 

Jordan, 296, 165, 252, 254, 256. 
Joyne, 340, 348, 352. 
Joynes, 345, 346, 348. 
Justice, 249. 

Kamper vs. Hawkins, 210. 
Kanawha River, 321. 
Kane, 301. 
Keach, 104. 



Keesee, 295. 

Keith, 140. 

Kellum (Kellam), 339, 352. 

Kelly, 330, 343, 138. 

Kemp, 347. 

Kendall, 338, 341, 343, 345, 346, 349, 

Kennon, 113, 114, 138, 200, 278. 
Kent, 226. 

Kentucky, 321, 324, 113, 207. 
Kentucky Hist. Soc, 207. 
Kerby, 338. 
Kerwin, 338. 
Kerr, 157. 

Kesmon's Warehouse, 113, 277, 278. 
Kilbourn, 157, 226, 227. 
Kimber, 132. 
Kimbrough, 200. 
Kindend, 338. 
Kinderhook, 307. 
King George Co., 80, 279. 
King Joachim, 90. 
King's Mountain, 74, 263, 265. 
Kingston on Thames, 119. 
King William Co., 204. 
Knevett, 116, 127, 128. 
Knibb, 165. 

Knight, 338, 345, 354, 355. 
Knox, 306. 
Knox Co., Ind., 268. 

La Fayette, 322. 

Lain, 329. 

Lake, George, 300, 301, 309. 

Lambert, 190. 

Lame Lane, 305. 

Lamon, 149, 221. 

Lamon's Life of Lincoln, 221. 

Lancaster Co., 358, 94. 

Laneville, 322. 

Lanier, 358, 248, 252, 254, 256. 

Lansingburgh 306. 

Lawrence 250, 254, 256. 

Lawson, 320, 254. 

Lederer, 316-319. 

Lee, 320, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 357, 

358, 89, 93, 96, 97, 180, 182, 187- 

190, 223, 266. 
Lee's Memoirs, 320, 332. 
Legare, 303, 305. 
Le Home, 117, 118. 
Lemount, 338. 
Lennard, 164. 
Leroy, 303. 
Levant, The, 294. 
Lewes, 140, 338. 
Lewis, 320, 321, 357, 142. 

Lewis, Tavern, 297, 306. 

Lightfoot, 95. 

Liberty, The, 74, 148, 149, 150, 155, 

Lincoln, 74, 148-150, 155, 208-215, 220, 

Lindsay (Lindsey), 302-306. 
Litchfield, 157, 224-230. 
Litchfield Hill, 224. 
Livingston, 296, 301-305, 307, 308. 
Lloyd, 90, 133, 158. 
Lloyd House, 90. 
Lockett, 302-305. 
Locust Farm, 93. 
.Loftin, 250. 
Lomax, 95. 
London, 82, 104, 115, 117, 118, 119, 

126-128, 141, 192, 269. 
London Company, 314. 
Londonderry, 247, 147, 185. 
London Times, 209. 
Loring, 226. 

Louisville, 113, 267, 277, 278. 
Love, 277. 
Louis XVI, 281. 
Lowndes, 158. 

Lucas, 359, 314, 246, 256, 258. 
Luckett, 132. 
Ludlow, 304. 
Ludwell, 289. 
Lundy, 158, 249. 
Lunenburg Co., 204. 
Lusk, 264. 
Lyddall, 140, 141. 
Lyme, 228. 
Lynchburg, 136. 
Lyndsay, 105. 
Lyne, 277. 
Lyngey, 106. 

Mabry, 248, 251, 252. 

Maclin, 250, 256. 

Macon, 113, 114, 273, 279. 

Madison, 84, 93, 96, 174, 207, 219, 221. 

Magazine of American History, 228. 

Magruder, 212, 271. 

Mahone, 204. 

M?jor, 164. 

Mallory, 78. 

Mathis, 164. 

Managog, 318. 

Manahoacs, 315-320. 

Manegault, 294. 

Mangum, 248. 

Manley, 121. 

Marable, 164, 207. 

Marbury vs. Madison, 218, 219, 221. 



Marcy, 81. 
Marion, 74. 
Markham, 270. 
Mark Lane, 119, 120. 
Marot, 271, 272, 282. 
Marshall, 320, 207, 219-222. 
Marsham, 119, 120. 
Marston Parish, 271. 
Martin, 269. 
Martineau, 85. 
Martins Hundred, 271. 
Marydale, 268. 
Maryland, 306, 90, 146, 85. 
Maryville, 265, 266. 
Mosco, 315. 

Mason, 157, 158, 249, 256. 
Massachusetts Bay Co., 148. 
Massaworneck, 318. 
Massey, 253. 
Mather, 85. 
Mattox, 311. 
Mattapone, 105-108. 
Mathews, 115. 
Matthews, 311, 76, 77. 
Maupin, 180, 247. 
Mayflower, 146, 147. 
Maynard, 164. 
McCarty, 206. 
McCauley, 158. 
McClure, 149. 
McFarland, 158. 
Mcllwaine, 290. 
McH., 164. 
McKendree, 251. 
McKentree's Bridge, 138. 
McKenzie, 205. 
McLemore, 248. 
McPherson, 86. 
McRobert, 136. 
Mead, 132. 

Mecklenburg Co., 113, 138. 
Medill, 256. 
Medley, 268. 
Menitree, 164. 
Mercer, 295, 306, 320. 
Merrill, 132. 
Merry, 164. 
Meusnier, 218, 219. 
Miamis, 321. 

Middlesex Co., 289, 119, 124, 125, 196. 
Miller, 307, 157, 282. 
Minge, 113, 114, 165, 273, 274, 277, 278. 
Minories without Aldgate, 120. 
Mingoes, 321. 
Minor, 132, 133, 134, 282. 
Mississippi Valley, Historical Review, 

Mitchell, 249, 250, 253, 254, 255. 

Mobile, 101. 

Mohawk Falls, 306. 

Mohaw River, 297. 

Monacans, 317, 318, 319. 

Monroe, 329, 93, 96, 194, 282. 

Montpelier, 84. 

Monumental Church, 194. 

Mooney, 317, 318. 

Moore, 225, 282. 

Morecock, 164. 

Mordecai, 195. 

Morehead, 209. 

Moreton, 290. 

Morgan, 157, 283. 

Morrill, Tariff, 211. 

Morris, 289, 300, 92, 164, 166, 171-176. 

194, 254. 
Morrissania, 92. 
Morrison, 135, 157. 
Morson, 158. 
Mortimer, 87. 
Morton, 136. 
Moryson, 289. 
Mosco, 315. 
Moseley, 106, 109. 
Moss, 253. 
Mountcastle, 164. 
Mt. Airy, 80, 88, 94. 
Moss Neck, 95. 
Mt. Vernon, 96. 
Muhlenburg, 189. 
Mulberry Run, 263. 
Munford, 138, 164. 
Munroe Creek, 194. 
Murat, 90. 
Murfree, 276. 
Murphy, 197. 
Murray, 145. 

Murray Co., Scotland, 206. 
Murrell, 253. 
Muscle Shoals, 137. 
Myers, 302, 303, 305. 

Nance, 164, 165. 

Napoleon, 90. 

Nassawomek, 318. 

Neavel, 329. 

Neill, Va.-Carolorum, 286. 

Neilson, 306. 

Nelson, 90, 97, 152, 158, 193, 272, 273. 

New, 164, 165. 

Newark, 309. 

Newbold, 298, 300, 305. 

Newburgh, 307. 

New Brunswick, 325, 326. 

New Castle, 87. 

Newell, 264, 265. 


New England, 326, 359, 79, 148. 

New Hampshire, 80, 306, 80, 222. 

New Jersey, 297, 309, 327, 219. 

New Kent Co., 140, 141, 281. 

New London, 137. 

New Orleans, 297, 89, 211. 

Newport, 314, 140. 

Newton, 206. 

New Providence Cemetery, 264, 266. 

Newsom, 245. 

Newton, 206. 

New York, 294, 295, 296, 303-310, 332, 

92, 95, 131, 146, 208, 211. 
New York Public Library, 325. 
New York Times, 224. 
Neio York Herald, 212. 
New York World, 212. 
Niagara Falls, 309. 
Nicholson, 151, 248. 
Nicholas, 151. 

Nicolay and Hay, 211, 221. 
Nixon, 175, 176. 
Noland, 132, 133, 134. 
Nomini Hall, 94. 
Nolen, 341. 
Norfolk, 302, 324, 357, 77, 125, 126- 

129, 156, 216. 
Norman, 260. 

Northampton, 312, 313, 327, 217. 
North Carolina Booklet, 228. 
North Carolina 305, 306, 308, 77, 157, 

158, 219, 275. 
North Farnham Parish, 108. 
Northern Neck, 93-97. 
North Fork, 316. 
Northumberland, 87, 90, 110. 
Norwalk, 110. 
Nottingham, 338. 
Nottoway River, 207. 
Nottoway Co., 282. 
Nuttall, 158. 
Nutter, 301, 305. 
Nutting, 271. 

Obi, 296. 

Odear, 340, 342, 345. 

Official War Records, 154. 

Ogilvie, 280. 

Ogle, 80, 81, 87, 88. 

O'Hara, 157. 

Ohio, 148, 197. 

Old Franklin, 257. 

O'Kelly, 138. 

Old Kent, Md., 358. 

Oldham, 329. 

Oliver, 259. 

Olton, 125. 

Opekankano, 315. 
Orange, N. J., 327. 
Orange Co., 318, 319. 
Orley, 104, 105, 107. 
Orr, 205. 
Otey, 164. 
Outten, 342, 349. 
Owen, 342. 
Oxford, Lord, 87. 
Oxford, N. C, 198. 

Packe, 159. 
Page, 342, 90, 97. 
Palfrey, New England, 147, 148. 
Palmer, 108, 118. 
Panke, 170. 
Parham, 251, 252. 
Parke, 322. 
Parker, 342, 351, 269. 
Parkerson, 342. 
Park Place, 308. 
Parramore, 342. 
Parrish, 164. 
Parrot, 107. 

Parsons, 342, 347, 349, 206, 270. 
Passaic, 309. 
Pasteur, 158, 205. 
Pavely, 164. 
Paulers Hook, 309. 
Paulerspury Church, 131. 
Payne, 249, 271. 
Peachey, 322. 
Peak, 342. 
Pearson, 164, 248. 
Peebles, 253. 
Pegram, 204, 270. 
Peirce, 131. 
Peirsey, 115, 116. 

Peirsey's Hundred, 116, 253. 254, 256. 
Pelham, 249, 253-256. 
Pendleton, 200. 
Penn, 259. 

Pennsylvania, 326, 327, 74, 86, 121, 

Pepper, 329. 

Perry, 164, 250, 252. 

Person, 252, 254. 

Peterkin, 342. 

Peters, 171, 254. 

Petersburg, 294, 300, 305, 306, 138, 

Peterson, 249, 253. 
Pettitake Cr., 269. 
Pettit, 342, 343, 345, 350, 355. 
Pettus, 337. 
Pettway, 250, 255. 



Peytonsburg, 135, 136. 

Phaben, 342, 343. 

Philadelphia, 294, 116, 132, 137. 

Phillips, 305, 306, 254. 

Phillips Academy, 80. 

Phillipson, 205. 

Piatt, 149. 

Phocion, 152. 

Pickens, 74, 210, 211, 212, 214. 

Pickett, S20, 15S. 

Pierce, 121. 

Pierson, 343. 

Pigot, 338, 339, 343. 

Pike, 164. 

Pinckney, 86. 

Pitts, 342, 343, 346, 348, 351, 354. 

Pilgrim Fathers, 145, 146. 

Pittsylvania Co., 135, 136. 

Pizarro, 308. 

Plantagenet, 85. 

Pleasants, 166. 

Plumstead, 120. 

Plymouth, 148, 359. 

Plymouth Co., 142, 147. 

Plymouth Rock, 147. 

Pocahontas, 315. 

Pohick Church, 96. 

Poincare, 200. 

Point Pleasant, 320, 321 

Polk, 81, 157, 228, 230. 

Pond, 273. 

Pope, 148, 190. 

Pope's Creek, 95. 

Poplar Forest, 233. 

Port Tobago, 95. 

Portsmouth, 312, 77. 

Port Royal, 95. 

Potomac, 88, 93-97. 

Potter, 343. 

Pouncey, 140. 

Poughkeepsie, 307. 

Powell, 308, 343, 344, 132, 133, 164, 

205, 256, 268, 269, 270. 
Powell's Creek, 115. 
Powers, 271. 
Powhatan, 314, 315. 
Poynter, 154. 
Poythress, 116. 
Pratt, 343, 355. 
Preeson, 338, 343. 
Prentis, 343, 205. 
Press, 343. 
Preston, 157, 233. 
Prevcst, 305, 308, 309. 
Prichard, 255. 

Prince Edward Co., 135, 136, 137. 
Prince George Co., 116. 

Princeton College, 295, 135, 137. 
Princeton, 295, 320, 274. 
Pritchett, 253, 255. 
Pugh, 305-309, 343, 197. 
Purvis, 337. 

Quakers, 166-170, 271. 

Queen's Creek, 192. 

Queen's Loyal Va. Regiment, 326. 

Queen Mary's Port, 192. 

Quincy, 80, 81. 

Quisenberry, 207. 

Quitman, 101-104. 

Rabyform, 343. 

The Rainbow, 312. 

Rains, 244. 

Raleigh, 228. 

Ramseur, 284. 

Randolph, 89, 97, 139. 

Rappahannock River, 315, 316, 88, 95, 

The Raritan River, 295. 
Rasin, 343, 350. 
Ravenscroft, 138. 
Rawlings (Rawlins, Rollins), 253, 

Rawls, 253. 
Raymond, 325. 
Read, 136, 255. 
Reade, 272. 

Reafield (Rafield), 343, 352. 
Reams, 253. 

Reconstruction Committee, 213. 
"The Reeds," 89. 
Reeve, 121, 157, 224, 225, 227. 
Reeder, 282. 
Respess, 343, 344. 
Reynolds, 343, 89. 

Rhode Island, 297, 148, 219, 222, 223. 
Rhodes, 204, 205. 
Rice, 105 
Richardson, 344. 
Richmond Co., 108. 
Richmond, 303, 136, 138, 172, 175, 212, 

233, 263, 279, 280. 
Richmond Dispatch, 154. 
Richmond Enquirer, 151, 153, 195, 279, 

Richmond Examiner, 212. 
Richmond Standard, 294. 
Rickard, 260. 
Rickman, 180. 
Jtliddlehurst, 164, 
Rivers, 248, 251. 
Rives, 250, 254, 256. 
Rider, 140. 


Ridley, 274. 

Riley's Tavern, 306. 

Ring, 271. 

Rippin, 343, 344, 353. 

Ritchie, 153. 

Roach, 164. 

Robb, 194. 

Roberts, 338, 339, 341, 344, 345, 348, 

349, 271. 
Robertson, 296, 142, 159, 199. 
Robins, 340, 343, 344, 345, 346, 351, 

353, 354. 
Robinson, 109, 140, 159, 193, 249, 256. 
Rockaway, 327. 
Rochelle, 279. 
Rocke, 164. 
Rodgers, 344, 248. 
Roe, 249. 
Ronald, 344. 
Rooks, 344. 
Roosevelt, 284. 
Roper, 164. 
Rose, 295, 344, 345. 
Roscoe, 340, 344. 
Rosegill, 89, 95. 
Ross, 136, 138. 
Rosser, 254, 255. 
Rossingham, 115, 116, 125-129. 
Rudolph II, 314. 
Rowland, 107, 108. 
Royall, 165. 
Royster* 164. 
Rowell, 256. 
Ruffin, 308. 
Russell, 345, 183. 
Ryerson, 325. 

Saals, 353. 

Sabine Hall, 94. 

Sabine's, Loyalists, 325, 327, 328, 130. 

Sabra, 351. 

Salisbury, 344, 228. 

Salt, 344. 

Salts, 344, 352. 

Salwoods, 131. 

Sammons, 250, 254. 

Sample, 353. 

Sampson, 345. 

Sandidge, 257, 259, 262. 

Sanford (Sandford), 345, 351, 264, 

Saratoga, 294, 297-306. 
Satchell, 339, 341, 345, 347, 348. 
Saunders, 345, 355, 193. 
Saunders Quarter, 109. 
Savannah, 300, 301. 
Savage, 313, 339, 341, 343, 345, 346, 

348, 351, 355. 

Scarborough, 346. 

Scarsbrick, 271. 

Schley, 284. 

Schleiden, 209. 

Schouler, 210, 213. 

Schuylkill River, 309. 

Scipio, 273. 

Scott, 296, 320, 339, 345-350, 353, 354, 

358, SI, 83, 84, 205, 210, 261, 262. 
Scottow, 125. 
The Seahorse, 295. 
Seawell, 111, 112. 
Selden, 89. 

Semple, 202, 281, 282. 
Sequeyra, 185. 
Servant, 247. 
Setton (Seaton), 347. 
Seward, 208, 210, 211. 
Sewell's Point, 78. 
Sexton, 255. 
Seymour, 342, 347. 
Shackaconia, 318. 
Shakespeare, 146, 213. 
Sharpe, 87, 271, 282. 
Sharpley, 132. 
Shawnees, 321. 
Shedden, 131, 207. 
Shehorn, 253. 
Sheild, 159, 205. 
Shell, 164. 
"Shelby, 265. 
Sheldon, 271. 
^SheJton, 255. 
Shepherd, 346. 
Sheridan, 311. 
Sherman, 311. 
Sherwood, 207, 280. 
Sherwood Forest, 358. 
Shields, 205, 270, 272, 282. 
Shilton, 129. 
Shirley, 88, 89. 
Shore, 294. 
Sickles, 347. 
Siebert, 325. 
Sills, 253, 254. 
Simms (Sims), 249, 253, 263, 265, 268, 

Simpkins, 346, 353. 
Sisco, 346. 
Skelton, 294. 
Skinners Company, 140. 
Skinker, 194. 
Skipwith, 322. 
Slate, 254. 
Slater, 271, 272. 
Slaughter, Bristol Parish, 294. 
Sledge, 199. 
Slightholm, 115. 



Sloane, 125. 

Small, 287. 

Smaw, 347. 

Smith, 289, 303, 314, 317, 318, 322, 321, 

329, 342, 346-351, 354, 82, 132, 137, 

152, 158, 159, 193, 196-200, 218, 

250, 253, 256, 272-274. 
Smith, General Historie, 316. 
Smollett, 76. 
Smythe, 268, 282. 
Somerset House, 117. 
Snails, 344. 
Snale, 353. 
Snead, 348, 353. 
Snider, 329. 
South, 124. 

Southall, 139, 151, 165. 
Southampton, 123, 140. 
Southants, 121, 123. 

Southwestern Quarterly Review, 210. 
South Carolina, 300, 303, 308, 73, 86, 

146, 148, 186, 200, 211, 212, 222, 

Southern Literary Messenger, 245. 
Southwark Parish, 117, 118, 120, 268, 

Spady, 348, 354. 
Sparkes, 269. 
Speakman, 348, 356. 
Spence, 254. 
Spencer, 348. 
Spicelly, 250. 

The Spirit of the Times, 85. 
Spires, 158. 

Spotsylvania, 318, 257, 261, 262, 270. 
Spotswood, 271. 
Spragin, 164, 
Spring Hill, Tenn., 198. 
St. Albans, 290, 292, 293, 119. 
St. Anthony Nose, 307. 
St. Augustine, 194. 
St. Catharine Creechurch, 119. 
St. Clair, 321. 
St. John's River, 325. 
St. Margaret's Westminster, 271. 
.St. Mary Oneryes, 268. 
St. Mary White Chappell, 105. 
St. Paul's Churchyard, 358. 
St. Peter's, 141. 
St. Savior, 117, 268. 
St. Stephens, 107, 109. 
Stafford, 316, 318, 272. 
Standfield Hall, 126, 129. 
Stakes, 343. 
Stanley Hundred, 125. 
Stanley, 121. 
Stark, Loyalists, 325. 
Stark, 186, 187. 

Stanton, 211. 

Staunton, 212. 

State Archives, 160. 

Stephens, 115, 116. 

Stephenson, 148, 149. 

Sterne, 298. 

Stevens, 320, 341, 343, 348-350, 150. 

Stewart, 255. 

Stith, 340, 346, 349, 218, 255. 

Stockholm, 83. 

Stoke Newington, 119. 

Stockley, 349, 351, 354, 355. 

Stockton, 295. 

Stony Point, 307, 

Storke, 279. 

Stott, 299, 300, 303, 305, 306, 345, 349, 

352, 354. 
Stovall, 198. 
Stowe, 225. 
Stratford, 88, 89. 
Stratton, 341, 344, 355, 356, 120. 
Stringer, 341, 345, 349, 350, 352. 
Stripe, 349. 
Strother, 207. 
Stuart, 320, 194. 
Stubblefield, 164. 
Sturgis, 350. 
Sullivan, 282. 
Sunken Marsh, 269. 
Summers, 213, 214. 
Sumner, Andrew Jackson, 220. 
Sumner, 150, 220. 
Sumter, 74. 
'Swan Neck Cr., 114. 
Surry, 268, 269, 286, 117, 119, 207. 
Sutton, 265. 
Sykes, 250, 254. 
Syme, 306. 
Symmes, 152, 153. 

Tabb, 350, 206. 
Tabour, 249. 
Tacci, 318. 
Talbot, 327, 90. 
Taliaferro, 95, 157. 
Talifer, 316. 
Tallahassee, 112. 
Tampa, 112. 
Taney, 220. 
Tankard, 350, 353. 
Tanks Weyanoke, 115. 
Tanxnitanias, 316, 318. 
Tappahannock, 316. 
Tarr, 132. 
Tasker, 87. 

Tayloe, 80, 81, 85, 88, 89, 94-96. 
Taylor, 330, 335-338, 341, 344, 350, 355, 
81, 95, 116, 118, 121, 138, 158. 


xvi 1 

Taylor's Spring, 300. 

Tazewell, 349, 359, 282, 286. 

Teackle, 350. 

Teague, 350. 

Tecumseh, 321. 

Tegninateo, 318. 

Tenasee, 137. 

Ten Springs, 300. 

Tennessee, 176, 197. 

Tennant, 203. 

Terrell, 140, 164, 166. 

Terrible Creek, 1.38. 

The Thames, 321. 

Thiekthorne, 128. 

Thomas, 320, 337, 343, 350, 261. 

[Thomson, 348, 350, 165. 

Thompson, 350, 109. 

Thornton, 88, 90, 133. 

Tidewater Virginia, 311. 

.Tillyard, 272. 

Timberlake, 164. 

Timson, 159, 205, 273. 

Tilney, 351. 

Timmons, 351. 

Tobacco Point, 115. 

Todd, 321. 

Toleman, 351. 

Tomkins, 351. 

Tompkins, 355. 

Tomlinson, 254. 

Topsham, 130. 

Torr Abbey, 130, 207. 

Torrington, 226. 

Toton, 279. 

Toucey, 156. 

Towns, 251. 

Townsend, 154. 

Transylvania, 314. 

Travers, 187. 

Travis, 350, 351. 

Trenton, 320. 

Tretheway, 290. 

Trevillian, 272. 

Trigg, 321. 

Trimble, 307. 

Tristam Shandy, 298. 

Trower, 348, 351. 

Troy, 306. 

Truitt, 351. 

Trumbull, 209. 

Tulip Hall, 90. 

Turkey Island, 245. 

Turenne, 84. 

Turner, 339, 340, 342, 345, 346, 351, 

111, 140, 149, 153, 249, 251, 253, 

Turpin, 351. 

Twiford, 340, 353. 

Tyler, 348, 359, 111, 140, 149, 151, 152, 

177, 179, 192, 272, 273, 282, 284, 

Tyree, 164. 
Tyson, 351. 

Underhill, 339, 344, 351, 271. 
Underwood, 337. 

University of North Carolina, 230. 
University of Virginia, 233, 281, 282, 

286, 287. 
Upshur, 339, 350, 351. 
Urbanna, 89. 

Vaiden, 164. 

Valley Forge, 77, 188, 199. 

Valley of Virginia, 311, 142. 

Vance, 264. 

Vandegrot, 353. 

Van Flick, Loyalism in New York, 

"Vanity," 91. 
Van Meter, 158. 
Van Rannselaer, 307. 
Van Tyne, Loyalists, 325 
Varennes, 200. 
Vaughan, 250, 270. 
Vawter, 351. 
Venable, 135-137. 
Venice, 194. 
Vermillion, 351. 
Vermont, 300. 
Vernon, 205. 
Viccaris, 351. 
Vigo Co., Ind., 23. 
Vincent, 252, 253 
Virginia, 85, 223. 
Virginia Co., 147. 
Virginia Gazette, 217. 
Virginia Historical Register, 76. 
Virginia Magazine, 127. 
Virginia State Library, 290. 

Waddell, 164. 

Wade, 271. 

Wager, 158. 

Wainhouse, 340. 

Wakefield, 351. 

Walker, 344, 33, 164, 271. 

Wall, 248, 256. 

Waller, 205, 272, 342. 

Waller's Creek, 266. 

Walpole, 249. 

Walter, 338, 352, 345, 349. 

Waltham, 357. 

Walton, 302, 249, 253, 256. 

Warburton, 182, 257, 266. 

Washington Co., 263. 


Ward, 352. 

Ware, 352. 

Waring, 194. 

Warren, 341, 347, 349, 352, 196-200. 

Warrenton, 352. 

Warwick Co., 206. 

Washington, 320, 331, 334, 85, 86, 136, 

148, 149, 172, 178, 199, 207, 212, 

Washington Co., 263, 265. 
Waterfield, 342, 349, 352. 
"Waterford Beauty," 301, 309. 
Waterman, 306. 
Waters, 352, 353. 
Waterson, 340, 341, 352. 
Watkins, 137, 180. 
Watson, 340, 353, 356, 80, 85. 
Watt, 353, 287. 
Watts, 301, 353, 354, 137, 138. 
Waugh, 260. 
Wayne, 321. 
Weaver, 251 
Webb, 353, 196-199, 269. 
Webster, 320, 82, 91. 
Weedon, 320. 
Weeks, 343, 347, 351, 353 
Welles, 156. 
Wellington, 83. 

West, 115, 116, 122, 123, 124, 129. 
Westcoat, 353. 
Westerhouse, 339, 347, 348, 350, 353, 

West over, 322, 88. 
West Point, 307, 284. 
Whaley, 353. 

Whaley's Free School, 193. 
Wheeler, 339, 348, 350, 352, 353. 
White, 347, 353, 354, 355, 209, 263. 
Whitehead, 347, 354. 
Whitehorn, 249. 
Whitfield, 199. 
Whittington, 248, 255. 
Whonkentia, 316, 318. 
Wickham, 303. 
Widgeon, 351, 354. 
Wight, 158. 
Wilkins, 340, 341, 342, 344, 348, 349, 

351-356, 158, 251, 254, 256. 
Wilkinson, 356, 182. 
Willcox, 116, 164. 
William and Mary Quarterly, 140, 245, 

247, 286. 
Wilmington, Del., 357. 
The William, 324. 
William and Mary College, 289, 295, 

178, 181, 195, 224, 234-243. 

Williams, 343, 350, 355, 164, 199, 207, 

Williamsburg, 179, 180, 182, 188, 3 92, 

193, 201, 202, 203, 204, 247, 282. 
Williamson, 306-309, 164, 196, 248, 

249, 256, 205, 207. 
Willis, 340, 344, 354, 358, 90. 
Willitt, 348, 355. 
Wilson, 338, 342, 343, 354, 355, 356, 

357, 132, 149. 
Wilson's Landing, 278. 
Wimbish, 135. 
Winchester, 336. 
Wingate, 342, 356. 
Winington, 289 
Winn, 329. 
Winslow, 158. 
Wise, 342, 349, 356. 
Witherspoon, 132. 
Woodford, 255. 
Wooding, 282. 
Woodlief, 255. 
Womack, 251. 
Wood, 340, 356, 164. 
Woodard, 356. 
Woodford, 255. 
Wooding, 282. 
Woodlief, 255. 
Wool, 81. 

Wormeley, 89, 95, 97, 205. 
Worsham, 200. 
Worth, 81, 111, 112. 
Wrenn, 249, 250, 251. 
Wyche, 254 
Wright, 329, 356, 204. 
Wye, 90. 

Wymondham, 126. 
Wynne, 358. 
Wythe, 357, 157, 218, 224, 282. 

Yale College, 146. 

Yankees, 298. 

Yardley (Yeardley), 115-127, 129. 

Yates, 305. 

Yazoo, 137, 138. 

Yeocomico, 93, 94. 

Yerby, 356. 

Yerwood, 118, 119. 

York, 190. 

York Co., 204-206, 270-273. 

York Hampton Parish, 204, 270-272. 

York Island, 320. 

York Parish, 204. 

York "Old Fields," 206. 

York River, 327, 97, 205. 

Yorktown, 327, 272. 

Young, 356, 205, 248. 




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